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The presentation created for the requirement of clinical psychology class.
Department of Psychology
University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
Nature of personality
Three-tiered model of personality
Seven virtues of a fully functioning man
Levels of needs
Concept of abnormality
© Aleem Ashraf 2
He was a philosopher, scientist, metaphysical
theologian and sociologist.
His metaphysical philosophy is a combination
Rationalism like Ibn-e-Rushd
Limited rationalism like AL-Ghazali
Dogmatism like Ibn-e-Taymiyah, and
Mysticism like Ahmed Sirhindi (Mujaddid Alf Thani)
© Aleem Ashraf 3
According to his philosophical system, man is
integrated in the larger system of universe.
Being a part of the system, he has a certain
role to play. He has a deterministic nature.
He is a psychosomatic unit, therefore, he can
only achieve mental health if there’s a
balance between the two aspects.
Profoundly influenced the thought of Muslims
in the subcontinent.
© Aleem Ashraf 4
Universe is a well planned grand system
where everything is working in a
Man is also part of that grand system
therefore he also has a predetermined role.
Man is a psychosomatic entity. Psycho means
soul or mind and soma means body.
He has beastly as well as angelic tendencies
built into him.
© Aleem Ashraf 5
Nafs-e-Nasmah (inferior soul)
is responsible for man’s biological life.
It flows through the body like fire in a coal.
Constitutes of four humors: blood, phlegm,
black bile and yellow bile.
Made of air, earth, water and fire.
© Aleem Ashraf 6
In the middle lies Nafs-e-Natiqa (rational or
superior soul) which controls and conducts
Rational soul makes us different from animals
and it is also responsible for individual
differences among humans.
Both inferior and superior souls are
connected to each other and the body till
© Aleem Ashraf 7
Man dominated by Nasmah is driven by
materialistic desires while when Nafs-e-Natiqa is
in control, he becomes an ideal virtuous person.
The third and top most soul in the hierarchy is
called Nafs-e-Samawi (heavenly soul).
There’s a potentiality in every human to reach
Reached at by prophets and saints.
The secrets of universe such as life after death
and the unseen are revealed through divine
© Aleem Ashraf 8
The heavenly soul for all humans have been
created much earlier than their birth. While
superior and inferior souls are only created at
The heavenly soul is an ideal form of every
individual which means that everyone has the full
potential to reach at this level of perfection.
The debate of created soul vs pre-birth soul was
reconciled by Waliullah by accommodating both
types of soul in his system.
© Aleem Ashraf 9
Complete psychological health is achieved by
harmonious functioning of both angelic and
animalistic aspects of personality.
Man is combination of mind and body,
therefore, satisfying the needs of only one
aspect adversely affects the other aspect.
Religion is an important means to be on the
path that leads to personal as well as the
perfection of humanity in general.
© Aleem Ashraf 10
• Wisdom حکمت
• Bravery شجاعت
• Chastity عفت
• Generosity سخاوت
• Truthfulness دیانت
• Mode of expression فصاحت
• Harmony of character الصالح سمت
© Aleem Ashraf 11
The psychological health of an individual
depends on the gratification of certain needs.
1. Needs for a person’s physical survival
a. Food, eating and drinking
b. Protection, clothes, dwelling place
c. Accessory needs, cleanliness, sleep, help and
treatment in illness.
© Aleem Ashraf 12
2. Aesthetic needs of art, literature, decoration,
3. Need for association with like minded
4. Need for a marital relationship and a family.
In addition to these needs one needs
satisfying household relationships between
husband and wife, parent and child etc. to
grow as person.
© Aleem Ashraf 13
Stable economy is also crucial to achieve the
desired level of individual and social growth.
The humanity as a whole can evolve further
by establishing a league of nations.
This concept of internationalism can solve the
problems of the world by bringing justice to
the weaker nations.
© Aleem Ashraf 14
Powerful and dominating inferior soul (heart
and emotions) and weak superior soul
(reason and intellect) causes character and
Every individual is born with unique inborn
tendencies, ignoring or going against those
tendencies also leads to maladjustment.
Bad habits, unethical behavior and bad
customs and traditions of the society also
affect psychological well being.
© Aleem Ashraf 15
The dominant Nasmah can be effectively
controlled by worship and obedience to
Such a man also needs hard religious
exercises like keeping awake at nights
(tahajjud), adopt humanity and simplicity.
Adopting new virtues and strengthening them
with repetition adds them to personal
© Aleem Ashraf 16
The vices lose their motivating power if an
individual stops acting upon them with self
For a person who is unaware of his natural
tendencies can seek guidance from his
affectionate leader to analyze his natural
tendencies. So that he can lead a more
© Aleem Ashraf 17
Hermansen, Marcia (1988). Shāh Walī Allāh's Theory of the
Subtle Spiritual Centers (Laṭāʾif): A Sufi Model of
Personhood and Self-Transformation. Journal of Near Eastern
Studies Vol. 47.
Iqbal, Saeeda (1984). Islamic Rationalism in the Subcontinent.
Islamic Book Service.
Shih Wali Allah's Theory of Religion with a Translation of Hujjat
Allah al-Baligha, vol. I" (Ph.D. Diss., University of Chicago,
Syed Azhar Ali Rizvi (1989). Muslim Tradition in Psychotherapy
and Modern Trends. Institute of Islamic Culture.
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