Online tutoring in online collaborative learning courses
Tutoring in online collaborative
DELP 2016 Workshop, Makerere University
Department of Global Development and Planning
University of Agder
• Active knowledge construction
– Negotiation, explanation, argumentation
• Empowering students to take responsibility
for their own learning
Role of the teacher
• Guiding learners in the process of inquiry
• Monitoring learners’ understanding
• Addressing dysfunctional group phenomena
Online collaborative learning
– Different backgrounds (cultural, institutional,
– Different prior knowledge
– Learning across time and space (e.g.,
Lack of social cues
Often based on expectations;
temporal organization challenge
Different behaviors are considered relevant
Common ground challenge;
different need for support
• Taking for granted that collaboration will occur
simply because technology makes it possible
– Usually collaboration doesn’t happen
– Lack of experience in collaborative learning
– Insufficient training in the use of technology
• Tools in use• Course
Student 2: Not so often,
but once in a while;
frequent monitoring also
tires – we are self-directed
Student 1: As often as
it can be possible
What about training online tutors?
• Dillenbourg, P. (1999). What do you mean by collaborative learning? Collaborative-
learning: Cognitive and computational approaches, 1, 1-15.
• Kreijns, K., Kirschner, P. A., & Jochems, W. (2003). Identifying the pitfalls for social
interaction in computer-supported collaborative learning environments: A review
of the research. Computers in Human Behavior, 19, 335-353.
• Popov, V., Biemans, H. J., Kuznetsov, A. N., & Mulder, M. (2014). Use of an
interculturally enriched collaboration script in computer-supported collaborative
learning in higher education. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 23(3), 349-374.
• Popov, V., Noroozi, O., Barrett, J. B., Biemans, H. J., Teasley, S. D., Slof, B., & Mulder,
M. (2014). Perceptions and experiences of, and outcomes for, university students
in culturally diversified dyads in a computer-supported collaborative learning
environment. Computers in Human Behavior, 32, 186-200.
• Strijbos, J.-W., Martens, R. L., & Jochems, W. M. G. (2004). Designing for
interaction: Six steps to designing computer-supported group-based learning.
Computers & Education, 42, 403-424.
• Weinberger, A. (2011). Principles of transactive computer-supported collaboration
scripts. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 6, 189-202.
• Berge, Z.L. (1995). Facilitating computer conferencing:
Recommendations from the field. Educational
Technology, 35, 22-30.
• Goold, A., Coldwell, J., & Craig, A. (2010). An
examination of the role of the e-tutor. Australasian
Journal of Educational Technology, 26, 704-716.
• Kopp, B., Matteucci, M. C., & Tomasetto, C. (2012). E-
tutorial support for collaborative online learning: An
explorative study on experienced and inexperienced e-
tutors. Computers & Education, 58, 12-20.
• Massey, A. P., Montoya-Weiss, M. M., & Hung, Y. T. (2003). Because time
matters: Temporal coordination in global virtual project teams. Journal of
management information systems, 19(4), 129-155.
• Sarker, S. & Sahay, S. (2004). Implications of space and time for distributed
work: an interpretive study of US–Norwegian systems development
teams. European Journal of Information Systems, 13(1), 3-20.
• Sung, E. & Mayer, R. E. (2012). Five facets of social presence in online
distance education. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(5), 1738-1747.
Assessment of collaborative learning
• Strijbos, J.-W. (2011). Assessment of (computer-supported) collaborative
learning. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 4(1), 59-73.