Assesment Of Human Resource Development Needs


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Assesment Of Human Resource Development Needs

  1. 1. Assessing HRD Chapter 4
  2. 2. Why Do Needs Assessment? <ul><li>Question : </li></ul><ul><li>Why is needs assessment information critical to the development and delivery of an effective HRD program? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Needs Assessment <ul><li>Figuring out what is really needed </li></ul><ul><li>Not always an easy task </li></ul><ul><li>Needs lots of input </li></ul><ul><li>Takes a lot of work </li></ul><ul><li>“Do it now or do lots more later” </li></ul><ul><li>First step in both the ISD and HRD process models </li></ul>
  4. 4. Product Development Model (PDM) Analyze Design Develop Produce Pilot Evaluate Deliver Improve By permission: Doty, W.B. (1997) Product Development
  5. 5. The HRD Process: A DImE
  6. 6. Comparing the HRD Process Model to the PDM/ISD Model <ul><li>HRD Process Model </li></ul><ul><li>Assess </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Implement </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul><ul><li>PDM/ISD Model </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze need </li></ul><ul><li>Design training </li></ul><ul><li>Develop </li></ul><ul><li>Produce pilot </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate pilot </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver training </li></ul><ul><li>Improve </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is a “Need?” <ul><li>A discrepancy between expectations and performance </li></ul><ul><li>Not only “performance” needs involved </li></ul>
  8. 8. Various Types of Needs <ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors that can prevent problems from occurring (see p. 130) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analytic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify new or better ways to do things </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandated by law or regulation </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Traps in Needs Assessment <ul><li>Focusing only on individual performance deficiencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t fix group of systemic problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Starting with a “Training Needs Assessment” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you know training is needed, why waste everyone’s time? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Traps in Needs Assessment – 2 <ul><li>Using Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to control input, often high developmental costs, hard to write properly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Using soft data (opinions) only </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need performance and consequence data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Using hard data only </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily measured data is provided, but critical, hard-to-measure data is missing </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Levels of Assessment <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is training needed and under what conditions? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What must be done to perform the job effectively? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who should be trained and how? </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Strategic/Organizational Analysis <ul><li>A broad, “systems” view is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Need to identify: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental constraints </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Why Strategic Assessment is Needed <ul><li>Ties HRD programs to corporate or organizational goals </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthens the link between profit and HRD actions </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthens corporate support for HRD </li></ul><ul><li>Makes HRD more of a revenue generator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a profit waster </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Sources of Strategic Information <ul><li>Mission statement </li></ul><ul><li>HRM inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Skills inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of Working Life indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency indexes </li></ul><ul><li>System changes </li></ul><ul><li>Exit interviews </li></ul>
  15. 15. Task Analysis <ul><li>The collection of data about a specific job or group of jobs </li></ul><ul><li>What employee needs to know to perform a job or jobs </li></ul>
  16. 16. How to Collect Information For a Task Analysis <ul><li>Job descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Task analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Performance standards </li></ul><ul><li>Perform job </li></ul><ul><li>Observe job </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of problems </li></ul>
  17. 17. A Sample Task Analysis Process <ul><li>Develop job description </li></ul><ul><li>Identify job tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What should be done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is actually done </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Describe KSAOs needed </li></ul><ul><li>Identify potential training areas </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize potential training areas </li></ul>
  18. 18. Task Analysis for HRD Position SOURCE: From G. E. Mills, R. W. Pace, & B. D. Peterson (1988). Analysis in human resource training and organizational development (p. 57). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Reprinted by permission . 1. List tasks 1. Observe behavior List four characteristics of behavior     Classify behavior   2. Select verb Knowledge of action verbs     Grammatical skills   3. Record behavior State so understood by others     Record neatly 2. List subtasks 1. Observe behavior List all remaining acts     Classify behavior   2. Select verb State correctly     Grammatical skills   3. Record behavior Neat and understood by others 3. List knowledge 1. State what must be known Classify all information   2. Determine complexity of skill Determine if a skill represents a series of acts that must be learned in a sequence Job title: HRD Professional Specific duty: Task Analysis Tasks Subtasks Knowledge and Skills Required      
  19. 19. A Task Analysis Application <ul><li>Question : </li></ul><ul><li>You have been asked to perform a task analysis for the job of dispatcher in a city police department. Which method(s) of task analysis do you think are most appropriate for analyzing this job? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Person Analysis <ul><li>Determines training needs for specific individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Based on many sources of data </li></ul><ul><li>Summary Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine overall success of the individual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discover reasons for performance </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Performance Appraisal <ul><li>Relied on heavily in person analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to do </li></ul><ul><li>Vital to company and individual </li></ul><ul><li>Should be VERY confidential </li></ul><ul><li>Based too often on personal opinion </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Employee Appraisal Process By Permission: Herbert & Doverspike (1990)
  23. 23. Performance Appraisal Process <ul><li>Determine basis for appraisal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job description, MBO objectives, job standards, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conduct the appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Determine discrepancies between the standard and performance </li></ul><ul><li>Identify source(s) of discrepancies </li></ul><ul><li>Select ways to resolve discrepancies </li></ul>
  24. 24. Prioritizing HRD Needs <ul><li>There are never enough resources available </li></ul><ul><li>Must prioritize efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Need full organizational involvement in this process </li></ul><ul><li>Involve an HRD Advisory Committee. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Warning!! <ul><li>HRD cannot become a slow-acting bureaucracy!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“The Attack on ISD” article (Text p. 156) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HRD must respond to corporate needs </li></ul><ul><li>HRD should be focused on “performance improvement,” and not just “training” </li></ul>
  26. 26. Summary <ul><li>Why is needs assessment so often not performed in many organizations? </li></ul><ul><li>Why should organizations care about needs assessment? </li></ul>