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Assessing Grammar


Differing Notions og “Grammar” for Assessment

Grammar and Linguistics

Two Main Views:

1.  Syntactocentric Perspective (syntax) the ways words are
organized in a sentence.

2.   Communicative Perspective: The emphasis is on how
language is used to convey meaning.

2.a. Syntactocentric Perspective:

Formal grammar is viewed as a systematic prediction of an ideal
speaker. The importance is on the structure, not in meaning or
context.

2.b. Communicative Perspective:

Grammar is one of many resources for accomplishing something
with language. The perspective focuses more on the overall
message being communicated and in the interpretations.



Form-Based Perspetive of Language

1. Traditional Grammar: Revealed linguistics meaning of forms.
Extensive set of perspective rules along with the exceptions.

2. Structural Linguistics: Describe the structure of a language in
terms of its morphology and syntax. It seeks to describe the
language.

3.     Transformational-generative grammar: Endeavored to
provide a universal description of language behavior revealing
the internal linguistic system.
According to Chomsky’s UG (Universal Grammar), language
consist of the universal principles and the language-specific
rules.

There are some other aspects that need to be understood.
Syntax and Morphology on their own are not enough to
understand a language.

Assessing grammar is a high influenced by sytactocentric
approach , but those theories have to deal with meaningfulness
appropriateness, acceptability and naturalness.



Form-and-Use-Based Perspectives of Language

If we would like the main differences between similar structures
we would need all those theories to understand it.

A focus on grammatical form alone may not be enough in L2 to
determine if learners have sufficiently acquired a structure to
communicate effectively.



What’s Pedagogical Grammar?

The importance of the words will vary, it will always depend on
the classroom context.




Assessing Vocabulary
MEASURING VOCABULARY SIZE

Vocabulary size is related to Reading comprehension, that’s why
vocabulary tests are quite relevant research on reading
development and literacy programs.
-Sampling from word frequency lists

·      Dictionaries do not show how frequent a word is. The
preferred lexical unit is the world family, which consist of a base
word and its inflected and derived forms. Vocabulary tests
focuses on a lower range of words for non-native speakers than
for native speakers.

·     GSL: Selection of 2000 high-frequency word families.

·      AWL (Academic Word List): Set of 570 word families. It has
been very influential in the recent years in the teaching and
testing of English for academic purposes.

·    Ward states that AWL is not the useful or frequent for every
type of learner.

·      AWL is not very frequent in Sciences, Engineering and
Social Sciences. There is no definite frequency list.



-The Yes/No Format

·    Developing Size Vocabulary Test: select a sample of target
words.

·     The simplest test formats are called checklists; yes/no tests.

·      The presentation of the vocabulary may affect the test
taker. The written form will always be the same, whereas oral
language will vary according to the speaker accent, linguistic
context, intention, etc.

·      There are well-established procedures for measuring the
size of learners’ vocabulary. It is difficult to find the perfect word
frequency list.

·     Despite its simplicity, yes/no format has proved to be and
informative and cost-effective means of assessing the state of
learners vocabulary knowledge.
-Testing Depth of Knowledge.

·    There is less progress in measuring quality of vocabulary
knowledge; about use, frequency, functional, etc.

·     There is no depth measure that has reached the same
wide acceptance than Vocabulary Levels Test in vocabulary
size.

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Texts Summary

  • 1. Assessing Grammar Differing Notions og “Grammar” for Assessment Grammar and Linguistics Two Main Views: 1. Syntactocentric Perspective (syntax) the ways words are organized in a sentence. 2. Communicative Perspective: The emphasis is on how language is used to convey meaning. 2.a. Syntactocentric Perspective: Formal grammar is viewed as a systematic prediction of an ideal speaker. The importance is on the structure, not in meaning or context. 2.b. Communicative Perspective: Grammar is one of many resources for accomplishing something with language. The perspective focuses more on the overall message being communicated and in the interpretations. Form-Based Perspetive of Language 1. Traditional Grammar: Revealed linguistics meaning of forms. Extensive set of perspective rules along with the exceptions. 2. Structural Linguistics: Describe the structure of a language in terms of its morphology and syntax. It seeks to describe the language. 3. Transformational-generative grammar: Endeavored to provide a universal description of language behavior revealing the internal linguistic system.
  • 2. According to Chomsky’s UG (Universal Grammar), language consist of the universal principles and the language-specific rules. There are some other aspects that need to be understood. Syntax and Morphology on their own are not enough to understand a language. Assessing grammar is a high influenced by sytactocentric approach , but those theories have to deal with meaningfulness appropriateness, acceptability and naturalness. Form-and-Use-Based Perspectives of Language If we would like the main differences between similar structures we would need all those theories to understand it. A focus on grammatical form alone may not be enough in L2 to determine if learners have sufficiently acquired a structure to communicate effectively. What’s Pedagogical Grammar? The importance of the words will vary, it will always depend on the classroom context. Assessing Vocabulary MEASURING VOCABULARY SIZE Vocabulary size is related to Reading comprehension, that’s why vocabulary tests are quite relevant research on reading development and literacy programs.
  • 3. -Sampling from word frequency lists · Dictionaries do not show how frequent a word is. The preferred lexical unit is the world family, which consist of a base word and its inflected and derived forms. Vocabulary tests focuses on a lower range of words for non-native speakers than for native speakers. · GSL: Selection of 2000 high-frequency word families. · AWL (Academic Word List): Set of 570 word families. It has been very influential in the recent years in the teaching and testing of English for academic purposes. · Ward states that AWL is not the useful or frequent for every type of learner. · AWL is not very frequent in Sciences, Engineering and Social Sciences. There is no definite frequency list. -The Yes/No Format · Developing Size Vocabulary Test: select a sample of target words. · The simplest test formats are called checklists; yes/no tests. · The presentation of the vocabulary may affect the test taker. The written form will always be the same, whereas oral language will vary according to the speaker accent, linguistic context, intention, etc. · There are well-established procedures for measuring the size of learners’ vocabulary. It is difficult to find the perfect word frequency list. · Despite its simplicity, yes/no format has proved to be and informative and cost-effective means of assessing the state of learners vocabulary knowledge.
  • 4. -Testing Depth of Knowledge. · There is less progress in measuring quality of vocabulary knowledge; about use, frequency, functional, etc. · There is no depth measure that has reached the same wide acceptance than Vocabulary Levels Test in vocabulary size.