What Was Watergate


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What Was Watergate

  1. 1. What <br />was <br />Watergate?<br />From www.boston.com<br />
  2. 2. More complicated than some of the scandals that have followed in its wake, <br />Watergate involved a wide-ranging web of political espionage. It also took down a <br />president, changed the role of the news media in public debate, and challenged <br />many people&apos;s assumptions about the dignity of public office. The stage was set in <br />1968, when Richard M. Nixon -- who had lost the Republicans the presidency eight years earlier -- made a comeback and won the White House.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  3. 3. The Watergate, which gave the scandal its name, was a hotel and office complex in <br />Washington. In 1972, the Democratic National Committee had its headquarters <br />there. (The Watergate is still around, and is still a part of public life -- Monica <br />Lewinsky took refuge there at the height of the scandal about her affair with <br />President Clinton.)<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  4. 4. Without Frank Wills, the scandal never would have happened. On June 17, 1972, Wills, <br />then 24, was a security guard at the Watergate. While doing his rounds, he found that a <br />door lock had been covered with electrical tape to keep it from locking. He called police, <br />who found five men burglarizing the offices of the Democratic National Committee. <br />The burglars had equipment for bugging the phones at the DNC. Wills quit his job because <br />he didn&apos;t get a raise for discovering the burglary.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  5. 5. Among those arrested was James W. McCord, security director for the Committee <br />To Re-Elect the President (CREEP). John Mitchell, head of the Nixon re-election <br />campaign (pictured) denied any ties between the campaign and the burglary.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  6. 6. The burglars were later revealed to be &quot;plumbers&quot; -- members of a clandestine unit of the <br />CRP, led by John Mitchell. One of the plumbers&apos; previous jobs was a 1971 burglary at the <br />office of a psychiatrist who was treating Daniel Ellsberg (pictured). Ellsberg had leaked the <br />Pentagon Papers -- the Defense Department&apos;s secret history of the Vietnam War – <br />to The New York Times. They were published by the Times, The Boston Globe, and <br />The Washington Post.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  7. 7. One of those arrested in the burglary, Bernard Barker, was carrying an address book with an <br />entry for &quot;HH&quot; (Howard Hunt, pictured) at &quot;WH&quot; (White House). Hunt was a spy novelist <br />and White House consultant who had previously worked for the CIA, and was revealed as <br />one of the planners of the burglary.<br />(Globe File Photo) <br />
  8. 8. On Aug. 1, two Washington Post reporters, Bob Woodward (right) and Carl Bernstein, <br />reported that a $25,000 cashier&apos;s check, apparently earmarked for the Nixon campaign, <br />wound up in the bank account of one of the accused burglars. Woodward and Bernstein <br />would follow the story for more than a year, eventually writing a book, <br />&quot;All the President&apos;s Men,&quot; about what they discovered.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  9. 9. On Sept. 29, 1972, Woodward and Bernstein reported that John Dean (pictured), former <br />attorney general turned White House counsel, controlled a Republican slush fund used to <br />finance intelligence-gathering operations against the Democratic Party.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  10. 10. Ken Clawson, a former reporter who joined the White House communications staff under <br />Nixon, was named in an Oct. 10, 1972, story as the writer of an anonymous letter to a <br />New Hampshire newspaper that helped torpedo the career of Democratic vice-presidential <br />candidate Edmund Muskie. The letteralleged that Muskie had used the slur when describing <br />French-Canadians, a large part of his Maine constituency. The Post described this <br />&quot;Canuck letter&quot; as part of a &quot;massive campaign of political spying and sabotage&quot; on <br />Nixon&apos;s behalf.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  11. 11. On Nov. 7, 1972, Nixon was re-elected by a landslide over Sen. George W. <br />McGovern of South Dakota.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  12. 12. On Jan. 30, 1973, G. Gordon Liddy (pictured) and James W. McCord were convicted of <br />conspiracy, burglary, and wiretapping in the Watergate break-in. Liddy, a former FBI agent, <br />was not among those first arrested, but was convicted of planning the burglary.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  13. 13. In February 1973, the Senate established the Select Committee on Presidential Campaign <br />Activities to investigate the Watergate break-in and rumors of other operations. Sam Ervin, <br />a North Carolina Democrat who cultivated a folksy &quot;country lawyer&quot; persona, is chairman; <br />Howard Baker, a Republican from Tennessee, is his deputy.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  14. 14. On March 19, days before his sentencing in the original Watergate burglary, James W. <br />McCord sent a letter to Judge John Sirica, describing how other suspects had withheld <br />information and charging that payments were made by high White House officials to <br />persuade them to lie and plead guilty. Sirica made the letter public.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  15. 15. Presidential Counsel John Dean was fired at the end of April for cooperating with the <br />Watergate Committee. His testimony the following summer would be key to the <br />investigation, and his description of the cover-up as &quot;a cancer on the presidency&quot; would <br />become one of the best-remembered remarks from the scandal.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  16. 16. Also at the end of April, Nixon&apos;s top aides, Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman (left) and <br />domestic-affairs assistant John Ehrlichman (center), resigned over their roles in the <br />widening scandal. Also resigning was the attorney general, Richard Kleindienst. Elliot <br />Richardson of Massachusetts is named to replace Kleindienst.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  17. 17. On May 18, 1973, the Senate Select Committee (later known simply as the <br />&quot;Watergate Committee&quot;) began its hearings, which were nationally televised. The same day <br />Richardson, about to take office as attorney general, appointed Archibald Cox as a special <br />prosecutor for Watergate.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  18. 18. Alexander Butterfield, a former presidential appointments secretary, testifed before the <br />Senate committee in July, confirming that Nixon had a system in place for taping all <br />conversations and phone calls in his office. The committee and Nixon began a battle over <br />the tapes.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  19. 19. Nixon, increasingly embattled in his refusal to hand over any tapes, began a series of events <br />known as the &quot;Saturday Night Massacre&quot; by ordering Richardson to fire Cox (pictured). <br />Richardson refused and resigned. Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus was also <br />ordered to fire Cox, refused and resigned. Robert Bork, then solicitor general (and later, <br />briefly, a Supreme Court nominee), finally fired Cox. <br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  20. 20. Nixon finally released some of the tapes. In December 1973, investigators discovered an <br />18 1/2-minute gap in one of them. Chief of Staff Alexander Haig (pictured) said one theory <br />was that &quot;some sinister force&quot; erased the segment.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  21. 21. Rosemary Woods, Nixon&apos;s secretary, took the blame for the gap, demonstrating <br />in this photo how she could have accidentally erased the segment of the tape.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  22. 22. Nixon, who had been named an &quot;unindicted co-conspirator&quot; when charges were filed <br />against seven of his aides, had also been the subject of impeachment hearings by the <br />House Judiciary Committee, which began considering the matter in February 1974.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  23. 23. By April 30, 1974, the Senate committee still hadn&apos;t gotten all the tapes it had asked for. <br />Instead of handing them over, Nixon released 1,200 pages of edited transcripts. The <br />transcripts were notable for the frequent use of the delicate &quot;expletive deleted&quot; to replace <br />saltier language. (Rolling Stone ran a quiz suggesting a range of profanities that might <br />have filled a few Important gaps.) That summer, the Supreme Court affirmed a lower <br />court order that Nixon turn over all the tapes. <br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  24. 24. Late in July, the House Judiciary Committee passed the first of three articles of I<br />mpeachment against Nixon. On August 5, under increasing pressure, he released <br />transcripts of three conversation he had with Haldeman six days after the Watergate <br />break-in. The June 23 tape became known as &quot;the smoking gun&quot; because it revealed that <br />Nixon ordered the FBI to abandon its investigation of the break-in. Under increasing <br />threat of impeachment, Nixon resigned three days later.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  25. 25. Vice President Gerald Ford assumed the presidency to fill out Nixon&apos;s term. <br />One of his early acts in office was to issue a full pardon for Nixon for all charges <br />related to the Watergate case.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  26. 26. One of the lasting impacts of Watergate was a change in the relationship between <br />government and the media. Reporters Woodward and Bernstein -- and their editor, <br />Ben Bradlee, and publisher Katharine Graham (pictured) -- are credited with moving past <br />the Nixon administration&apos;s attempts at a cover-up to bring the web of misdeeds to light. <br />Other journalists joined the chase, and more than 50 journalists appeared on Nixon&apos;s <br />&quot;enemies list.“<br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  27. 27. Watergate made its way into popular culture with the publication of Woodward and B<br />ernstein&apos;s book, &quot;All the President&apos;s Men,&quot; and the movie based on it, starring Dustin <br />Hoffman and Robert Redford as the two reporters. Phrases like &quot;expletive deleted&quot; and<br /> &quot;credibility gap&quot; entered the language during the height of the story, and subsequent <br />scandals – Monicagate, Irangate -- had &quot;-gate&quot; appended to their names. <br />(Globe Photo)<br />
  28. 28. The presidents who came after Nixon found greater restrictions on their activities, including <br />a ban on &quot;slush funds&quot; and a law requiring them to report financial statements. They also <br />faced more public cynicism and deeper questioning of the facts behind their actions. <br />Ultimately, many believe that the system of checks and balances worked, and that the <br />result was astronger democracy.<br />(Globe Photo)<br />