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  1. 1. WELDING CODE, STANDARD & WELDING PROCEDURE Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc. DEPARTEMEN METALURGI & MATERIAL FAKULTAS TEKNIK UNIVERISTAS INDONESIA DEFINISI n “Standard ” adalah kumpulan dokumen- dokumen berisikan Standard” dokumenkode (codes), spesifikasi (specification), Saran aplikasi (recommended practice), klasifikasi, dan petunjuk (guide) klasifikasi, yang telah dipersiapkan oleh suatu institusi organisasi dan di sahkan (approved) sesuai dengan prosedur yang ada (berlaku). berlaku). n “Codes ” adalah suatu standard yang berisikan kondisi dan Codes” persyaratan yang berhubungan dengan bidang khusus (a particularly subject) dan mengindikasikan bahwa prosedur yg digunakan telah sesuai dengan persyaratannya . Codes ini persyaratannya. HARUS diikuti (mandatory) karena menyangkut kepentingan umum yang merefer kepada kebijakan otoritas pemerintahan. (Codes pemerintahan. (Codes is a body of laws arranged systimatically for easy reference) 1
  2. 2. DEFINISI n “Specification” (spesifikasi) adalah suatu Specification” spesifikasi) standard yang berisikan penjelasan yang rinci dan akurat tentang persyaratan teknis dari material, produk, sistim atau jasa . produk, jasa. n Contoh Kode : – Structural Welding Code-Steel (AWS D1.1) Code– Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code (ASME) – Welded Pipeline & Vessel (API) n Contoh Specification : – Filler Metal Specification (AWS A5.X) – Material & Consumable of Welding (ASME sec. IIC) AWS – Structural Welding Code n n n n n n AWS D l.1, Structural Welding Code—Steel Code— AWS D l.2, Structural Welding Code—Aluminum Code— AWS D l.3, Structural Welding Code—Sheet Steel Code— AWS D l.4, Structural Welding Code—Reinforcing Steel Code— AWS D l.5, Bridge Welding Code AWS D l.6, Structural Welding Code—Stainless Steel Code— 2
  3. 3. Welding Code – Steel (AWS D.1.1) 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. ASME STANDARD API - STANDARD n API 1104, Standard for Welding Pipeline and Related Facilities n API 620, Recommended Rules for Design and Construction of Large Welded LowLowPressure Storage Tanks n API 650, Standard for Welded Steel Tank for Oil Storage 5
  6. 6. Persyaratan Dasar dalam Menentukan Kualitas dalam Pengelasan Standar Eropa dan Amerika dalam mendukung Kualitas Lasan n ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) n EN (European Norm) / European Standard n AWS (American Welding Society ) 6
  7. 7. ASME Standard untuk Welding n ASME Sec IX (Qualification Standard for Welding and Brazing Procedure, Welder, and Welding & Braze Operator. n ASME Sec II C Standard for Material and Consumable of Welding. STANDARD KUALITAS LAS dari ASME Basic Construction Code //Standard :: Basic Construction Code Standard •ASME Sec I, ASME B31.1 ,,ASME B31.3 •ASME Sec I, ASME B31.1 ASME B31.3 •ASME Sec VIII Div II& 2 •ASME Sec VIII Div & 2 Examination and Examination and Testing Testing ••ASME V ASME V Quality of Welds Welding Personnel Welding Personnel And Welding And Welding Procedure Procedure ••ASME IX ASME IX Welding Material Welding Material ••ASME II C ASME II C 7
  8. 8. European Standard For Welding n EN 288 (Standard & Qualification Welding Procedure) n EN 287 ( Standard & Qualification of Welder) n EN 1418 ( Standard & Qualification of Welding Operator ) STANDARD KUALITAS LAS dari EN 8
  9. 9. PROSEDUR LAS - EN 288 n n n n n n n n EN 288 - 1 . General rules fusion welding. EN 288 - 2. WPS for Arc Welding EN 288 - 3. Welding procedure test for Arc welding of steel. EN 288 - 4. Welding Procedure Test for Arc welding of Aluminum and It’ s alloys It’ EN 288 - 5. Approval by using approved welding consumables for arc welding EN 288 - 6. Approval related to previous experience EN 288 - 7. Approval by a standard welding procedure for arc welding EN 288 - 8. Approval by a pre-production welding test. pre- KUALIFIKASI WELDER - EN 287 n n n n n n n n EN 287 - 1 . Approval testing of welders – Fusion welding part 1 : Steels. EN 287 - 2. Approval testing of welders – Fusion welding part 2 : Aluminum and aluminum Alloys. EN 287 - 3. Approval testing of welders – Fusion welding part 3 : Copper and Copper Alloys. EN 287 - 4. Approval testing of welders – Fusion welding part 4 : Nickel and Nickels alloys EN 287 - 5. Approval testing of welders – Fusion welding part 5 : Titanium and Titanium, Zirconium and Zirconium alloys EN 288 - 6. Approval related to previous experience EN 288 - 7. Approval by a standard welding procedure for arc welding EN 288 - 8. Approval by a pre-production welding test. pre- 9
  10. 10. Table 1 Examples of application codes and standards and related welding procedure and welder approval standards Application Application code/standard Welding Standard Procedure Welder approval approval BS 5500 ASME VIII BS EN 288 ASME IX BS EN 287 ASME IX BS 2633 BS 4677 ANSI/ASME B311 ANSI/ASME B31.3 BS 2971 BS EN 288 (Part 3) BS EN 288 (Part 4) ASME IX ASME IX BS EN 288 (Part 3) (if required) BS EN 287 (Part 1) BS EN 287 (Part 2) ASME IX ASME IX BS 4872/BS EN 287 Structural Fabrication AWS D1.1 AWS D1.2 BS 5135 BS 8118 AWS D1.1 AWS D1.2 BS EN 288 (Part 3) BS EN 288 (Part 4) AWS D1.1 AWS D1.2 BS EN 287 BS EN 287 BS 4872 Storage Tanks BS 2654 BS 2594 API 620/650 BS EN 288 (Parts 3 & 4) BS EN 288 (Parts 3 & 4) ASME IX BS EN 287 BS EN 287 ASME IX Pressure Vessels Process Pipe-work Why a WPS A weld cannot be checked to the full extent ! strength, ductility and corrosion resistance can only be checked by destructive techniques. properties can only be guaranteed for the actual product when manufactured to exactly the same written procedure, and carefully controlled. 10
  11. 11. Why a WPS The main objective of a WPS is to make a welding operation reproducable What is a WPS ? The welding procedure is somewhat analogous to a cook's recipe. It outlines the steps required to make a quality weld under specific conditions. The WPS is a communication tool, and it is the primary means of communication to all the parties involved regarding how the welding is to be performed. It must therefore be readily available to foremen, inspectors and the welders. 11
  12. 12. What is a WPS ? According to QW-100.1 ASME Sec IX. Welding Procedure Specification (WPS). WPS is a written document that provides direction to the welder or welding operator for making production welds in accordance with Code requirements. According to QW-200.2 ASME Sec IX. Procedure Qualification Record (PQR). A PQR is a record of the welding data used to weld a test coupon. The PQR is a record of variables recorded during the welding of the test coupons. It also contains the test results of the tested specimens. Recorded variables normally fall within a small range of the actual variables that will be used in production welding. What is WPS Variables ? Process (SMAW, FCAW, etc.) Electrode specification (AWS A5.1, A5.20, etc.) Electrode classification (E7018, E71T-1, etc.) Electrode diameter (1/8 in., 5/32 in., etc.) Electrical characteristics (AC, DC+, DC-) Base metal specification (A36, A572 Gr50, etc.) Minimum preheat and interpass temperature Welding current (amperage)/wire feed speed Arc voltage Travel speed Position of welding Post weld heat treatment Shielding gas type and flow rate Joint design details 12
  13. 13. What is Variales in WPS ? 1. Essential Variable : QW-401.1 Essential Variable (Procedure). A change in a welding condition which will affect the mechanical properties (other than notch toughness) of the weldment (for example, change in P-Number, welding process, filler metal, electrode, preheat or postweld heat treatment, etc.). QW-401.2 Essential Variable (Performance). A change in a welding condition which will affect the ability of a welder to deposit sound weld metal (such as a change in welding process, deletion of backing, electrode, F-Number, technique, etc.). What is Variales in WPS ? 2. Supplemental Essential Variable : QW-401.3 Supplemental Essential Variable (Procedure). A change in a welding condition which will affect the notchtoughness properties of a weldment (for example, change in welding process, uphill or down vertical welding, heat input, preheat or PWHT, etc.). When a procedure has been previously qualified to satisfy all requirements other than notch toughness, it is then necessary only to prepare an additional test coupon using the same procedure with the same essential variables, but additionally with all of the required supplementary essential variables, with the coupon long enough to provide the necessary notch-toughness specimens. 13
  14. 14. What is Variales in WPS ? 3. Nonessential Variable : QW-401.4 Nonessential Variable (Procedure). A change in a welding condition which will not affect the mechanical properties of a weldment (such as joint design, method of back gouging or cleaning, etc.) 14
  15. 15. ASME SECTION IX MATERIAL GROUPING P-NUMBERS The material group are based on comparable base material characteristics, such as composition, weldability, braze-ability, and mechanical properties. 15
  16. 16. P No. EN-288 Base Metal Carbon Manganese Steels, 4 Sub Groups Group 1 up to approx 65 ksi 1 1 Group 2 Approx 70ksi Group 3 Approx 80ksi Group 4 Special (e.g. SA-724 gr. A, B, C) 2 3 Sub Groups:- Typically half moly and half chrome half moly 5 2 Sub Groups:- Typically one and a quarter chrome half moly 5A 5 Typically two and a quarter chrome one moly 5B 5 2 Sub Groups:- Typically five chrome half moly and nine chrome one moly 5C 6 5 Sub Groups:-Chrome moly vanadium 6 8 6 Sub Groups:-Martensitic Stainless Steels Typically Grade 410 7 P NUMBER 4 4 MATERIAL Not Used 3 ASME & EN - 8 Ferritic Stainless Steels Typically Grade 409 Austenitic Stainless Steels, 4 Sub groups Group1 Typically Grades 304, 316, 347 8 9 Group 2 Typically Grades 309, 310 Group 3 High manganese grades Group 4 Typically 254 SMO type steels 9A, B, C 7 Typically two to four percent Nickel Steels 10A,B,C,F,G ? Mixed bag of low alloy steels, 10G 36 Nickel Steel 10 H 10 Duplex and Super Duplex Grades 31803, 32750 10J ? Typically 26 Chrome one moly 11A Group 1 11 A Groups 2 to 5 11B 7 9 Nickel Steels ? Mixed bag of high strength low alloy steels. ? 10 Sub Groups:- Mixed bag of high strength low alloy steels. ASME F Numbers F No. General Description 1 Heavy rutile coated iron powder electrodes :- A5.1 : E7024 2 Most Rutile consumables such as :- A5.1 : E6013 3 Cellulosic electrodes such as :- A5.1 : E6011 4 Basic coated electrodes such as : A5.1 : E7016 and E7018 5 High alloy austenitic stainless steel and duplex :- A5.4 : E316L-16 6 Any steel solid or cored wire (with flux or metal) 2X Aluminium and its alloys 3X Copper and its alloys 4X Nickel alloys 5X Titanium 6X Zirconium 7X Hard Facing Overlay Note:- X represents any number 0 to 9 16
  17. 17. ASME Welding Positions Note the welding progression, (vertically upwards or downwards), must always be stated and it is an essential variable for both procedures and performance qualifications. Welding Positions For Groove welds:Welding Position Test Position ISO and EN Flat 1G PA Horizontal 2G PC Vertical Upwards Progression 3G PF Vertical Downwards Progression 3G PG Overhead 4G PE Pipe Fixed Horizontal 5G PF Pipe Fixed @ 45 degrees Upwards 6G HL045 Pipe Fixed @ 45 degrees Downwards 6G JL045 Welding Positions For Fillet welds:Welding Position Test Position ISO and EN Flat (Weld flat joint at 45 degrees) 1F PA Horizontal 2F PB 2FR PB Horizontal Rotated Vertical Upwards Progression 3F PF Vertical Downwards Progression 3F PG Overhead 4F PD Pipe Fixed Horizontal 5F PF POSISI LAS - ASME IX 17
  20. 20. CONTOH TAHAPAN PROSES PENGELASAN PIPA . Project Eng Operation Operation Requirement Requirement Material Material Selection Selection Science WPS WPS Welding Eng Fabrication Fabrication of Pipes of Pipes Technology Manufac turer WPQR WPQR Welding Application Welding Application Inspection Inspection Wel der Standard Welding Inspect WELDING AND JOINING . WELDING PROCEDURES WELDING AND JOINING WPQR AND WPS n Kualifikasi Prosedur (Procedure Qualification) Ä Sebelum mengelas komponen (pipa atau lainnya) umumnya prosedur pengelasan (welding procedure) harus dibuat dan dikualifikasi. n Dokumentasi (Record) Ä Detail mengenai prosedur harus didokumentasi (record) yang berisi hasil lengkap tentang “procedure qualification test”. n Kualifikasi Operator Las (Qualification of Welders) Ä Setiap welder atau operator las harus dikualifikasi menurut prosedur baku sebelum melakukan pengelasan komponen (pipa atau lainnya). Tujuannya adalah untuk menentukan kemampuan operator las (welder) dalam menghasilkan lasan yang baik tanpa cacat dengan menggunakan prosedur sebelumnya yang telah lulus qualifikasi. 20
  21. 21. ISI WELDING PROSEDUR WELDING AND JOINING WPQR AND WPS ¥ Process è Manual, Semi-or automatic welding process ¥ Pipe and Fitting Material è API 5L or ASTM ¥ Diameter and Wall Thickness ¥ Joint Design ¥ Filler Metal and Number of Bed è The size and classification number of the filler metal and minimum number and sequence of bead ¥ Electrical Characteristics è The range of voltage and amperage ¥ Position è Roll or fix ¥ Direction of Welding è Uphill or downhill ¥ Time Between Passes è Max time between completion of the root bed and start of the second and other bed ¥ Type and Remove of Lineup Clamp ¥ Cleaning and or Grinding ¥ Pre and Post-Heat Treatment è Methods, Temp. temp-control methods ¥ Shielding Gas and Flow Rate è Composition and range of flow rate ¥ Shielding Flux ¥ Speed of Travel è in inch per minute CONTOH PENGELASAN PIPA WELDING AND JOINING NUMBER OF WELD METAL-LAYER n The number of weld metal-layer (pass) in welding of pipe depend on pipe wall thickness. Recommended number of layer as shown below. Range of Pipe Wall Thickness Number of Layers 3/8 to 5/8 in 2 5/8 to 7/8 in 3 7/8 to 1 1/8 in 4 Cross Section of Weld 2 1 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 Remark 1 = Rott pass 2 = Cover pass 1 = Root pass 2 = Hott pass 3 = Cover pass 1 = Root pass 2 = Hott pass 3 = Filler pass 4 = Cover pass 21
  22. 22. PIPE WELDING PROCEDURES WELDING AND JOINING TYPE OF PASS . Filler Pass 3/16 Electrode 180 - 190 A DC + Cover Pass 3/16 Electrode 160 - 190 A DC + Base Metal Hot Pass 5/32 Electrode 170 - 200 A DC + Root/Stringer Bead 5/32 Electrode 135 - 175 A DC + PIPE WELDING PROCEDURES WELDING AND JOINING SPEED OF TRAVEL . Layer Travel Speed, Cm/Minute Root Pass 7.5 - 20 Hot Pass 7.5 - 20 Filler Pass 12.5 - 25 Cover Pass 12.5 - 25 22
  23. 23. PIPE WELDING PROCEDURES WELDING AND JOINING FILLER METAL . Filler Metal Group AWS E6010 AND E6011 3 E7010, E7011 1/8 75 - 125 A5.5 E8010, E8011 5/32 110 - 170 26 E7015, E7016, E7018 3/16 140 - 215 24 - 26 A5.5 E8015, E8016, E8018 7/32 170 - 250 26 - 30 A5.17 2 E6010, E6011 A5.1 or 5.5 1 AWS Specificatio n A5.1 A5.5 EL8, EL8K, EL12, EM5K 1/4 210 - 320 26 - 30 EM12K, EM13K, EM15K Group 5/16 275 - 425 28 - 34 4 Electrode Dia, In Current A Votage, Arc Volt 3/32 Electrode 40 - 80 23 - 25 24 - 28 - 34 PIPE WELDING PROCEDURES WELDING AND JOINING PRE HEATING AND STRESS RELIEF n Preheating shall be performing when: Ä Carbon steel having a carbon content in excess of 0.32 % (ladle analysis) or a carbon equivalent (C + 1/4 ( Mn + Si ) ) in excess of 0.65 % (ladle analysis). Ä Steel having lower carbon content or CE when the welding procedure indicates that chemical composition, ambient/or metal temperature, material thickness . Preheating Requirement Based on CE CE % Preheating Reaquired Up to 0.45 Preheat optional 0.45 to 0.60 Preheat to 93 - 205 deg C Over 0.60 Preheat to 205 to 370 deg C or weld geometry require such treatment to produce satisfactory welds (Source ASME B31.8) n Preheating Method Ä Furnace Heat Treatment Preheating Requirement Based on C Content C Content, % Preheating Temperatur, oC Ä Induction Heating Below 0.2 Ä Torch Heating 0.20 - 0.30 Up to 93 93 - 150 Ä Resistance Heating 0.30 - 0.45 150 - 260 Ä Exothermal Heating 0.45 - 0.80 260 - 425 23
  24. 24. PIPE WELDING PROCEDURES WELDING AND JOINING PRE HEATING AND STRESS RELIEFING Stress - Reliefing Ä Equipment Ä To eliminate or greatly reduce built up stress caused by welding. § Electric induction Ä Required when § Fuel-fired ring burner § Electric resistance § Following a welding operation on a big work piece (wall thickness >) § Fuel-fired torch Ä Temperature Controller § On that is likely to have large built up stress in it, § Having trouble with warping out of shape. work -piece § Thermocouple pyrometer Stress-Relief Time & Temperature for Carbon Steel Ä Methods of Stress Relieving Metal Temp. o C § Heat the complete structure as a unit Time per Inch of Section Thickness, h § Heat a complete section containing the weld to be stress relief 593 1 § Heat a part of work by slowly heating a circumferential band containing the weld at the center. 565 2 538 3 510 5 482 10 § Branch or other welded attachment PIPE WELDING INSPECTION WELDING AND JOINING METHODS OF INSPECTION þ NDT þ n Visual weld, at randomly by operators n Radiographic Testing n Class 1 location, except offshore, n Magnetic Particle Testing at least 10 % n Liquid Penetrant Testing n Class 2 location, at least 15 % n Ultrasonic Testing þ The method used shall produce indications of defects that can be accurately interpreted and evaluated. þ Qualification of Inspection Personnel n Welding inspection personnel shall be qualified by experience and training for the specified inspection task they performed. þ Radiographic testing least by Level I Percentages of each day’s field butt performed at n Class 3, and class 4 location, at crossing or navigable river, offshore and rail road or public highway right of way, including tunnels, bridges and over head road crossing, 100 %, unless impracticable, at least 90 %. n Pipelines tie-in, 100 % þ Only Level II or III personnel shall interprete test results. 24
  25. 25. PIPE WELDING INSPECTION WELDING AND JOINING BASIC CONCEPT Preparation Preparation Radiographic Radiographic Test Test Interpretation Interpretation and Evaluation and Evaluation Acceptance Acceptance Yes Welding is Perfect Welding is Perfect No Repair Repair WELDING AND JOINING Terima Kasih . 25