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Defining Place Authenticity: My Heritage Can Beat Up Your History


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This presentation looks at the different forms or definitions of authenticity, and how they apply to four case studies of thematic towns in the state of Oregon.

Defining Place Authenticity: My Heritage Can Beat Up Your History

  1. 1. Defining Place Authenticity: My Heritage Can Beat Up Your History <ul><li>Alan A. Lew, Ph.D. Northern Arizona University </li></ul><ul><li>http: //AlanLew .com </li></ul><ul><li>http: //AlanALew .com </li></ul><ul><li>North of Lake Tahoe, California </li></ul><ul><li>“ My History Can Beat Up Your Politics” podcast </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Postmodern Tourism Past <ul><li>Authenticity is Negotiable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture is Continually Invented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Layers of Place Identity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heritage & Culture are (Re)-Interpreted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for Economic Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commodification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for Nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ The Past is a Foreign County” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We Cannot Know the Past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Except through the Values of the Present </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also true of Interpreting Cultures </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Nostalgia Explosion <ul><li>Reaction Against Postmodern Uncertainty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linear sense of Time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apprehension over limitations/deficiencies of the Present </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Change is detectable over one’s lifetime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of the past exists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>artefacts, images & text </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ If the Past is a Foreign Country, Nostalgia has made it “the foreign country with the healthiest tourist trade of all” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowenthal, 1985: 4 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Defining / Fixing Heritage Authenticity <ul><li>Heritage Success = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 - Semblance of Authenticity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Credibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 - Acceptance by its Audiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fixing of Heritage Tradition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to establish or stabilize cultural identities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to legitimate institutions; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to socialize people in(to) particular contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The traditional and the new are not mutually exclusive states </li></ul>
  5. 5. Approaches to Authenticity <ul><li>Authenticity as a Product Feature vs. Authenticity as Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders and Negotiation in Authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Primordial vs Situational Authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations and Dissimulations </li></ul><ul><li>Objective, Constructive & Existential Authenticity </li></ul>
  6. 6. Revitalization of Older Retail Districts <ul><li>Four Oregon Case Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sisters (#19) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Junction City (#9) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oakland (#13) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Florence (#7) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Case Study #1 – Sisters, Oregon - Western Facade <ul><li>On Eastern Slopes of Cascade Mountains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Major Highways converge just before Sisters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formerly known for gas stations and restaurants only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sisters Rodeo was already well established </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Junior Chamber of Commerce in early 1970s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Converted two small buildings into Cowboy Theme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One at each end of town </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1977 – 1880s Cowboy Western Façade was made mandatory for entire retail district </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design guidelines written into local ordinances & building code </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Strong community support for Western Theme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes Community more Interesting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases Shopping variety and Opportunities </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Sisters is #19
  9. 9. Sisters Yesterday and Today 4 th of July, 1946
  10. 10. Sisters Booms <ul><li>Named after the Three Sisters Mountain Peaks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population of about 600 in town in 1990 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retirement and Recreation Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Second Home Subdivisions near Sisters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developers Funded Architectural Sketches to Show Businesses how they could be “Westernized” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saw Sisters as an “Attraction” for recreation subdivisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Amenities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mount Bachelor Ski Area to north </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunting and Fishing in Cascades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Plateau climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Level of Retail Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>100% Retail Membership in Chamber of Commerce ! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Sisters, Oregon The Cascades: Snowcapped Volcanoes, Lava Flows and Pine Trees SistersCity Hall Hotel Sisters – the only truly Historic building in town
  12. 12. The New West in Sisters, Oregon An Award is given each year to the Best (most authentic ) Western Theme Building - a past winner (right) >>
  13. 13. Issues of Authenticity The Sno-Cap Drive Inn – A Sisters Tradition Front Porch of a New Retail Store Which of these is more Authentic? More ‘Disney’? Which is gives a Real ‘Sense of Place’?
  14. 14. Case Study #2 – Junction City, OR <ul><li>Junction City, Oregon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>settled by ethnic Danish migrants from the Midwest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>joined late by other ethnic Scandinavian migrants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bypassed by Interstate 5 in the late 1950s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>major economic downtown </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initiated the Scandinavian Festival in early 1960s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to boost community pride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suggested by a local M.D. & supported by the Chamber of Commerce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draws over 200,000 visitors yearly over 4 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on Non-profit organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schools, Social organization – including the Danish Sisterhood and Sons of Norway </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on Authenticity of Booths and Display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authenticity is checked before and during the festival </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Junction City is #9
  16. 16. Junction City Scandinavian Festival <ul><li>The Scandinavian Festival is ranked by Sunset Magazine as one of the best in the U.S. – due to its emphasis on authenticity. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning for the festival is a year-round activity </li></ul><ul><li>The Junction City High School is opened for RV trailer parking and use of the schools showers and restrooms. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Landscape Impacts of the Scandinavian Festival Festival Hall & Flower Boxes A Junction City Travel Agency <ul><li>The Festival Hall is used for the Art Show and Dances </li></ul><ul><li>It is the only permanent festival building </li></ul>The higher end of Authenticity?
  18. 18. Retail Efforts to Encompass the Scandinavian Theme <ul><li>Downtown Junction City (above) and the Viking Inn (right) </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts on ‘For Profit’ community has been minimal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>these are resented by the festival’s ‘non-profit’ organizers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do Shingles (especially Red ones) signify Scandinavia? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Scandinavia along US Highway 99 More Shingles plus Painted Tulips on a gas station sign Attracting the passing traffic
  20. 20. Case Study #3 – Oakland, Oregon Historic District <ul><li>1890s brick and stone architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First designated Historic District in Oregon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High level of Architectural Authenticity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both in Retail District and adjacent Residential Area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Early 1960s –Oakland Lumber Mill Closed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historic Preservation effort initiated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To raise community spirits & Revitalize downtown Oakland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But – final Historic District Zone – only for Retail Area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not include Residential Area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Businesses accused of trying to create a “Tourist Trap” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Residents rejected Historic Preservation – never implemented </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Early 1970s – State mandated comprehensive planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Historic District boundaries drawn to include Residential </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Oakland is #13
  22. 22. Oakland, Oregon Bank Building in Downtown Historic Home Old School Building The total population of Oakland in 1990 was about 900
  23. 23. Downtown Oakland, Oregon 1928 “Turkey Capital of the World”
  24. 24. Who’s Downtown is it? <ul><li>New 1970s Historic District encompassed residential areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More acceptable to citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lion’s Club began some initial promotional efforts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But - New Economy of Oakland had made it a Bedroom Community for the much larger Roseburg, OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residents opposed ‘Disneyfication’ of downtown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Visitors’ are OK, but Not ‘Tourists’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuing Distrust of Downtown Retailer Motives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1980s Gradual moves by retailers to expand market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information sign in Interstate 5 Rest Area </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Signage of Oakland, Oregon ` Lion’s Club 1970s sign 1980s Interstate 5 Rest Area information sign
  26. 26. Case Study #4 - Florence, Oregon – Waterfront Theme <ul><li>Old Town Florence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bypassed by new bridge over the Siuslaw River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revitalization of Old Town started by tourists from California in early 1970s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of Historic Preservation & Waterfront </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Seasonality – closed in winter months </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regional Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oregon Coast – most popular destination in OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sport Fishing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Marketing </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Florence is #7
  28. 28. Oregon Coast Regional Resources Oregon Dunes & the Coast A Variety of Tourist ‘Traps’
  29. 29. Florence, Oregon – Old town The large white building is historic, none of the others are
  30. 30. Florence, OR Fishing boats in the Siuslaw River New Tourist Shops in Old Town
  31. 31. Florence, OR Good Signage indicates a well organized retail community
  32. 32. Thematic Singapore ? Thematic Asia <ul><li>How Are Themes Used in Retail Districts in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asia ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>List </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Themes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbols / Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sisters, OR (western) </li></ul><ul><li>Junction City, OR (Nordic) </li></ul><ul><li>Oakland, OR (historic buildings) </li></ul><ul><li>Florence, OR (waterfront) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Approaches to Authenticity <ul><li>Authenticity as a Product Feature vs. Authenticity as Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders and Negotiation in Authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Primordial vs Situational Authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations and Dissimulations </li></ul><ul><li>Objective, Constructive & Existential Authenticity </li></ul>
  34. 34. 1. Heritage Authenticity as a Product Feature vs. Consumed Experience <ul><li>Authenticity takes multiple forms and thus we can only unpack its meaning by analyzing the context and the specific instance it is used each time (Bruner 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Product Authenticity Features - 5 types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Object-related, Factual, Locational, Personage, and Environmental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hampton (2006) – Gettysburg, PA Battlefield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All five Product types [of product authenticity] gave value to the heritage experience by helping visitors achieve a temporary but profoundly intense imaginary flight in the past…. Perceived authenticity of the product can, therefore, trigger consumers imagination and transport them through narrative worlds. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumed Authentic Experiences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Constructive Authenticity’, ‘Symbolic Authenticity’, and others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourist Types: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recreational, Diversionary, Experiential, Existential, … </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Sisters, OR (western) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Junction City, OR (Nordic) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oakland, OR (historic buildings) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Product-Factual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Florence, OR (waterfront) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Product-Locational + Experience </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. 2. Stakeholders and Negotiation in Heritage Authenticity <ul><li>Perspectives of authenticity as seen by different stakeholders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authenticity is Negotiable - depending upon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State Regulations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tourist / Visitor Expectations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tourism Industry / Business Goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Host community Knowledge and Belief in their ‘own’ past </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each creates a Subjective Framework of what constitutes the authentic aspects of heritage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Permutations/Changes of authenticity that have taken place in the ongoing discourse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authenticity as a Dynamic Process </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Sisters, OR (western) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Experience – 2. Tourism Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Junction City, OR (Nordic) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Experience – 2. Host Community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oakland, OR (historic) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Product-Factual – 2. State Regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Florence, OR (waterfront) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Product-Locational + Experience – 2. Tourism Industry </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. 3. Primordial vs Situational Heritage Identity <ul><li>Cultural Identity as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an ongoing process, politically contested and historically unfinished, and as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>always mixed, relational and inventive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primordial Heritage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes by which heritage identities and boundaries were originally created, modified and maintained. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic and historic isolation resulting in cultural differences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Situational Heritage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regards heritage as ‘a set of processes and social relations, which may be invoked according to circumstances’ (Hitchcock, 1999: 21). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g.: Tourism turns culture into a commodity and heritage is modified to accommodate the visitors and the locals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Situational Heritage ALWAYS Dominates Primordial Authenticity in defining heritage identity (Hitchcock 1999) </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Sisters, OR (western) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Experience – 2. Tourism Industry – 3. Situational </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Junction City, OR (Nordic) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Experience – 2. Host Community – 3. Premordial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oakland, OR (historic) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Product-Factual – 2. State Regulation – 3. Premordial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Florence, OR (waterfront) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Product-Locational + Experience – 2. Tourism Industry - 3. Primordial+Situational </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. 4. Simulations and Dissimulations <ul><li>Baudrillard (1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Dissimulation = the masking of reality by presupposing its absolute existence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>= the inauthenticity of Product Authenticity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Product Authenticity can never be absolutely confirmed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Simulation = ‘devours’ reality, leaving nothing except signs which merely refer to each other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Reality’ created and supported by mass media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disneyland as a Virtual Reality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Film & Movie Tourism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But also - Ethnic Histories / Traditions / Identities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>= Social inventions and the recycling of myths </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to: Situational Authenticity </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Sisters, OR (western) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Experience – 2. Tourism Industry – 3. Situational – 4. Simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Junction City, OR (Nordic) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Experience – 2. Host Community – 3. Premordial – 4. Dissimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oakland, OR (historic) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Product-Factual – 2. State Regulation – 3. Premordial – 4. Dissimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Florence, OR (waterfront) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Product-Locational + Experience – 2. Tourism Industry - 3. Primordial+Situational – 4. Simulation </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. 5. Objective, Constructive & Existential Authenticity (Ning Wang 1999) <ul><li>Objective Authenticity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authenticity of objects; “Objective” measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constructive Authenticity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socially constructed authenticity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believability based on points of view, beliefs, perspectives, or power elites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative, negotiable, contextually determined, and even ideological </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ex istential Authenticity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal subjective feelings of authenticity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be unrelated to Objective or Constructive authenticity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Types: Bodily feelings, Self-making, Family ties, Touristic communitas </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Sisters, OR (western) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Experience – 2. Tourism Industry – 3. Situational – 4. Simulation – 5. Constructive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Junction City, OR (Nordic) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Experience – 2. Host Community – 3. Premordial – 4. Dissimulation – 5. Existential </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oakland, OR (historic) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Product-Factual – 2. State Regulation – 3. Premordial – 4. Dissimulation – 5. Objective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Florence, OR (waterfront) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Product-Locational + Experience – 2. Tourism Industry - 3. Primordial+Situational– 5. Existential (body feelings?) </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Scales of Authenticity in Theme Towns <ul><li>Spontaneous Retail Districts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed unselfconsciously over a long period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher Object Authenticity - Lower Existential Authenticity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renovation Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually part of a historic preservation effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An attempt to preserve the past in an authentic manner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>False Facades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placed over existing store fronts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These include many Western and European theme towns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recreated Downtowns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newly created shopping centers emulating images of a specific theme; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Postmodern “Simulcra” and the “Fantasy City” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Main Street” in Disneyland; Las Vegas Casinos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Object Authenticity - Higher Experiential Authenticity </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Theme Town Formation Revisited <ul><li>Original Factors Influencing Theme Town Formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Restructuring – pushing change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass Images – framing change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architectural Resources – level of ‘authenticity’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location / Access – resource & visitor markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural Heritage / History – a human resource </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Factors – as seen through the Case Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Agency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identifiable Individuals often serve as spark of change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple interpretations of themes is common </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One usually predominates + guides development </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiation of Authenticity, Meaning and Significance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple interpretations of ‘Success’ and ‘Quality’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>economic, cultural, social, design, others?… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. My Heritage Can Beat Up Your History <ul><li>History is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Product Feature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government & Hosts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primordial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heritage is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourist Industry & Tourist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Dissimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructed and Existential </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Sources <ul><li>Authenticity as a Product Feature vs. Authenticity as Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Athinodoros Chronis and Ronald D. Hampton, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Authenticity at Gettysburg. Advances in Consumer Research - V33, 2006 – pp.367-368 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders and Negotiation in Authenticity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philip Feifan Xie, A Life Cycle Model for Aboriginal Arts Performance in Tourism: Perspectives on Authenticity, J of Sustainable Tourism, V.14, N.6, 2006, pp.545-561 and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stroma Cole, 2007. Beyond Authenticity and Commodification. Annals of Tourism Research v.34, N.4, pp.943-960/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primordial vs Situational Authenticity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitchcock, m. 1999. Tourism and ethnicity: Situational perspectives. International Journal of Tourism Research 1, 17–32 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simulations and Dissimulations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baudrillard, Jean. 1995. Sociedade de consumo, A. Rio de Janeiro. Elfos. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objective, Constructive & Existential Authencity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ning Wang. 199. Rethinking Authencity in Tourism Experience. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.26, No.2, pp.349-370. </li></ul></ul>