Transportation and the Earth By: Alycen Rowland Rachel Lucas Composition 102 June 2009
Redesigning Urban Transportation <ul><li>Some cities are reducing traffic congestion and air pollution by charging cars to enter the city. An example of this is London charges cars the equivalent of $12 a car to enter. </li></ul>
Suburbs and Commuter Culture The development of suburbs has created a commuter culture, where the average daily commute is close to an hour. These are the people who need an alternative to regular automobiles, but many do not know what their options are.
Efficiency of hybrid cars <ul><li>The Toyota Prius, a mid-size hybrid car gets an impressive 46 miles per gallon in combined city/highway driving, compared with 20 miles per gallon for the average new U.S. passenger vehicle. </li></ul><ul><li>The United States could easily cut its gasoline use in half simply by converting the U.S. automobile fleet to highly efficient hybrid cars. </li></ul>
Types of hybrids <ul><li>Two types now exist - the electric hybrid which uses an electric motor in addition to the diesel or gasoline engine and the hydrogen or water hybrid which uses hydrogen extracted from water and adds it to the fuel-air mixture of the engine. </li></ul><ul><li>Any of these two hybrids will reduce carbon dioxide emissions thereby resulting to less air pollution and less global warming. </li></ul>
Hybrid Taxis Large cities, such as New York and San Francisco are making strides to convert all of there taxis into hybrids in a next few decades. Large cities like these are the source of many carbon emissions in their states. With the development of hybrid taxis these cities expect the reduce their gas emissions by roughly 30%.
Transport Systems <ul><li>Urban transport systems based on a combination of </li></ul><ul><li>rail lines </li></ul><ul><li>bus lines </li></ul><ul><li>bicycle pathways </li></ul><ul><li>pedestrian walkways </li></ul><ul><li>offer the best of all possible </li></ul><ul><li>worlds in providing mobility, </li></ul><ul><li>low-cost transportation, </li></ul><ul><li>and a healthy urban environment </li></ul>
SHINKANSEN (Japanese Bullet Train) These trains have become popular in Japan and they connect all the major cities. They travel at a speed starting at 160 MPH, giving them the title of the fastest trains in existence. They run roughly SIX trains per hour! If these trains were built in the U.S. it would allow people to travel across the country in 15 hours. These trains have minimized driving in Japan by allowing people to travel between major cities in large groups in fast times.
United States The United States is way behind Europe in Green Transportation. There are three major steps the United States can do to convince people to change to public transportation. The first is to place a meaningful tax on gasoline, one that correctly reflects how limited this resource is and how damaging it can be to our environment. The second is to force car dealerships to raise the fuel efficiency of their vehicles. Lastly, funds need to migrate from fixing roads and highways to improving public transportation.
The CTE <ul><li>The Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) is a nonprofit organization that facilitates the research, development, demonstration, bridge to commercialization, and market acceptance of advanced transportation technologies and alternative fuels. </li></ul>
Cars and the Environment <ul><li>Cars and light trucks, which include sport utility vehicles, pickups and most minivans, emit more than 300 million tons of carbon into the atmosphere each year in the United States. </li></ul>
BIBLIOGRAPHY <ul><li>R. Brown, Lester. Plan B 3.0 Mobilizing to Save Civilization, Third Edition. New York: W. Norton, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>http://ezinearticles.com/?How-Do-Hybrid-Cars-Help-the-Environment&id=1336189 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.railway-technology.com/projects/shinkansen/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/23/nyregion/23taxi.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://planetgreen.discovery.com/go-green/public-transportation/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cte.tv/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.edf.org/page.cfm?tagID=40 </li></ul>