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Learning From the Past: Automated Rule Generation for CEP - DEBS 2014

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Generated by sources at unpredictable rates

To produce new higher level knowledge in the form of composite events or situations of interests and deliver it to connected sinks

According to a set of deployed rules that specify how to filter, select, and combine incoming data, based on their content and their timing relationships

Focus on fast algorithms. Widely used in High Frequency Trading and partly in Computer Systems Monitoring

Problem of language for expressing rules. Worked on that in the past. Today focus on a new problem: even with a good language, how to write a good rule? Understand and express the correct causal relationships between primitive events and composite ones

We consider a history of past occurrences of primitive and composite events.

We want to infer the rule that describes the causal relationship between primitive and composite events.

Which are the operators we can use to define our rule?

Also a (partially) open source solution: Esper

Research proposals: Stream Mill (UCLA) – Stream (Stanford) – NextCEP (Imperial)

Different languages: real-time analysis (relational operations on a stream) vs. situation detection (from patterns)

We focus mainly on the second type of languages and we identify a (sub)set of common operators to focus on

We consider equality parameters and ordering constraints

Errors in the detection of a constraint are emphasized when there are only a few constraints.

This reduces the procesion, but the impact is minimal.

- 1. Learning From the Past: Automated Rule Generation for CEP G. Cugola Politecnico Milano A. Margara USI Lugano G. Tamburrelli USI Lugano
- 2. Complex Event Processing (CEP) Complex Event Processing Complex Event Processing sources sinksrules
- 3. Idea
- 4. The Learning Problem • Given a composite event CE • Given a set of historical traces – Positive traces: CE occurs at the end of the trace – Negative traces: CE does not occur in the trace • Derive a rule that describes the causal relation between: – A pattern of primitive events – The occurrence of CE
- 5. Event Model Temperature @10 (room=123, value=24.5)
- 6. Rule Languages Oracle CEPOracle CEP Microsoft Stream Insight Microsoft Stream Insight StreamStream CayugaCayuga IBM WSBEIBM WSBE Stream MillStream Mill AuroraAurora BorealisBorealis SASE+SASE+ PadresPadres EsperEsper Telegraph CQ Telegraph CQ NextCEPNextCEP TESLATESLA ETALISETALIS TIBCO Business Events TIBCO Business Events Progress Apama Progress Apama
- 7. CEP Operators Define FIRE: within 5 min { Smoke(area = $a) and Temp(value>40, area = $a) and not Rain (mm>2, area = $a) } where { Temp -> Smoke } SelectionSelectionCombinationCombination NegationNegation SequenceSequence WindowWindow ParameterParameter AggregatesAggregates
- 8. Solution Strategy • Modular architecture – Ad-hoc learning components for each operator – Easy to modify/replace a component • Possibly with hints from domain experts – Easy to add new types of operators ParameterParameterSelectionSelection CombinationCombination NegationNegation SequenceSequence WindowWindow AggregatesAggregates
- 9. Learning Algorithm • Key idea: – Each operator defines a set of constraints • E.g., the selection operator defines: – Which event types must appear – Which attribute values they must include – A positive trace satisfies all the constraints in a rule (for each operator) – We can learn the constraints in a rule by intersecting the constraints satisfied in each positive trace
- 10. Learning Algorithm • Rule: A and B must occur ZBA CE Y XA B CE X YA B CE 1 2 1 3 A B 1 2 3 ZX YZYW W K K
- 11. Learning Algorithm • Rule: A and B must occur ZBA CE Y XA B CE X YA B CE 1 2 1 3 A B 1 2 3 X YZYW W K K Z Z • What we learn can be a superset of the actual constraints • Limited impact in practice
- 12. Machine Learning • Our initial prototype relied on supervised machine learning algorithms and tools • Lessons learned – Some operators (e.g., parameters) were difficult to encode • Need to explicitly allocate one variable for each possible constraint • Space explosion – (Significantly) higher execution time – Lower precision • Intersection prevents this!
- 13. iCEP • One module for each operator • Filtering architecture – Positive traces are “cleaned” at each step – Pruning “unrequired” elements Window (Win) Learner Events/Attributes (Ev) Learner Constraints (Constr) Learner Aggregates (Aggr) Learner Parameters (Param) Learner Sequences (Seq) Learner Negations (Neg) Learner Negative Traces PositiveTraces
- 14. iCEP Window (Win) Learner Events/Attributes (Ev) Learner Constraints (Constr) Learner Aggregates (Aggr) Learner Parameters (Param) Learner Sequences (Seq) Learner Negations (Neg) Learner Negative Traces PositiveTraces
- 15. Events and Attributes Learner • Assumes the size of the evaluation window is known • Extracts the set of relevant event types and attributes – By intersecting the types and attributes that appear in all positive traces • Only selected types and attributes are considered in the following modules
- 16. iCEP Window (Win) Learner Events/Attributes (Ev) Learner Constraints (Constr) Learner Aggregates (Aggr) Learner Parameters (Param) Learner Sequences (Seq) Learner Negations (Neg) Learner Negative Traces PositiveTraces
- 17. Window Learner • Assumes that the set of relevant types is known • Detects the smallest window that contains such types in all positive traces
- 18. iCEP Window (Win) Learner Events/Attributes (Ev) Learner Constraints (Constr) Learner Aggregates (Aggr) Learner Parameters (Param) Learner Sequences (Seq) Learner Negations (Neg) Learner Negative Traces PositiveTraces
- 19. Events and Window Learners • In absence of domain knowledge about event types and window … • … Events and Win learners work together iteratively – Increasing the size of the window – Computing the set of relevant types at each step – The process stops when the number of relevant types stabilizes
- 20. iCEP Window (Win) Learner Events/Attributes (Ev) Learner Constraints (Constr) Learner Aggregates (Aggr) Learner Parameters (Param) Learner Sequences (Seq) Learner Negations (Neg) Learner Negative Traces PositiveTraces
- 21. Constraints and Aggregates Learners • Extract constraints on the value of attributes – Of individual events – Of aggregations • E.g., Maximum, Average value • Users can specify a set of aggregation functions
- 22. Constraints and Aggregates Learners 1. Equality constraints – Learn by intersection • The same value appears in all positive traces 1. Inequality constraints (≠,<,>) for numeric attributes – Unknown relations / operators • Min and Max values appearing in all positive traces – Known relations / operators (from users) • Learning algorithm base on Support Vector Machines
- 23. iCEP Window (Win) Learner Events/Attributes (Ev) Learner Constraints (Constr) Learner Aggregates (Aggr) Learner Parameters (Param) Learner Sequences (Seq) Learner Negations (Neg) Learner Negative Traces PositiveTraces
- 24. Parameters and Sequences Learners • Learn by intersection – Parameters constraints satisfied by all positive traces • Both equality and inequality relations – Ordering constraints satisfied by all positive traces
- 25. iCEP Window (Win) Learner Events/Attributes (Ev) Learner Constraints (Constr) Learner Aggregates (Aggr) Learner Parameters (Param) Learner Sequences (Seq) Learner Negations (Neg) Learner Negative Traces PositiveTraces
- 26. Negation Learner • Only component that looks into negative traces – Selects traces that satisfy all the constraints identified so far – Extracts common elements in such traces • These elements may constribute to prevent the occurrence of the composite event • They will be negated in the derived rule
- 27. Evaluation • Synthetic workloads • Real data
- 28. Synthetic Workload
- 29. Synthetic Workload Number of Event Types 25 Distribution of Types Uniform Number of Attributes per Event 3 Number of Constraints per Event 3 Average Window Size 10s Average Distance Between Events 1s Number of Parameter Constraints 0 Number of Sequence Constraints 0 Number of Aggregate Constraints 0 Number of Negation Constraints 0 Number of Positive Traces 1000 Recall Precision 0.98 0.94
- 30. Number of Events/Constraints
- 31. Window Size
- 32. Introducing Additional Constraints Sequences Parameters Aggregates
- 33. Presence of Negations • We learn negation by intersection – Looking at “common” elements in negative traces • Multiple negations – One negated element is sufficient for preventing the occurrence of CE – They are not possible to detect by intersection
- 34. Real Data • Traffic monitoring system for public transportation • Rules to detect: delays from multiple bus lines in a small time window • Noisy data – Not only exceptional events (delays) … – … but also continuous operational information from each and every bus line
- 35. Real Data • Results in terms of precision and recall are confimed • Derived rules are noisy – Include frequent events present in every trace • A cleaning step could improve the quality of rules
- 36. Conclusions - Lessons Learned • First approach to automated rule generation • Large solution space – Many parameters to consider • Difficult to encode in traditional machine learning algorithms • Modular approach – Improved performance – Improved accuracy – Easier to add/replace single modules • Integration with hints from domain experts
- 37. Future Work • Address open problems – Multiple negations – Composite events that could be triggered by multiple patterns (disjunction) • Integrate additional operators – E.g., detection of trends • Develop techniques for rule cleaning – Remove “noise”
- 38. www.inf.usi.ch/postdoc/margara

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