Early life• Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was born on 29 July 1883 in Predappio in northern central Italy.• Raised in a Catholic household. His father was an active socialist.• He worked as a journalist in the socialist press, but his support for Italys entry into World War One led to his break with socialism.• He was drafted into the Italian army in September 1915.
What is fascism ???1. A system of government with centralized authority under a dictator.2. Usually involves terror, censorship, nationalism, and racism
Ideology• Mussolini was initially a member of Italys socialist party. However, he was thrown out because of his view that Italy should join WWI.• He created a new ideology called Fascism out of a combination of much out of Nationalist and Socialist views.• Fascism is a system where one leader has complete power over a nation, with a goal of making it completely independent of other nations.• Fascism also states that the goals of the nation being more important than anything else, including citizens. Fascism is thus an example of a totalitarian ideology.
"All within the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state." - Benito Mussolini
From rise to power• Mussolini set up a Fascist Party and promised to solve Italy’s problems.• Promised to rebuild Italy and recreate the Roman Empire.• Organized armed gangs called the “Blackshirts”.• Come to power in 1992 and was appointed Prime Minister by King Victor Emmanuel to prevent a Communist Revolution in Italy
As a leaderHe managed to assume almost all parts of government offices and its power in order to regain control of the economy, and in a short period of time, Mussolini was successful in stabilizing the economy and taking country out of economic turmoil. He became known as “II Duce” meaning the leader.
1992 March on rometo establish Mussolini and the Fascist Party as the most important party in Italy."Our program is simple: we want to rule Italy.” -Benito MussoliniMussolini said this at a party conference: "Either the government will be given to us or will shall seize it by marching on Rome."
The quadrumvirs leading the Fascist Party, General Emilio De Bono,Italo Balbo, Michele Bianchi and Cesare Maria de Vecchi,
“Fascism conceives of the State as an absolute, in comparisonwith which all individuals or groups are relative, only to beconceived in their relation to the State.” ~Benito Mussolini
Beginning of the allianceAlthough Mussolini quenched for power, he was still enraged bythe treatment Italy received for their part in defeating BenitoMussolini and Adolf Hitler the Germans and Austrians in WorldWar I. He had visions of a new Roman Empire and he could seethe day when the Mediterranean Sea became the quot;MareNostrum“ meaning our sea. Mussolini soon found his countryblacklisted by the League of Nations and it forced hisrelationship closer to Nazi Germany, which was also isolated fortheir actions. Mussolini soon realized that the League of Nationsdid not have the backbone to stop Hitler or himself in gainingnew colonies, so he pressed forward. On the April 7, 1939,Mussolini invaded Albania and on May 22,1939, Italy andGermany cemented their alliance with the Pact of Steel.
Italy during WW iiMussolini during WWII Mussolini intended to annex Malta, Corsica, and Tunis. He wanted to create a “New Roman Empire.” He annexed Albania, straining the military. His troops were unprepared for the German invasion of Poland. Italy remained neutral.Italy soon declared war on Britain and France but troops were unprepared. It was defeated by Greece and lost the world’s first carrier strike. Italy was defeated on all fronts of the Anglo-American landing.
The fall of mussoliniOn April 28, 1945, Mussolini was arrested and joined his mistress, Clara Petaccagain, by Italian partisans by Lake Como. Mussolini, realizing he was going to killed, opened up his shirt and asked to be shot in the chest. Many Italians complied and attempted to shoot him with an Italian submachine gun, but it would not fire. One Italian then pulled out a pistol and again it would not fire. In desperation he grabbed a French weapon, a MAS 7.65, from a fellow partisan and killed them both. Their bodies were strung upside down the next day for all to see.