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Psychology of Shah Waliullah

The presentation created for the requirement of clinical psychology class.

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Psychology of Shah Waliullah

  1. 1. Aleem Ashraf Department of Psychology University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
  2. 2.  Introduction  Nature of personality  Three-tiered model of personality  Psychological health  Seven virtues of a fully functioning man  Levels of needs  Concept of abnormality  Intervention  References © Aleem Ashraf 2
  3. 3.  He was a philosopher, scientist, metaphysical theologian and sociologist.  His metaphysical philosophy is a combination of:  Rationalism like Ibn-e-Rushd  Limited rationalism like AL-Ghazali  Dogmatism like Ibn-e-Taymiyah, and  Mysticism like Ahmed Sirhindi (Mujaddid Alf Thani) © Aleem Ashraf 3
  4. 4.  According to his philosophical system, man is integrated in the larger system of universe.  Being a part of the system, he has a certain role to play. He has a deterministic nature.  He is a psychosomatic unit, therefore, he can only achieve mental health if there’s a balance between the two aspects.  Profoundly influenced the thought of Muslims in the subcontinent. © Aleem Ashraf 4
  5. 5.  Universe is a well planned grand system where everything is working in a predetermined way.  Man is also part of that grand system therefore he also has a predetermined role.  Man is a psychosomatic entity. Psycho means soul or mind and soma means body.  He has beastly as well as angelic tendencies built into him. © Aleem Ashraf 5
  6. 6.  Nafs-e-Nasmah (inferior soul)  is responsible for man’s biological life.  It flows through the body like fire in a coal.  Constitutes of four humors: blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile.  Made of air, earth, water and fire. © Aleem Ashraf 6
  7. 7.  In the middle lies Nafs-e-Natiqa (rational or superior soul) which controls and conducts the Nafs-e-Nasma.  Rational soul makes us different from animals and it is also responsible for individual differences among humans.  Both inferior and superior souls are connected to each other and the body till death. © Aleem Ashraf 7
  8. 8.  Man dominated by Nasmah is driven by materialistic desires while when Nafs-e-Natiqa is in control, he becomes an ideal virtuous person.  The third and top most soul in the hierarchy is called Nafs-e-Samawi (heavenly soul).  There’s a potentiality in every human to reach this level.  Reached at by prophets and saints.  The secrets of universe such as life after death and the unseen are revealed through divine revelation. © Aleem Ashraf 8
  9. 9.  The heavenly soul for all humans have been created much earlier than their birth. While superior and inferior souls are only created at birth.  The heavenly soul is an ideal form of every individual which means that everyone has the full potential to reach at this level of perfection.  The debate of created soul vs pre-birth soul was reconciled by Waliullah by accommodating both types of soul in his system. © Aleem Ashraf 9
  10. 10.  Complete psychological health is achieved by harmonious functioning of both angelic and animalistic aspects of personality.  Man is combination of mind and body, therefore, satisfying the needs of only one aspect adversely affects the other aspect.  Religion is an important means to be on the path that leads to personal as well as the perfection of humanity in general. © Aleem Ashraf 10
  11. 11. • Wisdom ‫حکمت‬ • Bravery ‫شجاعت‬ • Chastity ‫عفت‬ • Generosity ‫سخاوت‬ • Truthfulness ‫دیانت‬ • Mode of expression ‫فصاحت‬ • Harmony of character ‫الصالح‬ ‫سمت‬ © Aleem Ashraf 11
  12. 12.  The psychological health of an individual depends on the gratification of certain needs. 1. Needs for a person’s physical survival a. Food, eating and drinking b. Protection, clothes, dwelling place c. Accessory needs, cleanliness, sleep, help and treatment in illness. © Aleem Ashraf 12
  13. 13. 2. Aesthetic needs of art, literature, decoration, cleanliness etc. 3. Need for association with like minded people. 4. Need for a marital relationship and a family.  In addition to these needs one needs satisfying household relationships between husband and wife, parent and child etc. to grow as person. © Aleem Ashraf 13
  14. 14.  Stable economy is also crucial to achieve the desired level of individual and social growth.  The humanity as a whole can evolve further by establishing a league of nations.  This concept of internationalism can solve the problems of the world by bringing justice to the weaker nations. © Aleem Ashraf 14
  15. 15.  Powerful and dominating inferior soul (heart and emotions) and weak superior soul (reason and intellect) causes character and behavioral problems.  Every individual is born with unique inborn tendencies, ignoring or going against those tendencies also leads to maladjustment.  Bad habits, unethical behavior and bad customs and traditions of the society also affect psychological well being. © Aleem Ashraf 15
  16. 16.  The dominant Nasmah can be effectively controlled by worship and obedience to religious laws.  Such a man also needs hard religious exercises like keeping awake at nights (tahajjud), adopt humanity and simplicity.  Adopting new virtues and strengthening them with repetition adds them to personal dispositions. © Aleem Ashraf 16
  17. 17.  The vices lose their motivating power if an individual stops acting upon them with self control.  For a person who is unaware of his natural tendencies can seek guidance from his affectionate leader to analyze his natural tendencies. So that he can lead a more fulfilling life. © Aleem Ashraf 17
  18. 18. Hermansen, Marcia (1988). Shāh Walī Allāh's Theory of the Subtle Spiritual Centers (Laṭāʾif): A Sufi Model of Personhood and Self-Transformation. Journal of Near Eastern Studies Vol. 47. Iqbal, Saeeda (1984). Islamic Rationalism in the Subcontinent. Islamic Book Service. Shih Wali Allah's Theory of Religion with a Translation of Hujjat Allah al-Baligha, vol. I" (Ph.D. Diss., University of Chicago, 1982) Syed Azhar Ali Rizvi (1989). Muslim Tradition in Psychotherapy and Modern Trends. Institute of Islamic Culture. © Aleem Ashraf 18