1. Dillard Oct 31 RIMISP 2010


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1. Dillard Oct 31 RIMISP 2010

  1. 1. The integration of research and extension in theUSA – the experience at Cornell UniversityHelene Dillard, Ph.D.Associate Dean, College of Agriculture & Life SciencesDirector, Cornell Cooperative ExtensionProfessor, Plant PathologyCornell UniversityIthaca, New York, USA
  2. 2. Cooperative Extension Structure Federal Government Land Grant University System National Cooperative Extension Service Cornell University Cornell Cooperative Extension Working together for a strong partnership to assist communities
  3. 3. Federal Government 1862 Established a Land Grant University in every state 1914 Established the national Cooperative Extension Service and placed this service under the guidance of the United States Department of Agriculture  Agriculture Research Service  National Institute of Food and Agriculture  Competitive Grants
  4. 4. Land Grant University Land Grant Universities were established under the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890. Their purpose was to educate citizens in agriculture, home economics, mechanical arts, and practical professions. The result was the establishment of at least one institution of higher education in each state
  5. 5. National Cooperative ExtensionService Formalized in 1914 with the Smith Lever Act The Act established the partnership between the land grant agricultural colleges and the US Department of Agriculture to provide for cooperative agricultural extension work Federal funding is provided to support the national system Nationwide non-credit educational network Each state and territory has an office at its land grant university and a network of local or regional offices
  6. 6. United States of America Federal Government United States Department of Agriculture National Institute of Food and Agriculture Smith Lever Hatch Competitive GrantsFederal Form Funds Federal Form Funds (Extension) (Research) Land Grant Land Grant Land Grant University (LGU) University (LGU) University (LGU) Extension Faculty All Faculty All Faculty and andExtension Field Staff Extension Field Staff
  7. 7. Extension Hierarchy
  8. 8. Cornell Cooperative Extension Established in 1911 - “Extension Teaching” Headquarters are at Cornell University Hosted in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS) and in the College of Human Ecology CALS:  3,200 Undergraduate enrollment  1,000 Graduate Enrollment  380 Professorial Faculty in the College
  9. 9. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
  10. 10. Cornell Cooperative Extension Mission Statement: The Cornell Cooperative Extension educational system enables people to improve their lives and communities through partnerships that put experience and research knowledge to work.
  11. 11. Cornell Cooperative ExtensionIs a partnership involving… 412 extension educators in New York State 200 faculty and staff in CALS and Human Ecology 40,000 volunteers participating in both program and organizational leadership
  12. 12. Cornell Cooperative ExtensionIs a partnership involving…103 land-grant institutions across the United StatesStatewide and community agencies, organizations, and businessesNew York State’s people
  13. 13. Cornell Cooperative Extension Sources of Income, 2008 Extn. Assn Donor .2% 9.8% County 28.2%Grants & Contracts 24.2% Federal 9.3% State 28.3%
  14. 14. Cornell Cooperative ExtensionFive major program areas; guided by a program council comprised of stakeholders, faculty, and extension field staff Agriculture and Food Systems Youth Development Natural Resources and Environment Quality of Life for Individuals and Families Community and Economic Vitality
  15. 15. Agriculture and Food Systems
  16. 16. Agriculture in New York State $4.5 billion contribution to the farm economy Agriculture is 25% of the state’s land area 34,000 farms 7.5 million acres (3 million hectares)
  17. 17. Agriculture in New York State The USDA defines small farms as farms with $250,000 or less in sales of agricultural commodities per year In the US, 91% of all farms are small farms In New York, 90% of the farms are small farms The number of farmers markets in New York State has increased from 240 in 2000, to 475 farmers markets in 2010
  18. 18. Agriculture in New York State Milk is New York’s leading agricultural product Milk sales account for one-half of total New York agricultural receipts New York is the 3rd leading milk producer in the USA Milk production in 2007 was 12.1 billion pounds (5.5 billion kilos) with a value over $2.4 billion Other livestock include: cattle, hogs, pigs, sheep, lambs, chickens, turkeys
  19. 19. Agriculture in New York State Fruits (valued at $333 million)  Apples (rank #2 in USA)  Grapes (rank #3 in USA), wine and juice  Tart cherries, pears, strawberries Vegetables (valued at $648 million)  Cabbage (rank #2 in USA)  Sweet corn (rank #4 in USA)  Snap beans (rank #4 in USA)  Onion, tomato, pumpkin, cucumber, squash, pea, etc
  20. 20. Agriculture in New York State Field Crops  Corn, oats, wheat, soybeans, hay, potato, dry beans Maple Syrup  Ranks #2 in USA Floriculture Crops  Mainly bedding and garden plants
  21. 21. Cornell Cooperative Extension New York Agriculture is diverse and widespread throughout the state. Extension educators must  Understand the farming community in which they work  Have good communication/people skills; ability to facilitate discussions  Have cutting edge subject matter knowledge  Use appropriate extension/teaching techniques for different audiences
  22. 22. Cornell Cooperative ExtensionKey ingredients: Local knowledge Community wisdom Research & scholarly knowledge
  23. 23. Program Influences Program Work Teams Applied College Research Priorities National CCE Local Priorities Programs Needs
  24. 24. Cornell Cooperative ExtensionIndividual ConsultationsClassesShort CoursesApplied ResearchMass MediaDistance LearningCommunity Collaboration
  25. 25. Training for Extension Educators Orientation for new staff Technical Training (in subject areas) Process Training (planning, evaluation)  Workshops  Online courses  Study groups Program work teams Attendance at professional societies
  26. 26. Keys for Success Extension work is linked to and supported by federal, state, and local governments There is an extension system in each state Reliable source of funding Local offices in the counties are staffed with skilled extension agents/educators with a college education (Bachelor and Master degrees) – this educational requirement is very important
  27. 27. Keys for Success, continued Some university professors are assigned formal extension responsibilities - for example, 70% research and 30% extension OR___% Research + __% Classroom Teaching ___% Research + __% Extension Teaching
  28. 28. Keys for Success, continued Extension work is integrated with university research and university teaching - Integration of teaching, research, extension There is a strong University commitment to Extension work with stakeholders (farmers) A strong working relationship is established between local extension educators and university educators There is joint participation of extension educators and professors in field trials, field demonstrations, and preparation of fact sheets, bulletins, and web pages
  29. 29. Keys for Success, continued Access to computers, digital technologies and distance learning facilities Access to radio and television Ability to travel for on-farm visits and troubleshooting Access to professional development opportunities Ability to earn a good salary Extension educator is trusted and respected in the community
  30. 30. Keys for Success, continued Programs for rural youth and beginner farmers Programs that demonstrate the health benefits of nutritious food from the farm Programs on farm business management Programs on environmentally safe and sustainable food production (reduced pesticide use) Programs focused on developing long term, sustainable solutions
  31. 31. Extension methodologies Information flow is complex and multidirectional between research, extension and the farmer Learning occurs as a continuous dialogue among groups rather than linear descending teacher (technical) to student (producer) Successful strategies promote interaction and creation of “continuous social conversations”
  32. 32. Communication is very important Printed materials - text, photos, graphics, maps, databases Audio (radio), video (television), rural telecasts, telephone helplines Face to face – producer discussion groups Internet technology – websites, webinars, online videos (you-tube), digital diagnostics, Facebook, Twitter, blogs Cellular phones – “apps” (=applications, downloads for i-phones)
  33. 33. Extension 2010 and beyond Food security Strong markets Quality of life End to poverty Emerging issues Technological innovation Strengthen small and medium size agricultural producers
  34. 34. Final Thoughts on Extension Focused on education for farmers & their communities Linked to research based knowledge from the universities, research centers, and extension centers Collaboration with the people in the communities Trusted in the community Not biased No regulatory function
  35. 35. There are challenges!The extension system is not perfect! Budget cuts; insufficient funds; local vs regional presence Hiring professors who want to do extension work in addition to research Hiring extension workers who want to help others improve their quality of life Communicating in many different ways Maintaining the capacity to respond to many different and competing needs in the community
  36. 36. Internet resources http://www.rimisp.org http://www.inia.cl http://extensionenespanol.net/index.cfm http://www.e-agriculture.org http://iica.int
  37. 37. Internet resources http://www.worldbank.org http://www.extension.org/ http://www.cce.cornell.edu http://www.smallfarms.cornell.edu/ http://www.fsis.usda.gov/En_Espanol/
  38. 38. Global Extension Resource Strengthening Agricultural Extension and Advisory Systems: Procedures for Assessing, Transforming, and Evaluating Extension Systems Written by Burton E. Swanson & Riikka Rajalahti Published by The World Bank Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper 45
  39. 39. US Agency for International Development Modernizing Extension and Advisory Services (MEAS) Proposal funded for $9 million in 2010 Partnership includes 5 universities and 7 organizations:  Michigan State, Cornell, UC Davis, University of Florida, North Carolina A&T  Catholic Relief Services, Cultural Practices LLC, International Food Policy Research Institute, Winrock Intl, Sasakawa Africa Fund for Extension Education, Sasakawa Africa Association, Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa
  40. 40. USAID MEAS Project - 2010 20 Target Countries Focus on three major key areas  Develop a wide range of training materials  Conduct case studies and pilot projects  Conduct in-depth assessments of extension in 20 target countries
  41. 41. USAID MEAS ProjectBangladesh MaliCambodia MozambiqueEthiopia NepalGhana NicaraguaGuatemala RwandaHaiti SenegalHonduras TajikistanKenya TanzaniaLiberia UgandaMalawi Zambia