The basics for understanding climate
change, its impacts, and how to address them
1. What is climate?
Weather VS Climate
Factors affecting climate
2. How is the climate changing?
Causes of climate change
Global warming and the greenhouse effect
3. How will the future climate look like?
4. What will be its impacts?
How sectors will be affected
Vulnerability of the Philippines
5. How are we going to respond?
Mitigation and adaptation
Global and Local efforts
What is climate?
It considers the average
weather conditions and
its variability to give a
long-term view of the
experienced by a certain
area. (ISDR, 2008)
If it is generally hot for a
certain period every
year, then that area has a
Philippine Climate Types based
on Corona Classification
What is weather?
the set of conditions in the
atmosphere observed at a
certain time and place. (ISDR,
focuses on a short period of time
Example: Today is a sunny day
with expected 0-20mm rainfall in
the morning. Tomorrow, could be
a rainy day. Different days have
different weather conditions.
What are the
factors that affect
Natural and Human Factors
Earth and its radiative equilibrium
intensity of the sun's
the planet's distance
from the sun; and
its albedo or
reflectivity for solar
The Climate System
processes play an
important role in the
Global water cycle;
Global carbon cycle
“The detailed patterns of climate on earth are produced
by a complex web of interacting physical, chemical and
biological processes within the global climate system.”
(Bureau of Meteorology Australia, 2003)
Different ocean currents
can indicate changes in
temperature (ISDR, 2008)
“Ocean covers 71% of the
earth’s surface to an average
depth of 3800 m and plays a
key role in redistributing heat
around the globe.” (Bureau of
Meteorology Australia, 2003)
Volcanic eruptions introduce
gases and particles that can
impact the climate of an
area (Robock, 2002)
It can reduce the solar
radiation, cooling up the
surface of the Earth for
several years. (Bureau of
Meteorology Australia, 2003)
Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 was
the largest eruption of the
20th century. The relatively
cooler surface that
followed for more than two
years was attributed to this
eruption. (Bureau of
Countries found closer to
the equator have warmer
The further away a
country is from the
equator, the cooler its
climate will be. (Bureau of
The Philippines is found
right above the equator,
which would explain a
great deal of its hot
from the sea)
When you go to the
beach, the sun seems
stronger since there is not
as much shade compared to
the city. The difference is
that it generally feels much
Areas beside or closer to
bodies of water have a
cooler and wetter climate
Inland areas experience a
wide range of
(UK Environmental Change
Human activities are the
major contributors to
“…in particular fossil fuel use and changing land-uses, are the
dominant factor in this growth and are responsible for most of
the warming observed over the past 50 years.” (ISDR)
Fossil fuels are formed
from decayed plants and
animals, which are
converted into crude oil,
coal and natural gas
(Science Daily, 2013)
The increase in fossil fuel
ring, home use, etc. is one
of the main contributors
to the heightened global
patterns of land
Trees absorb carbon
dioxide, which helps make
a climate cooler.
If forests are cut down, no
trees will absorb the
carbon dioxide. This adds
to the greenhouse effect.
(Greenhouse Effect and
releases carbon dioxide
into the atmosphere. (IPCC,
The Philippines only has
6.6% of its original forest
cover left. (Forest Carbon
This is another form of
fossil fuel burning. GHG
since the Industrial
of Canada, 2012)
The increase in the use of
fossil fuels brought about
the increase in GHG
emissions, making the
Smokey Mountain is the
famous trash mountain in
Manila, Philippines that
releases a lot of methane.
How do we deal with this
Reduce. Reuse. Recycle.
Our trash in landfills breaks
down and releases a gas
called Methane, a GHG that
contributes to 20% of global
Effect and Climate
Change), (GRIDA, 2013)
Summary: Section 1
Climate gives a long-term view of the weather
being experienced by a certain area.
It is affected by natural and human causes.
Human activity has become the main driver of
Weather is different from climate, in that it is the
set of conditions in the atmosphere observed at a
certain time and place.
“any change in climate over time, whether due to
natural variability or as a result of human activity”
the natural occurrence of changes in the state of the
From clearing forests to burning fossil fuels, these
activities all contribute to the increase in concentration
of greenhouse gases that get released into the
atmosphere. (ISDR, 2008)
It is no surprise that the climate
has been changing world wide.
In fact, this is a natural phenomenon that has been
taking place for centuries.
But scientists have noticed that the change in climate
has become more extreme in the past
decades, especially in temperature increase.
Why is this so?
What are greenhouse gases (GHGs)?
compounds that trap
heat in the Earth’s
atmosphere (EIA, 2004),
When it gets trapped in
the Earth, it makes the
Examples include carbon
nitrous oxide (CCC)
Greenhouse gases and their lifespan
Life in the
Fossil fuel burning, deforestation,
biomass, burning, gas flaring, cement
5 to 200 years 60%
Natural wetlands, rice paddies, ruminant
animals, natural gas drilling, venting and
transmission, biomass burning, coal mining
12 years 20%
Halocarbons Industrial production and consumer goods
2 to 50,000
Biological sources in oceans and soils,
combustions, biomass burning, fertilizer
114 year 6%
(Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change)
How do the GHGs of the past
affect us today?
Since GHGs have different lifespans that last for at least
two years, the GHGs produced in the past are part of
the cause of climate change today.
The current situation of climate change in the
Philippines is partially caused by human activities that
took place in the 1980s, for example.
CO2 released in the past still affects climate change
today because the GHGs are still present in the Earth’s
GHGs acting as a blanket that warm
up the Earth (CCC)
This natural warming process helps
maintain a stable temperature for the
Earth (NEAQ, 2013), (PEW Center)
allows living things
to survive and
Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere heat trapped
Most commonly associated with climate change
It is an enhanced greenhouse effect caused by
human interference and activity.
This further increases global temperatures, hence
warming the earth. (PEW Center)
temperature rose by -
16.67°C or 1.5°F in the
last century. (PEW)
To date, the Earth has
compared to the past
500,000 years. (ISDR)
The eleven years of 1995 to 2006 rank among
the twelve warmest years in the record of
global surface temperature (since 1850).
The linear warming trend from 1956 to 2005
(0.13 [0.10 to 0.16]°C per decade) is nearly
twice that for the 100 years from 1906 to 2005.
There has been a
the past 50 years.
Due to the increased
ice melting in the
polar regions, global
sea levels have been
rising along with it.
Philippine Changes in Temperature
temperature increase from 1951 to 2010 (PAGASA, 2011)
Summary: Section 2
Climate Change is “any change in climate over time, whether due
to natural variability or as a result of human activity” (IPCC)
Greenhouse gases trap heat in the atmosphere and make the
The greenhouse effect is a natural warming process where GHGs
purpose comes into play.
Global warming is an increased greenhouse effect that is
influenced by human activity.
Temperature has been increasing globally and locally.
IPCC projections provide a wide range of potential
surface warming based on six different emission
How will the
future climate of
Climate Change in the Philippines
Hot days | Rainfall
Extreme weather events
Projected Philippine Climate
The Philippines will have warmer
Summer time will experience less
The mean temperature is
expected to rise by:
0.9°C to 1.1 °C in 2020; and
1.8°C to 2.2 °C in 2050.
Rainfall is expected to increase
during the southwest monsoon
Summary: Section 3
Global climate is expected to increase in
temperature by 0.4°C in the next two
In the Philippines, there will be a projected
increase in temperature.
There will be warmer days during the
summer, but more rainfall during the rainy
How will it affect
the different sectors
in the Philippines?
Understanding climate change under
Coastal and Marine
Increased sea surface
temperature and sea level
50% decrease in marine
capture by 2050
Corals die, and water species
lose their homes
Sea level rise causes
People will lose their homes
Businesses will be affected
leading to less income
Migration or extinction of
Increases in temperature
Increase in outbreaks of
water-based and vector-
Increase in number of people
diseases, especially the poor
who live in inadequate
Malnutrition is likely because
of the stress in food
production caused by
extreme events (PAGASA
Agriculture and Food Security
Increased intensity and
frequency of extreme
events (heavy rainfall,
Malnutrition is likely because
of the stress in food
production (PAGASA 2011)
Increase in temperature will
There will be a decrease in
Farmers will be affected by
Less crop, less income
Areas with longer drier
periods and areas with
Areas with longer drier
periods will have less water
essential for daily needs and
irrigation for farmers.
Less water will affect energy
production from dams.
Increased rainfall can lead to
floods, landslides and
mudslides. This disrupt daily
routines and destroy public
Forests are predicted to be
influenced by temperature
Temperature increase leads
to less favorable forest
conditions to support plants
Forest fires destroy homes of
species and change the
livelihood of communities
living within the area.
Forest degradation will
increase the country’s
vulnerability to climate
Increased frequency of
extreme events and sea
Urban conditions increase
the risk of climate
hazards, particularly for the
poor residents of cities.
Infrastructures and homes
will be destroyed.
Residences in affected areas
will be displaced by extreme
Lives will be lost and more
people will be injured.
Changes in temperature
and rainfall pattern and
frequency of extreme
Women already have
limited access to resources
and restricted rights.
The female gender may
have great ideas to
contribute to climate
change mitigation and
adaptation but will not
have the opportunity to
Changes in temperature
and rainfall patterns
Changes will affect the
production, delivery and
consumption of energy.
(blackouts) will increase.
It may become more and
more difficult to fix the
problems of energy
production the more
extreme events occur.
Projected Impacts on Ecosystems
(Source: IPCC 2007 AR4 WG II. Technical Summary. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability)
Is the Philippines
Looking at Philippine geography and how
this adds to the risk with climate change
In a study conducted by Yusuf and Francisco in 2009, the Philippines is considered
one of the most vulnerable to climate change in Southeast Asia.
The Philippines is an archipelago consisting of
Along the typhoon belt
70% of cities and towns are in coastal areas (CDKN
Located close to the equator, making the climate
The geography of the
Philippines makes it even
more vulnerable to the
impacts of disasters.
Combining a natural hazard with an ill-prepared
community leads to greater disaster. (ISDR)
Summary: Section 4
Coastal and Marine: Temperature increase has caused coral
bleaching and decreased marine capture
Health: More water and vector-borne diseases
Agriculture and food security: Decrease in food production as
Water: Less water leading to droughts, increased rainfall
leading to floods and infrastructure destruction
Forestry: Animals and plants will lose their homes
Summary: Section 4
Urban and Infrastructure: Magnified risk of
floods, especially for the poverty-stricken areas
Gender: Less freedom between genders to
contribute ideas to addressing climate change
Energy: Disruptions in production and delivery of
Philippines has increased vulnerability due to its
emissions are projected to
increase by 36% by 2030.
Most of these emissions come from only a handful of
countries, majority of which are developed
Many people have been
pushing for the
mitigation of climate
change for many years.
Climate change, specifically global warming, was already an
issue that was raised in the early 1900’s. There was not enough
support to convince people to mitigate its effects since the
impacts were not felt during these times yet.
What is mitigation?
It is the effort of people to reduce the emissions
they contribute to climate change. (CCC)
This is achieved by decreasing the greenhouse
developing low-energy technologies
Reducing energy consumption
Switching to renewable energy
Preserving natural biomes that capture carbon dioxide
The effects of climate
change have been rapidly
increasing to the point that
mitigation is not enough.
We must learn to adapt.
Response to Address Climate Change
The impacts are inevitable. They will happen, no
matter how great the efforts will be to mitigate
Due to the fact that the Philippines has been so
vulnerable to climate change, mitigation efforts
will not be able to keep up with the increasing
With this in mind, adaptation is key in dealing with
What is adaptation?
Adaptation is adjusting our human habits and
lifestyles in response to climate change and its effects.
Communities can adapt by:
preparing risk assessments
improving agricultural methods
managing water resources
building settlements in safe zones
instituting better building designs
This has been a call for global efforts,
first from the developed countries…
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
the foundation of global efforts to combat global warming; opened
for signature in 1992 at the Rio Earth Summit; has almost universal
membership with 195 governments having ratified the Convention
All participating industrialized countries are required to “reduce
emissions on average 5.2 percent below 1990 levels by 2008–2012”;
ratified by 182 countries (includes all developed countries except
Even emissions from
developing countries are
rising faster than those
from developed countries.
“Their per capita emissions, however, will remain much lower than
those of developed countries. Despite being surpassed by China as
the largest annual emitter of GHGs in 2006, the United States
accounts for 30 percent of cumulative energy-related CO2
emissions since 1850 while China accounts for 9 percent.” (PEW)
Local Efforts: Mitigation
Local Efforts: Mitigation
Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry
Source: www.energy.com.ph - Source:www.lwua.gov.ph
Local Efforts: Adaptation
Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
Act of 2010 (RA 10121)
Law that emphasizes the shift from disaster response to
disaster risk reduction
Addressing adaptation through improving poor urban
planning, poor solid waste management, etc.
Climate Change Act of 2009
created by the Climate Change Commission
sole policy-making body of the government tasked to
coordinate, monitor and evaluate plans to address
Local Efforts: Adaptation
There are several initiatives from
different sectors like:
National Agencies (e.g. DA and DENR
Philippine Climate Change Adaptation
Local Government (e.g. Albay Province’
CCA and DRR initiatives)
Communities (e.g. community-based
agriculture, agroforestry, rainwater
Private Sector (ABS-CBN’s Kapit Bisig para
sa Ilog Pasig)
How can YOU help
impacts of climate
Check your Carbon Footprint
You’ll never know how
much you can save
until you know how
much you’re using up.
WWF Philippines can
help you calculate your
Getting an idea of how
much you contribute
will give you ways on
how to reduce it.
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
Manufacturing products and
throwing them away as waste
is one of the big contributors
to our degrading
Reduce your consumption.
Reuse what you have or sell
and donate them instead of
throwing them away.
Find the recycling center
closest to you!
A person consumes an
average of 70 gallons of
water per day.
Turn off the faucet when
it’s not in use.
Keep your showers short.
Kindly decline water in
restaurants if you don’t
plan on drinking it.
Choose Green Travelling
If a place is close
walking over driving. It
emissions and gives
you good exercise.
Find ways to commute
instead of taking a car.
If you must take a
car, look for people
you can carpool with.
Decrease Energy Use
There are appliances that still
consume energy when plugged in.
Unplug them to make sure you are
not consuming wasted energy.
Choose green appliances. Products
like solar-powered clocks and phone
chargers are available on the
Turn your house on full clean energy
and convert to using solar panels.
Prepare a Survival Pack
Due to the unpredictable
change in climate, it is
important to always be ready.
Have a survival pack prepared
with canned food, extra
clothes, medicine, water, etc.
Keep a list of the emergency
Check Get Ready Pinas for
Learn and Inform
Keep yourself informed of
the climate situation in the
Learn more about how else
you can help mitigate and
adapt to climate change.
You can do this through
volunteer work as well.
Inform others and help
them understand how they
can reduce their impacts to
Summary: Section 5
Mitigation is the human effort to reduce emissions
that contribute to climate change.
Adaptation has become necessary, especially for a
disaster-prone country like the Philippines.
Adaptation is adjusting human lifestyle in response
to climate change.
Mitigation and adaptation efforts have been taking
place locally and globally.
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