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Forest variations in the limits of an
island
Rain and Dry Forests in Puerto Rico
By:
Paola Caballero
Alejandra M. De Jesús...
Introduction…
What is a forest?
 Forests are ecosystems.
 An ecosystem consists of all the living things in a
particular...
• Conserve soil and prevent erosion (wearing away
of the land by wind and water)
• Habitat for our biodiversity.
 Are rep...
• Provide a healthy
environment for passive
outdoor recreation.
• Its incredible diversity of
species allows Education
and...
There are 20 state forests and one federal forest
in Puerto Rico.
Forests in Puerto Rico
Practically all climates
present in Puerto Rico are
represented in the forests,
from tropical dry to very
humid climate.
...
• Sierra de Luquillo (southeast of San Juan)
• Crown lands (Spanish government), identified as
forest reserves.
• Change o...
• 1976 - United Nations recognized the
ecological value of “El Yunque” and joined it
to the Reserves of the Man and the
Bi...
• 1981 – United Nations
recognized the
ecological value of the
forest and appointed
him as the second
International Biosph...
•El Yunque
• 500 inches of rain in a
year in the highest
peaks.
• Daily temperatures are
25.5 ˚C.
•Guánica Dry Forest
• Th...
Rain Forest
El Yunque (Flora)
1
2
3
4
Cassia decian (deep roots
with breaking effects)
Yagrumos (sexual
reproduction, ther...
Cassia decian
Mosses
Yagrumo
Bamboo
Dry Forest
Guánica (Flora)
1
2
3
4
Melocactus (stem
photosynthetic and thorns)
Bursera (peeling tree, small,
long lasting)...
Agave
Melocactus
Bursera
Vanilla Orchid
Grass Salicornia
Mangrove
Here is the description of the chart.
You may change or delete this text
as you wish.
This chart is compatible with
PowerP...
Fluorescent Slug
Walking Stick
Caracolus caracola
Dry Forest
Guánica (Fauna)
1
2
3
4
Swallowtail (insect eating
bird)
Lizards (brown, in the
shadows)
Bees (pollinating fact...
• “El Yunque National
Forest”
 Palo Colorado
Forest
 Hollows of this tree
are used for the
Puerto Rican parrot
nests.
• ...
In el Yunque, the structure of the
rock walls and trails has been
collapsing and one of the major
causes is human disturba...
In Guánica, the dry forest is victim
of constant fires. Some are
naturally occurring, but most are
the cause of human inte...
Global contamination affects one
way or another the composition
of water. Rain is no exception. The
acidity of rain affect...
Global contamination affects one
way or another the composition
of water. Rain is no exception. The
acidity of rain affect...
Economical Benefits
El Yunque
Tourist Agenda
•Visit El Yunque.
•Climb to the top
and/or go to the
waterfalls
•Get something to eat
after a lon...
Dry Forest Guánica
Tourist Agenda
•Visit the Dry Forest
•Watch amazed how in
the same island can
there be two
completely d...
“If you cut down a
forest, it doesn't
matter how many
sawmills you have
if there are no more
trees.”
~ Susan George
“If yo...
Final presentation (rain and dry forest)
Final presentation (rain and dry forest)
Final presentation (rain and dry forest)
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Final presentation (rain and dry forest)

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Final presentation (rain and dry forest)

  1. 1. Forest variations in the limits of an island Rain and Dry Forests in Puerto Rico By: Paola Caballero Alejandra M. De Jesús Valerie Flores Jessica Rodríguez
  2. 2. Introduction… What is a forest?  Forests are ecosystems.  An ecosystem consists of all the living things in a particular area, along with all the nonliving components of the environment with which living things interact (soil, water, temperature, atmospheric gases, light).
  3. 3. • Conserve soil and prevent erosion (wearing away of the land by wind and water) • Habitat for our biodiversity.  Are representations of our flora and fauna, custodians of these. • Provide wood products. Introduction Importance of forests
  4. 4. • Provide a healthy environment for passive outdoor recreation. • Its incredible diversity of species allows Education and Research experiences. Introduction Importance of forests
  5. 5. There are 20 state forests and one federal forest in Puerto Rico. Forests in Puerto Rico
  6. 6. Practically all climates present in Puerto Rico are represented in the forests, from tropical dry to very humid climate.  Guánica dry forest (high salinity, arid coasts)  “El Yunque” National forest (rainforest) Forests in Puerto Rico
  7. 7. • Sierra de Luquillo (southeast of San Juan) • Crown lands (Spanish government), identified as forest reserves. • Change of sovereignty came to be administered by the Forest Service of the Agriculture Department of the United States (only tropical forest under United States jurisdiction) “El Yunque” National Forest Caribbean National Forest
  8. 8. • 1976 - United Nations recognized the ecological value of “El Yunque” and joined it to the Reserves of the Man and the Biosphere • In terms of study and management, it is one of the best rainforests. “El Yunque” National forest Caribbean National Forest
  9. 9. • 1981 – United Nations recognized the ecological value of the forest and appointed him as the second International Biosphere Reserve in Puerto Rico • World’s best preserved tropical forest and less disturbed by humans. Guánica Dry Forest Southwest coast of Puerto Rico
  10. 10. •El Yunque • 500 inches of rain in a year in the highest peaks. • Daily temperatures are 25.5 ˚C. •Guánica Dry Forest • The annual precipitation is between 25 to 30 inches. • Temperatures ranging between 75˚F in cold months and 95˚F in hot months. Precipitation and Temperature
  11. 11. Rain Forest El Yunque (Flora) 1 2 3 4 Cassia decian (deep roots with breaking effects) Yagrumos (sexual reproduction, there’s various types) Pino caribea (fast growing) Bamboo (tall grass, dies fast) 5 6 7 8 Rábano (plague, exotic becomes dominant) Guava (co-evolution, relation with abayarde) Jacana (eatable fruit, tall and long leaves) Mosses (stacked to the ground, lots of surface)
  12. 12. Cassia decian Mosses Yagrumo Bamboo
  13. 13. Dry Forest Guánica (Flora) 1 2 3 4 Melocactus (stem photosynthetic and thorns) Bursera (peeling tree, small, long lasting) Agave (exotic, 20 ft, asexual reproduction, monocarpic and clumping distribution) Vanilla Orchid (Vine in shrubs, CAM photosynthesis, stem succulent) 5 6 7 8 Salicornia (grows in salt flats, leave succulent) Consolea (opuntia, formed a trunk, avoid fire and grazing animals damage, tall) Mangrove (salt-loving plant, roots grow up in search for oxygen) Grass (uniform and dispersed growth)
  14. 14. Agave Melocactus Bursera Vanilla Orchid Grass Salicornia Mangrove
  15. 15. Here is the description of the chart. You may change or delete this text as you wish. This chart is compatible with PowerPoint 97 to 2007. Here is a placeholder for more text and description of the chart. Changing this text will not interfere with the formatting of this template. Bar Graph Page Layout A Second Line of text may go here
  16. 16. Fluorescent Slug Walking Stick Caracolus caracola
  17. 17. Dry Forest Guánica (Fauna) 1 2 3 4 Swallowtail (insect eating bird) Lizards (brown, in the shadows) Bees (pollinating factors) Frogs (hatch in the presence of water) 5 6 7 8 Jueyes (live underground) Guaraguao (eats dead animals) Wasps (pollinators) Moths (the pollinator of certain plants)
  18. 18. • “El Yunque National Forest”  Palo Colorado Forest  Hollows of this tree are used for the Puerto Rican parrot nests. • Guánica Dry Forest  Intermittent freshwater ponds that serve as reproduction area for the crested toad Both forests are home to endangered species
  19. 19. In el Yunque, the structure of the rock walls and trails has been collapsing and one of the major causes is human disturbance. • Frequent visiting of tourists • Heaviness and emissions of cars and trucks Consequences of Contamination Collapsing structure gabion
  20. 20. In Guánica, the dry forest is victim of constant fires. Some are naturally occurring, but most are the cause of human interaction with the environment. The emissions of a fire contaminate the air and fog so necessary for the plants. • Many plants do not survive such harsh conditions. Consequences of Contamination Fires Fire’s rests
  21. 21. Global contamination affects one way or another the composition of water. Rain is no exception. The acidity of rain affects both forests: • Yunque- heavy amounts of rain stripes the soil of its nutrients, leaving little to the plants and affecting their growth. Consequences of Contamination Rain Low pH soil
  22. 22. Global contamination affects one way or another the composition of water. Rain is no exception. The acidity of rain affects both forests: • Guanica- rain erodes limestone, forming small to big cavities on the surface of the limestone. Consequences of Contamination Rain
  23. 23. Economical Benefits
  24. 24. El Yunque Tourist Agenda •Visit El Yunque. •Climb to the top and/or go to the waterfalls •Get something to eat after a long day of sightseeing and walking in the Luquillo’s kiosks. •Stay in a hotel, rest and go to the beach
  25. 25. Dry Forest Guánica Tourist Agenda •Visit the Dry Forest •Watch amazed how in the same island can there be two completely different forests. •Get refreshed in the beach nearby after a long and hot day •Stay in Copamarina hotel
  26. 26. “If you cut down a forest, it doesn't matter how many sawmills you have if there are no more trees.” ~ Susan George “If you cut down a forest, it doesn't matter how many sawmills you have if there are no more trees.” ~ Susan George

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