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mary rose ann balbuena


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History of Meteorology and Invention of Weather Instruments.

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mary rose ann balbuena

  1. 1. MY POWERPOINT…<br />Mary Rose Ann Balbuena<br />BSED i-B<br />
  2. 2. HISTORY <br />OF<br /> METEOROLOGY<br />
  3. 3. The word 'meteorology' was coined from a research book called 'Meteorologica' which was written by Aristotle, a Greek scientist and philosopher. This early work described the science of earth like its geology, elements, hydrology, seas, wind and weather. In the modern term, the term meteorology explains a complete science. It is for understanding the dynamics of atmosphere and forecasting weather phenomena like hurricanes and thunderstorms.<br />
  4. 4. Weather forecasting was practiced since the beginning of time with more or less accuracy. Historical records show several examples of weather predicting methods based on observing surrounding elements.<br />Sky is undoubtedly the first indicator used in meteorology its cover and nature of clouds provides clues of the upcoming temperature and weather. The wind factor is also important and is associated with temperature and often rains. Animals and birds are also known to give indications about the future weather.<br />
  5. 5. Scientists across the world since ancient times have tried to understand the meteorological phenomena like wind and rain. Many instruments for measuring wind power, humidity and rain were invented in the early 15th century.<br />During the 17th century, several discoveries tipped in favor of scientific meteorology. A device to measure temperature was invented by Galileo Galilei and the factor that atmospheric pressure was linked to altitude was discovered by Blaise Pascal. The invention of barometer by Evangelista Torricelli is significantly the most important discovery. It is still in use today which indicates atmospheric pressure changes that are linked with the future weather changes.<br />
  6. 6. There are also other methods which have been evolved. Meteorology is a lot related with cycles and their analysis which was what Fernando II de Medici wanted to prove. He carried out a very determined program in 1654 for recording weather patterns in different European cities with a view to compile data and make their analysis.<br />Other breakthroughs were followed in the 18th century and science was taken to a new level. A modern mercury based thermometer was invented by Gabriel Fahrenheit. Theories about hydrodynamics were devised by Daniel Bernoulli and those theories had helped greatly in understanding the atmospheric changes.<br />
  7. 7. When the theory of thermodynamics and atmospheric pressures were adapted, no real changes were important for understanding meteorology. In recent times, focus has been given on meteorological tools for its improvement and attaining better accuracy results. A tremendous boost was given to meteorology because of the technology in two ways. The first is the ability to communicate results and analysis with timing, it was made possible due to the invention of telegraph. The second is the ability of probing skies with using balloons, satellites and radars.<br />Meteorology is a part of our everyday lives. People are kept updated about the changing weather with dedicated channels and mobile devices. The science is still progressing and is an important element of the economy with many industries like agriculture and civil aviation depending on it.<br />
  8. 8. The <br />History<br />of Weather<br />Instruments…<br />
  9. 9. Weather instruments have a long, rich history that may be charted against the growth of science itself. The advent of weather instruments was a time when inventors could be experts in many scientific fields---Galileo, for example, helped lay down the framework for modern astronomy but also found the time to experiment with thermometers. Starting with a mere idea, the design of these specialized instruments graduated to robust theory, experimental application and progressive refinement over time<br />
  10. 10. History of Weather Knowledge<br /> For most of human history, weather predictions had to be made using pure observation. Babylonians attempted to predict short-term weather changes based on the appearance of clouds and optical halos, and Aristotle wrote a philosophical treatise called "Meteorologica" that included detailed theories on the formation of rain, clouds, lightning and many other weather-related phenomena. It was not until the Renaissance that weather instruments were finally invented through the gains of technological advancements and the formulation of accurate theories about the weather. In the 20th century, more refined technology like weather balloons and Doppler instruments helped to make weather measurement quicker and more accurate. <br />
  11. 11. Hygrometers<br /> One of the first known designs of the hygrometer was written down in approximately 1450 AD by Nicholas of Cues, who described how to measure the humidity of air. An early hygrometer was built by Leonardo da Vinci and later in 1663 by Robert Hooke, using a piece of hair that contracted or expanded depending on the degree of humidity present. Inventions in 1783 by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure (who used human hair) and in 1820 (when J. F. Daniell used ether in glass tubes) refined the hygrometer. <br />
  12. 12. Thermometers<br /> Thermometers were progressively developed over time by inventors such as Cornelius Drebbel, Robert Fludd, SantorioSantorio and, most notably, Galileo Galilei, who in 1592 invented a thermoscope that reacted to changes in temperatures. In 1612, Santorio put a scale on the thermometer so that it began to resemble its more modern permutations, but it wasn't until 1714 that Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit replaced the alcohol in thermometers with mercury and developed a more accurate measurement, later to be followed by Anders Celsius and Sir William Thomson (who invented the Kelvin scale) with their own measurements of temperature. <br />
  13. 13. Barometers<br /> Evangelista Torricelli is credited with inventing the barometer in 1643 to measure air pressure, but both Giovanni Battista Baliani in 1630 and René Descartes in 1631 had postulated a version of the barometer even earlier than that. GasperoBerti, who had heard from Galileo about the design written down by Baliani, attempted to experiment with water in a vacuum between 1639 and 1641 to explain why pumps would not draw water above a certain height. Torricelli, however, approached it from a different angle and recognized that air had weight; he also recognized that mercury in a barometer was a suitable replacement for water. Years later, Blaise Pascal and Florin Périer refined the design. <br />
  14. 14. Anemometers<br /> Anemometers, which measure wind speed, were first described by Leon Battista Alberti in 1450, but the most familiar kind, the cup anemometer, was invented in 1846 by Dr. John Thomas Romney Robinson. The design was refined up until the 20th century: In the 1960s and 1970s, anemometers that used lasers or sonar to measure wind speed were developed. <br />