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Uvod u morfosintaksu, lecture 03, 12 13


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Uvod u morfosintaksu, lecture 03, 12 13

  1. 1. The complexity of the noun phraseNoun phrases can be indefinitely complex, because sentences themselves can be reshaped so as to come within noun-phrase structure.For example, the following simple and complex sentences (1a) – (1e) can be re-expressed as one simple sentence (2) with a very complex noun phrase as subject.
  2. 2. The complexity of the noun phrase(1) (a) That girl is Angela Hunt.(b) That girl is tall.(c) That girl was standing in the corner.(d) You waved to that girl when you entered.(e) That girl became angry because you waved to her.(2) That tall girl standing in the corner who became angry because you waved to her when you entered is Angela Hunt.
  3. 3. The complexity of the noun phraseThe sentence (2) has introduced many changes:the suppression all or part of the verbs in (1b) and (1c) (different in tense and aspect);the complement tall in (1b) is put before the noun girl;the replacement of that girl in (1e) by who.
  4. 4. The structure of the noun phrase(3) Gustav Husak stepped down as party chief.(4) The old man stepped down as party chief.(5) He stepped down as party chief.(6) Gustav Husak, 74, who restored Czechoslovakia to Communist orthodoxy after the brief enlightenment of the 1968 Prague Spring, stepped down as party chief.Noun phrases – can be realized as names, nouns or pronouns.
  5. 5. The structure of the noun phraseIn describing noun phrases, we distinguish 4 components:(I) The head – around which the other components cluster and which dictates concord (i.e. subject-verb agreement) and other kinds of congruence with the rest of the sentence outside the noun phrase:(7) That tall girl standing in the corner… is …(8) Those tall girls standing in the corner… are …(9) He addressed that tall girl standing in the corner.
  6. 6. The structure of the noun phrase(II) The determiner – its role is to determine the kind of reference of the noun phrase. We distinguish 3 classes of determiners, set up on the basis of their position in the noun phrase in relation to each other:Central determiners: the, a, zero; demonstratives (this, that, these, those); possessives (my, our, your, his, her, its, their); wh-determiners which, whose, whichever, whatever, whosever, whether as relatives, indefinite relatives or interrogatives; the negative determiner no; universal determiners every, each; the nonassertive dual determiner either; the negative dual determiner neither; determiners that cooccur only with uncountable nouns and plural countable nouns (some, any, enough).
  7. 7. The structure of the noun phrasePredeterminers – form a class in generally being mutually exclusive, preceding the central determiners with which they can cooccur, and in having to do with quantification. There are two subsets: (a) all, both, half; (b) the multipliers (twice, double, three times, once, etc.)
  8. 8. The structure of the noun phrasePostdeterminers – take their place immediately after determiners . They fall into two classes: (a) ordinals (first, fourth, last, other, etc.); (b) quantifiers (seven, ninety, many, few, plenty of, a lot of, little, etc.)
  9. 9. The structure of the noun phrase(III) The premodification – comprises all the items placed before the head and after the determiner. Most common premodifiers are adjectives, participles and nouns.
  10. 10. The structure of the noun phrase There are four premodifier slots:1. Central position – central adjectives. They can occur both predicatively and attributively, they can be intensified by very, and they are gradable.2. Precentral position – peripheral, nongradable adjectives that are most typically intensifiers such as entire, certain, complete.3. Postcentral position – participles and colour adjectives, retired, sleeping, red, pink.4. Prehead position – the position nearest to the head, contains the least adjectival and the most nominal items (denominal adjectives Scottish, statistical, political).Example:(10) certain rich American producers
  11. 11. The structure of the noun phrase(IV) The postmodification – comprises all the items placed after the head: prepositional phrases, nonfinite clauses, relative clauses, postposed adjectives, adverb phrases, apposition.
  12. 12. Premodification(a) ADJECTIVE:(11) I visited his delightful cottage.(b) PARTICIPLE:(12) I visited his crumbling cottage. (-ing participle)(13) I visited his completed cottage. (-ed participle)(c) NOUN:(14) I visited his country cottage.(d) ADVERB:(15) I visited his far-away cottage.(e) CLAUSE:(16) Sotheby’s is selling off Elton’s effects in a four-day, 2000-lot, you’ve-seen-the-catalogue, now-wear-the-T- shirt sale that kicks off the autumn saleroom season.
  13. 13. The grammatical status of thegenitiveAs determiner – for the most part, genitives function exactly like central definite determiners and thus preclude the co-occurrence of other determiners:(17) (a) a new briefcase(b) the new briefcase (*a the new briefcase)(c) this new briefcase (*the this new briefcase)(d) Joan’s new briefcase(*the Joan’s new briefcase)This equally applies when the genitive is a phrase incorporating its own determiner:(18) my cousin’s new briefcase ≠ my new briefcase(19) my handsome cousin’s new briefcase
  14. 14. The grammatical status of thegenitiveThe items preceding the genitive relate to that genitive:(20) that old gentleman’s son = ‘the son of that old gentleman’; ≠ ‘that son of the old gentleman’Exception – in cases where the preceding item is predeterminer, since the predeterminer may relate either to the genitive noun or to the noun that follows it:(21) We attributed both the girls’ success to their hard work. (‘the success of both the girls’)(22) Both the girl’s parents were present. (‘both the parents of the girl’)
  15. 15. The grammatical status of thegenitiveAs modifier – when the genitive is used descriptively, it functions as a premodifier. Determiners in such noun phrases usually relate not to the genitive but to the noun following it:(23) They attend a women’s university in Kyoto. (‘*a women’)So also, other modifying items in the noun phrase relate to the noun following the genitive:(24) She lives in a quaint old shepherds cottage. (it is probably the cottage that is quaint and old, not the shepherd)
  16. 16. Postmodification(a) RELATIVE CLAUSE:(25) Teachers who go on strike will pay dearly for deserting their classrooms. (RESTRICTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSE)(26) The editor of the Hindu, Mr N. Ram, who had flown specially from Madras, urged the president to set Mr Jeyaraj free. (NONRESTRICTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSE)(b) NONFINITE CLAUSES:-ing PARTICIPLE CLAUSES:(27) Doctors switched off the machine keeping baby Alexander Davies alive. (-ing PARTICIPLE CLAUSE)
  17. 17. Postmodification-ed PARTICIPLE CLAUSES:(28) Police were led to the spot by a man already charged with abducting and threatening to kill an 18-year-old slaughterhouse worker. (-ed PARTICIPLE CLAUSE)INFINITIVE CLAUSES:(29) which will be removed as part of new arms deal to be signed in Washington
  18. 18. Postmodification(c) PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES:(30) Since his arrival at Anfield from Watford for a fee of £ 900, 000, John Barnes has captured the imagination of supporters...(d) POSTPOSED ADJECTIVE PHRASES:(31) the city would surely have been packed with volunteers, art historians and fund raisers anxious to save a cultural heritage they felt they shared
  19. 19. Postmodification(e) ADVERB PHRASES:(32) The road back was dense with traffic.(f) APPOSITION:Two or more structures are in apposition when they have identity of reference. Apposition can be expressed by:Noun phrases:(33) Mr Simpson, the vicar of Barmston, said last night:...
  20. 20. PostmodificationNominal that-clauses:(34) Mikhail Gorbachev’s new wave rolled on yesterday with the promise that Russia would stop pushing around her Iron Curtain neighbours.Nonfinite clauses:(35) His only interest in life, playing football, has brought him many friends.(36) Mr Gorbachev’s decision to call on the Prime Minister on the eve of the historic Washington summit is seen in Whitehall as...