1How influenced Logsein Latin American countries?Alejandra CarrascoPrograma Balboa Jóvenes Periodista IberoamericanosMadrid, España, Julio 2006
2ContentsIntroduction 2What is Logse? 3Spanish education indicators 7Philosophical Bases 10Exceptional cases in Europe: Finland and the United Kingdom 23Across the pond, 29Education in Latin American countriesAnd Logse, what does that matter? 36Final Thoughts 44
3Introduction:It is not easy for a layman to understand the objectives in education, curriculum and methods ofeducation in his country.Nor is it easy to accept the low educational levels each year can be seen, both in Spain and inmany Western countries. Ordinary people blame the system, drugs, family and, although this hasto do in part, the educational authorities have a very important responsibility in the training ofnew generations.This paper aims to clarify on what grounds underlying the controversial Organic Law of Education(LOE), adopted a few months ago in Spain, from the LOGSE, failed law passed in this country in1990 and has exerted much influence on the system Spanish education and the sometimes strongand sometimes agonizing, Latin American education, even though its harmful effects today hardlyanyone dares to discuss.
4What is LOGSE? During the second half of the 1980s, the Spanish education authorities undertook a seriesof reforms that culminated in the enactment of the Law on General Education System (LOGSE), inOctober 1990. (1) In different circumstances, in Spain have been happening different curricula. Thepenultimate was proposed in the Education Act 1970. This Act was repealed even before it hasbeen applied in full, leaving unprecedented in material respects. But the fact is that, although atsome points you need to change the education system, has no sense be excessive weaving andunraveling the plot always state education. (2) In 1985 was enacted the Organic Law 8/85 of 3 July, on the Right to Education (LODE). ThisAct developed Article 27 of the Constitution. We refer to it does not belong, strictly speaking, thereform of the nineties, because in a way the prejudice, as the basis of the following standards.Especially developed a general right to education, participation of society in this education, andissues relating to the funding of schools, establishing two types of private centers: the concerted,which are publicly funded , and strictly private. (3) The LODE, however, leaves intact the structure of lessons as they were regulated in Law70. In 1990 Ley General Organisation of the Education System (LOGSE). The Act itself behavesinnovative elements in the structure of the educational system, its stages and lessons; newresponsibilities and autonomy of schools and teachers in curriculum development, andassessment requirements of the whole system, which results in the creation of the NationalInstitute for Quality and Evaluation (INCE). (4)Features of this law:- Extends the basic education free and compulsory until age 16.- Decentralized education system in Spain to allow autonomous communities in not only schools,but that could compose a significant percentage of the curriculum. Another innovation was theincorporation of art education in the overall system. No law had a clear end. It envisaged a spacefor the subject of religion.-The LOGSE also rearranges the entire education system, reforming the curriculum substantiallydifferent stages; regulates attention to students with special educational needs and education ofadults, establishing a vocational training reform that is to dignify, especially with higher vocationaltraining, and adapting to social demands.-The competition LOGSE also establishes the Government to set a curriculum, ensuring that thetraining of all students have a common content in the whole country, and the validity of the titles.
5-Within this legal framework, very complex and has resulted in an extensive and varied assubsequent development has unfolded the Spanish educational system during the decade 1990-2000. Despite all the expectations generated by its promoters, the reform of the nineties has notgotten fairly decent results.Seeking fundingWhen LODE establishes a general right to education, the public school system could not meet thedemand so we resorted to the procedure concert with private schools that could provide freeeducation through state subsidy. (7). Education spending was for 20,005 and EUR 1.616 million.Which represented an increase of 6% over the previous year. (8) References chapter: 1. - Latin American Journal of Education, OEI - Issues - Education Iberoamerican Magazine - Issue 27 Educational reforms: myths and realities / Educational reforms: myths and realities September- December 2001 / Setembro - Decembro 200, http://www.rieoei. org/rie27a04.htm2.-Íbid. 3.-Íbid. 4.-Íbid. 5.http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ley_Org%C3%A1nica_General_del_Sistema_Educativo_%28Espa% C3%B1a%29 6.- Íbid. 7.- Íbid. 8.-www.el-mundo.es/universidad/ 2004/09/28/actualidad/1096391374.html - 28k
6 Spanish Education Indicators(A five-year target set by the EU in the Lisbon European Council)
7The following analysis was performed with data fromschool failure"Finding the source of the problem, the first step to overcome"http://revista.consumer.es/web/es/20050101/actualidad/informe1/The educational objectives of the European Union:Shortly Avanza Europe, Spain Backshttp://www.acesc.net/cath18estruch.htmSchool failure in Spain affects 25% of the students, five points higher than the European averagehttp://comunidad-escolar.pntic.mec.es/639/info2-1.htmlThe school dropout rate in secondary education (ESO):Spain has the third school dropout rate highest in the EU: 29%, 10/10 higher than the European averagereaching 18.8% and were imposed fifteen aim at the figure of 10% in 2010. This phenomenon is the firstconcern in the field of education and training within the European Union (EU). Data for Spain are second onlyto Portugal, which has an index of 45%. Dropout: Spain registered 31.1%, which also means an increase of 2.3% over 2000. In a European average of 15.7% of early school leavers in 2004, across the EU. Completion of high school: The average Union youth aged 20 to 24 who have completed this level of education was 76.7% in 2004 compared to 61.8% in Spain, which in turn implies a worsening, because in 2000 this percentage was 66.2%. The fact that Spain is included among those of the EU where more increased the rate of early dropouts between 2000 and 2003 is a clear setback, from a rate of 28.8%, to 31.1% in 2003. The EU set a target to reduce drop 10% in 2010. More below Spain, Malta and Portugal are, with 45% and 47.9%, and 39.4% and 49% respectively. In 2003 the percentage was 15.7%. These figures show an improvement (in 2000 was 17.3%), reveals that still need to make progress. And while countries like Malta (45%) and Portugal (39.4%) have even higher rates, they have improved compared to previous years. On the opposite side are located most of the Nordic countries and some Eastern.Reading difficulties: The EU executive also warned that reading difficulties is another unfinished Spanishyouth of 15 years, and that 21.1% admit having them, compared to 19.8% of average twenty. The aim ofBrussels is that the average is placed at 15.5% in 2010. In this chapter the worst are the young Greekswho by 25.3% report difficulty reading.Type of graduates: those disciplines as mathematics in the EU was 754.7 per thousand in 2004, while inSpain this rate stood at 84.1 per thousand. Positives: The number of female graduates in these subjects,30.4 per thousand, which despite being low is a figure close to the EU average, which was 31.1 in thesame year.
8 Population aged 18-24 has studied only mandatory UE SPAIN 2000 17’2 28’6 2002 16’4 29’0 2003 15’9 29’8 2004 15’9 30’4 2010 10 (?)Graduates in Mathematics, Science andTechnology (in thousands) and percentage ofwomen (in parentheses) UE SPAIN JAPAN USA2000 650 (28) 65 (31) 237 3692001 681 (30) 74 (31) 233 3802002 712 79 (30) 233 3902010 783 (?)Population aged 25-64 who are receiving training (2002) UE SPAIN2000 7’92002 8’0 5’02003 9’3 5’82004 9’4 5’22010 12’5 (?)
10 The power of ideas The Logse not come out of nowhere, in contrast, were different schools of thought thatinfluenced her, mainly constructivism. These philosophies go beyond any government of the dayand have predisposed the minds of many intellectuals devoted to the subject of education, evenbeyond our borders and that can determine any changes in the law. In 2000 the Popular Partygovernment passed an education reform (Quality Act) that sought to remove precisely theassumptions on which was based the LOGSE, but these plans were halted in 2004 to this year, (1April). Is proved the LOE (Education Act), which, in many respects, recovered the spirit of theLOGSE. So in my opinion, it is good to reflect on what it meant that law and the consequences ithad. 1.-Constructivism This philosophy denies the existence of objective reality, which is the same as to say thatwhat exists is what a person or a culture recognizes or "constructs". The sources of these ideas on theautonomy of the human being may be traced back from the idealism of Kant who says we do notknow really how reality but only our representations of it, and we can not be sure of the exactrelationship between an object and representation, so that the representations may be called eachmetal constructions. (1) This statement has the effect that knowledge is subjective and objective knowledge isimpossible, neutral, scientific type. In fact, most are philosophically constructivist neo Kantianidealists. We have already mentioned that the Constructivists believe that knowledge is built by theindividual, do not, and that "knowing" is a process of adaptation to the cultural world, not thediscovery of what the world is independent of existing human being. The anthropocentric philosophers emphasize the condition of this vision as reality happensto be seen not as separate but as there is for him in the service of man, moves away or because theidea of the scholar, who invest their time to know the reality and instead, it strengthens the interest inhistory, tradition matters not material to the background and the related premium and active life, firsttechnology. In variant pedagogical constructivism or psychology says that students can not learn fromsomething that comes from outside, but all learning should be based on the students themselves, intheir prior knowledge, their willingness to learn and their interests. This position is taken from theidea that learning should be fun. Another assumption is that the student maintains the authority on learning. Nobody knowshow he what he wants. Consequently, since the students will not like it never simultaneously, it isimpossible to teach. In this perspective, the teachers explanations come to "interfere". The new roleof the teacher is to be that of a "facilitator", someone who is available. This position connects well
11with the idea of egalitarianism because it does not require that students have a previous level to be ina group, and they all work on his own, do you need to coordinate a authority. Not only is declared asher specialist student learning group also argues that knowledge have less importance today thanbefore because of the speed with which things change in all fields. Instead of focusing on theacquisition of basic skills, now derisively called "school" or "formal", the student must learntechniques to operate a computer, find information and present. "Constructivist pedagogy represented as scientific truth, has served to delegitimize otherforms of educational intervention and described herself as the climax of a story increasingly scientificunderstanding of the human mind. One way to explain constructivism believes that the child does notlearn well by studying books and listening to the teacher. Inasiste and learning that is a free activityand if the student does not manipulate the material can not personally to light. Therefore, the studentmust be active, decide himself how, what and when to study because it supposedly better assimilatenew content. He believes that students learn best working alone or in teams with the teacher. In thisway, students become teachers from each other, while the real teacher takes a back seat, become afacilitator, your task is to organize a set of materials and answer any questions. The slogan that sumsup this idea of putting the student at the center. It is considered legitimate for the student based onhis opinion, perhaps whimsical, to decide what to study and how. Constructivism prioritizes howabout why. The priority goes from subject knowledge to give the application certain method, a certainattitude towards new content. So the method usurps the place of traditional knowledge "(3) With this conception, the child has within himself supposedly all you need and if you do notmind, "build", before or after the cultural elements that you need, such as mathematics and languageor the art or skill physical. Thus, constructivism seems to believe that all human development iscontained virtually in every child. As Rosseau, his followers believe that the child should not focus onreading because books corrupt. (4) "Constructivism makes perfect students in cognitive selfish. These students will seem thathis ideas, which will come perhaps by chance, are correct. Not expected a correction by the teacherand no tests. Probably students also become selfish and psychological and social you do not learn to respect society represented by the teacher. Rather vain to feel thepressure of their own peer group. They have little opportunity to build an independent person outsidethe group. "(5) "Constructivist pedagogy is represented as scientific truth. "It has served to delegitimizeother forms of educational intervention and described herself as the climax of a story increasinglyscientific understanding of the human mind. And insists that learning is a free activity and if thestudent does not manipulate the material personally can not learn. Therefore, the student must beactive himself decide how, what and when to study because it supposedly better assimilate newcontent. He believes that students learn best working alone or in teams with the teacher. "(6) 1.1 Cognitivism constructivist "Cognitive psychology, attentive to the processes of human knowledge, especially tounderstand the formation and concepts, has been a mainstay methodological LOGSE. This"emerging paradigm" based on theories of Ausubel, Novak, Brunner, etc., Which has many positiveaspects and valid, is less effective when it aims to become rather unique system, influencing the
12teaching methodology of any area or subject, and even the role of the teacher in the classroom."(7) The adoption of constructivism, then, has led to a different kind of teaching.Since the teacher does not have the traditional role of being who communicates knowledge-just-called master class - but that should be the external facilitator to encourage the student to goform their concepts. It is the basis of the so-called "progressive education," which, as we haveseen, has been so poorly in the United States, England, and now in Spain, and can only bear fruitwhen the teacher has a solid and students want, really, to learn. But in an overcrowded school, permissive, in which elements predominate "playful" on apedagogy of effort, and where demand levels are minimal, constructivism-on limitations alreadymentioned-conducive school failure and frustration teacher who really want to teach and studentswho come to school with the intention of learning. (8)2.-The Sociology of Education The rapid expansion of schooling during the first half of the twentieth century meant boththe modernization and democratization of elementary school, but what happened after that period ismore difficult to characterize. Exerted much influence a school of thought called the sociology ofeducation, which exaggerates the ideological role of the school and denies the value of knowledgetransfer. Theorists of this trend are, firstly, Foucault and Bourdieu, which start to become famousaround 1968. According to their thinking, the school remains a place of learning and improvement forthe individual and then turns into a space for indoctrination. From the Marxist perspective, which iswhat usually inspires this current school appears as a conservation tool of bourgeois social origin andnot as a tool to get rid of ignorance and acquire personal autonomy to children. (9)"Teachers are seen as servants of the bourgeoisie, and the school, as replicating relations of classdomination. A usually no interest to sociologists school performance, rather concentrate on thestudy of the students as members of a particular social class, prefer not to talk about bad habits inrelation to the student, but of social injustice and they usually absolve the student anyresponsibility if you get bad results.Nor do they take into account the negative influence students without interest in the studies ofstudents who do work. The goal of sociologists is "integration". In the classroom of students withproblems and no performance improvement intetectual the group as a whole "(10).3.-The pedagogism Pedagogism means a combination of constructivism and sociology of education. Theterm may have a pejorative connotation for some, so its advocates rather use the term "newpedagogy".
13 At pedagogistas not interested in the subject, but the social differences betweenstudents. So, all your energy is spent trying to work precisely on many aspects related to thesedifferences. They have decided that the school should become the place to be resolved once andfor all the problem of inequality between individuals. To this end, design programs on values,defined from the equality between social classes, ethnicities, cultures, religions, genders andsexual orientations. They focus on creating learning environments rather than stream content andcheck that these have been really assimilated. "The pedagogism opposes any selection and anyfree choice of qualitative nuance. Conceived the concept of equality in education and equalopportunities as well not fees. Youth learn to not have to assume the consequences of theiractions in the field transgressions public not only not punished, but it is not uncommon to be held as a genius. Againappreciation for creativity. "(11). The school require pedagogistas open to life, for example through field trips, visits andpractical work to replace the study with textbooks. Any observer might notice that the school isnow open to life, in the sense of being open to the street. The result is a simultaneous decrease inthe level of knowledge and prestige of the institution. The school has been closed, furtherincreasing the demand prolonged effort, enthusiasm for the study, punctuality and neatness. Heleft to enter the trivial, the world of TV. And culture has emerged. Now a youth can be enrolled inschool until the age of 18 without having studied more than just three or four. (12)"Some years ago, studying meant apprehend concentrate, make systematic efforts and agree tobe guided by the specialists who had studied what we should learn. All this is lost in favor of thestudent to follow the impulse of the moment. However, the study is based on thought, requiressilence, concentration, prior knowledge and an effort of will, year after year is making the samemistake in developed countries than in less developed, when they think that education fails lack ofmoney to buy computers. What is missing is the intense and systematic effort. "(13)"The pedagogism opposes any selection and any free choice of qualitative nuance. Conceived theconcept of Igualdad equality in education as both opportunity and no rights. Youth learn to not have to assume theconsequences of their actions: the transgressions in the public sphere not only not punished, but itis not uncommon to be held as a genius. Again appreciation for creativity. "(14). 3.-The egalitarianism that led to the Comprehensive School Western countries have compulsory schooling for at least 100 years, and in many cases,almost two centuries. In this sense, democratization is a fact long since installed. However, from themid-twentieth century, took another step in that process, extending compulsory education andunifying the various educational offerings. With regard to the desirability of raising the educationallevel, there widespread political consensus, but in this position some sectors are pushing for schooluse both as a tool to increase social equality, keeping all young people within the same structure
14comprehensive school called. This second wave of democratization exacerbates the tension betweenknowledge and social equality. In general, it becomes more important to the egalitarianism that raisethe level of knowledge. (15) The comprehensive school treats all students equally so, everyone should start school at thesame age, regardless of the preparation. If you had learning delays, be offered timely assistanceIndividual tasks were disapear with the excuse that the students were very different and that thisproblem would worsen if good students also studied at home and not others. Was also removedgradually to evaluate the results did not obvious that advancing some more than others. Instead ofasking the student had not turned on to repeat, was installed automatic promotion. He said it wasmore important to social development unless the intellectual and that it was better that retained thesame partners. (16). In this educational context arise during the fifties and sixties an expansion andrenovation of educational methods and content and an increased reliance on education as a keyinstrument for promoting development and neutralize social and cultural inequalities developedthe idea of the comprehensive school as a "form of education offered to all students of a certainage a strong core of common content within the same institution and the same classroom, thusavoiding the separation in different training routes that may be irreversible. it condensedaspirations of equal opportunities, superior culture and common for all students and openness todiversity within a school that promoted progressive social groups. "(19) On one hand it was socially discriminatory avoid the effects of early selection betweenstudents of different origin and condition. Everywhere studies showed that selecting around 10 or 11years unequivocally favored students of higher social origin, so extending the core curriculum, theschool exert a compensatory role better and equalize opportunities for the privileged and thedisadvantaged, then, the conclusion was that equal educational opportunities become equal socialopportunities given the strong association of occupation and income with educational level. (20) The so-called "comprehensive school" based on this principle, is one in which all studentsstudy a common curriculum or program, tinged with measures of attention to diversity, but alwayssubordinate to the principle of comprehensiveness It is true that there is a certain comprehensiveness in methodology. "A curriculum Theintroduction of the comprehensive school had a goal of social harmony of society. The reform had twomain aspects: that all Young People Have experiences in common. To know and appreciate each andeveryone will enter adulthood With The same knowledge base. (18). The preamble states the LOGSE That compulsory secondary education "shall be Organizedso comprehensive, compatible with a progressive diversification". The extension of compulsory education THROUGHOUT This Century did not result in verticalintegration of Both schools but on the appearance of a separate sub-branch, Consisting Mainly of themodern seconday school, the Hauptschule, the College denseignemente technique or vocationalschool. ACCORDING to the Project for the Reform of Education (MEC, 1987), "to the beginning of thesecond half of our century education systems of European Countries Were Characterized by anOrganization that Favored the selection and Triage of students and his early assignment very different
15educational branches, Both for its curricular structure as promotion possibilities Involving social andcultural. Widely Distinction Between It was a branch high academic prestige, scientific-technical andother less valued low professional status. The assignment of students was done theoretically based onTheir test scores of 41 or 51 years of study, to the 10 to 11 years old, as in the case of the "elevenplus" British or English entrance exam. "(18) or common core content is necessary to unify theeducation system, and which thus ensures a common training for all students. ComprehensivenessBut this concerns only the content that students should know at each stage, level, or subject area. It isnot, therefore, wider comprehensiveness of-the-classroom, whereby students are groupedheterogeneously regardless of their real needs and interests, and it is advocated comprehensiveschool. " (21) But, so appellant can read or hear the defenders of the system that can not be abandonedLOGSE comprehensiveness, we must "regain speech comprehensiveness" or to be "rethinkingcomprehensiveness". The issue, as you can see, is to stick to this principle, which seems to be one ofthe most important findings of progressive pedagogism. (22) And in Spain, is still committed to a system that has already proven to be a failed idea: thefirst was in the U.S., where the "edutainment" and "progressive", coming animated by the same basicprinciple, soon showed weaknesses. It was "teaching" Teaching to students to "integrate into adultlife," through a series of "subjects" of low content (many of which are similar to some of the"optional" is currently suffering in Spain ). (23) The adoption of teaching "progressive" education trust the spontaneous development ofpupils, in a relaxed atmosphere in which banished the rigorous learning. He taught "subjects" or"material"-to name them-somehow aimed at students to conform or serve on the group and theyknew developing life experimenting with things. For example, "How to get it right one tryst" (How tohave a successful date), "Making democratic my house", "How to predict the course of business","Adaptation to life", "How to know when one is really in love ", etc.. (24). But American society began to doubt the education system when the USSR sent into spaceon Sputnik artificial satellite. What had happened? Why the Russians were better prepared? Whenasked about the causes, found that the Russian education system was, paradoxically, conservative andtraditionalist, the students came to school to study, really, and not just for integration into social life.And the study was done with tough competition and in a disciplined order, demanding and serious.(25) 3.1.-The English case But things do not end here. England, in the early sixties, launched the ComprehensiveSchool, with which it was intended, according to the Report submitted by the socialist Lady Plowden,who came all the teaching, and he did well in identical conditions. The idea of extending education ingeneral, just in principle, but encountered difficulties as a teaching could only be the same for alllevels taught by lowering demand. Perhaps it is this aspect that favors the defenders lesscomprehensive system, and especially the students who "are" in it.
16 The fact is that this reduction of content, rather than seen as a means of lowering theexpectations of citizens in terms of social promotion possibilities, we wanted to sell it as somethingpositive. The sociologist Michael Young went on to say that "too much knowledge is a device designedto prove that certain groups in society aventajen others. Something like "we impart little knowledgeand so no one is above anyone else." (26) "The fact is that with the Comprehensive School, rhetoric" progressive "of mediocrityinvaded classrooms. The conception of teaching as a game, "pedagogies" iconoclasts who banishedthe study and memory, the adoption of the theories of Piaget, etc., They emphasized that for all"learn" what it needed significantly lower levels of demand and quality of knowledge "(27). "I was petrified when I read that in the approach of the law said that" knowledge is notimportant, but the capabilities. When the picture was saying that knowledge will set you free, themore you will know freer one. Here endeavored to import from England a failed system that wasalready there, the "Comprehensive School" Labour had established in 1976, the conservativeMargaret Thatcher began to change, but it was Tony Blair, representative of a lot smarter socialism ,who has proposed a definitive end to a system that has only served to form hooligans. It is nonsense,go back to the effort, to study. "(28)
17 3.2. - The principle of integration Another serious problem of comprehensive education, as established LOGSE, is to attendthe same classroom for students with special educational needs, either because they belong todifferent cultures and ethnicities, either by presenting a disability-psychic physical, sensory, andbehavioral disorders and maladjustment to the system. To all these students, for obvious heterogeneity, is considering attending the principles of"integration" and "standards" set forth in Article 36.3. the LOGSE: "The attention to students withspecial educational needs will be governed by the principles of standardization and schoolintegration." (29) These principles have determined that, barring exceptional circumstances, all studentsshould be accommodated in a single room without distinction. That means that we have a"hipercomprensividad" because it is no longer accommodate in the same classroom students canfollow the regular curriculum, at least within certain limits, but also "integrate" in the same spacestudents serious difficulties for regular follow this curriculum. Such is the case. For example, thehearing impaired pupils, pupils with mental disabilities from increased immigration entirely unfamiliarlanguage, of students with clinically pathological behaviors that require special handling, etc.. "We are facing another hardly realistic approach, because, in practice, the proposed"integration "does not occur and generate multiple failures in the classroom. The principle ofintegration is more demagogic than practical, and generates expectations that, in time, show itsmythical character. "(30) 4.-The right to be different In the sixties, by the dogma of egalitarianism also introduced another: the school due to thedifferences among students. Simultaneous changes and education systems are many and partlycontradictory and it is understood that the general public has difficulty understanding them. He implemented decentralization policies that limit the influence of the state, is introducedthe idea of the autonomy of the center, which also disempowers the state. -Flourished a movement of "democracy school", which removes the possibility of directingeducation teachers work. He removed several tests, which diminishes the importance of the transmission ofknowledge. -Finally, we begin to focus the students cultural differences, downplaying the commoncurriculum. (31)
18 "In Western countries the result of these changes is the same knowledge level rises andincreased school violence. However, proponents of the sociology of education are still not seeanything negative about it, on the contrary, would be an advantage to the children of the bourgeoisielearn less, and could increase equality between them, and the children of the workers, who is not thesame as reducing inequality by promoting the disadvantaged. Starts considered appropriate notspend time spelling and syntax to be closed systems, not "free." The free "creativity" of the individualcould be worth more than a supposedly ossified system of expression. "(32). "Thus, what is done is to reduce the content of history and literature studies. One purposeis to combat nationalism possible: thus, the young man learns to adopt the world view held bymodern ancestors less tolerant than the present generation. Learn to prefer the traditions of othercountries to their own "(33). And since then, although governments frequently mentioned the importance of technologyfor the future, in practice, and egalitarianism has been stronger than the effort of providing a goodeducation, for example, or natural science oriented ensure the country a skilled in these matters.Given the effort involved in learning math, physics and chemistry, these subjects are studied lessoften and lowered its level. To which is given importance, however, is to know the student use acomputer, designed as practical knowledge. (34) 5.-Setting Theory This is a term used in psychology to discuss issues related to education and egalitarianism.This theory holds that genetic inheritance is less important than the environment and that if given thesame school environment for all students, all alike learn. There are todays ideas were "psychologicallycorrect and there are few who dare to question them, it is believed that the" contagion of intelligence", in the sense that if they study together intelligent and less intelligent, they will develop faster . Ameasure consistent with the theory of the environment is "Robin Hood", ie removing the resources toschools where students achieve good results to divert towards accumulating failures. (35) 6.-Relativism In the world of social science and humanity is widespread relativism, which says that we cannot grasp reality `bypassing the filter of our culture and our people. Accordingly, the result ofobservation, and will be determined in advance by the investigator feature. Much of todays universityaccepts the paradigm of social constructivism, claiming that reality is socially constructed throughlanguage, stereotypes and images. Considered naive relativists think about the possibility of observingthe world with neutrality and draw conclusions. (36) It states that every vision is preceded by theory, ie everything is ideology and everystatement is also considered an attempt to exert power over others. Researchers "critics" would bedesenmascadores attempts of domination by the authorities of different types.
19 If relativism we point to the ability to see an issue from different perspectives, then it is asign of maturity to do a youth. However, today it is more common to use the term in the sense thatthere is no truth or that all "truths" are equivalent, the "anything goes". The moral and culturalrelativism death hurts the school authority, but also the family and social institutions in general. Ifeverything has the same value, it seems logical to many young people see themselves as the center ofthe world, and relativism can lead to antisocial and egocentric attitude. "(37)7.-NihilismThere is an active nihilism that destroys what is around him and encouraging urban youth action andviolent terrorists. Hate for no apparent reason or even destroy their own to their own future and givesthem all the same. For them, good and evil are not different. "The passive nihilism leads to let life andthe accumulation of negative situations without intervening. If nothing can be done, the fault ofothers, and already "knew everything was going to end badly." Unfortunately, in this group are nowenough teachers. "(38)
20Chapter References1. - Rethinking Education Enkvist Inger, 802. - Ibid, p.803. - Ibid, p.814.-Ibid.5.-ibid.6.-ibid.7. - José María Barreda Benavente, Myths of the educational reform of the nineties in Spain, LaRevista Iberoamericana de Educación, http://www.rieoei.org/rie27a04.htm8. - Rethinking Education, Inger Enkvist, p.859.-Ibid.10.-Ibid, p.86.11. - José María Barreda Benavente, Myths of the educational reform of the nineties in Spain, LaRevista Iberoamericana de Educación, http://www.rieoei.org/rie27a04.htm12. - José María Barreda Benavente, Myths of the educational reform of the nineties in Spain, LaRevista Iberoamericana de Educación, http://www.rieoei.org/rie27a04.htm13. - Http://www.aplicaciones.info/actua/actua61e.htm14. - Rethinking Education, Inger Enkvist, p.85.15.-ïbid.p.6416.-Ibid.p.6517.-Ibid.p.6718.-Ibid.p.6819.-Ibid, p.7020.-Ibid.21.-Ibid.22.-Ibid.23.-Ibid.24.-Ibid.25.-Ibid.26.-Ibid.27.-Ibid.28.-Ibid,29.-Ibid.30.-Ibid.31.-Ibid, p.6932.-Ibid.-p.6933 ..-Ibid-p.70.34 ..-Ibid. -35. P.10636.-p.10937. - P. 110.38. - P.111.
21 Exceptional Cases in Europe(Finland and the United Kingdom)
22 The Finnish CaseFinland became the big news in 2004, when the PISA report, a comparative study of the results ofeducation in different OECD countries. Finland proved to be one of the successful nations, rankingnear well positioned countries in education as Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan. The Finnsattribute their success to the following factors:What does the Finnish education not of the Spanish?, See:First. The Finnish company known for its high level of social cohesion and high levels of socialequality and equity. This dimension does not record the same rates in our reality closer, requiringour school and their professional efforts comparably much more significant and complex in termsof classroom work. This point will be key to our future understanding education (not justeducation) as a socially shared challenge which mobilize and involve all areas of our society. In thissense, the philosopher J. A. Marina is an African proverb reminds us: "To educate a child takes thewhole tribe." (1)Second. Finland has a strong vocation sociopolitical investment in education. Direct investment offinancial resources (in 2001 5.8% of its GDP on education, 4.9% of Spain) and indirectly fromprograms not specifically targeted to the educational system, but whose contribution isfundamental policies childcare, family support, involvement of the media in education ... We stillhave a long way here yet to do in the context of investment policies in education, also taking intoaccount that no just about spending more on education (as well) but to spend better. (2)Third. The cornerstone of Finnish success is teachers. They say many experts, like Dr. Melgarejo,that well-trained Finnish teachers is what closes the circle to the tribe educator Marina. To teachuniversity degree requiring superior character. For example, being an elementary teacher requiressix year career in college.Universities offering degrees in teaching in Finland can only accept 15% of students who apply toenroll each year, generating a great selection. Significant data correlated with the prestige andsocial recognition of the profession, as well as higher institutions responding to this demand fortraining. (3) The objectives of education in Finland mainly pursue Achieving educational excellence,with high social cohesion. Deemed essential Finns citizens equality in access to the welfare stateand the right to individual freedom in a climate of accountability. The education system should beefficient, effective and not just reflecting these values. The language proficiency is one of theessential elements of social cohesion and at the same time ensuring their survival as a culture.From this perspective, the effort in education is a national priority. The most important differenceto Finland from other OECD countries, especially Nordic, is its extraordinary selection process andtraining of teachers. (4)
23 To access the primary teacher degree, applicants must undergo two selection processesprior. The first process is performed in a centralized processing unit (University of Jyväskylä), oneof whose criteria is that the record of the candidate must exceed the average 9 undergraduatestudies. A second selection is made on the faculties of Education. Among others readingproficiency is assessed and written candidates, the ability to empathize and communicate them,artistry, music and high mathematical competence. (5) Less than 9% of applicants can access training as a primary school teacher in schools ofeducation. After 6400 hours of training-study (in Spain are currently 2000 and 1500 until recentyears), students must write a dissertation compulsory and final research project. (6) The high school teacher is how the powers of specialization (mathematics, literature,etc.). Once this specialization must also overcome various entrance exams to enter the Faculty ofEducation (ability to empathize, to explain, etc.). Once this test, the future high school teacherpedagogical studies should follow more than 1,400 hours of studio (in Spain are between 100 and130 hours). Once and trained teachers in schools are selected by the directors of these. Thesedirectors are themselves selected by the City Council. Principals of primary schools in the firstplace those teachers more competent courses around the cloister. (7)Structures that complement the process These structures are the family, school and cultural structures of educational support. Inthe Finnish case, the three structures and enhance coordination chain made a part of theeducational work. (8)The family is the first of these areas. Domina in Finland Lutheran value of responsibility anddiscipline over ones life. The Finnish family is considered the first responsible for the education oftheir children. In Finnish households, children watch as parents are avid readers of newspapersand books, and go with them to the library often. Moreover there are mechanisms that ensurecompatibility state employment and family life, especially for women. Aid for children and familiesallow only 4% of Finnish children live in poverty (12% in Spain). (9) Social institutions or cultural school. In Finland stresses the vast network of libraries andtheir crews. They are very accessible to all citizens, are connected with each other and withprofessionals preparadísimos. Furthermore, by its Lutheran tradition, Finland reinforces the valueof personal responsibility on the believers and promotes the need for personal Bible reading.Moreover, television and film always offer all of its programming in the original language. Childrenmust learn to read the subtitles to understand quickly the programs (movies even cartoons). (10) School: Finnish children enter the school system at seven years and not learn to readuntil then. The Finnish school of primary and secondary education is generally a very decentralizedpublic school. Proportionately fewer hours taught language in Spain. Discipline is high. Attentionto diversity is made according to the diverse interests with the work of two teachers per
24classroom. In all places there is a free meal a day for all students. All these areas are very similar inall Nordic countries, but very different from Spain. (11) e Case of the United Kingdom This is a story similar to that of other Western countries. It was one of the first nations tointroduce the comprehensive school in order to democratize society after World War II. The goal wasto reduce differences between social classes based on language as a common factor to all students.However, the same series of social changes hindered the harmonious development of thecomprehensive school. (12) There was immigration from Commonwealth countries. Settling primarily in largeindustrialized cities. But, when industrialization began, closing shipyards, heavy industrial plants,mines and the textile industry, the working class and recent immigrants were most affected. Moderntrends like family breakdown and drug problems worsened. By the sixties, absenteeism and classroomconflict forced many schools and those students failed the final test to exceed 16 years. (13) In 1988 the British Government decided to make a general reform of compulsory educationas part of a broader reform that included the public sector. The law was, Education Reform Act,includes several changes, the most important being the introduction of a national curriculum. Asignificant aspect of this Act is to specify for each subject and each year what the student must learn,for example, how to multiply double digits or how to conjugate verbs in such and such time (14) In addition, it was decided to language and mathematics tests at seven, eleven and fourteento see if the student is progressing normally and if the school is meeting the goal of the learner learns.(15) Another feature of the reform is that everything is public. The student, parents or policies,everyone can compare the curriculum with the students results on tests and exams are also publicand everyone can check the level of knowledge gained in a particular school. (16)
25References:1.-All Europe Look to Finland, www.stecyl.es/Prensa/051003_lv_Europa_mira_Finlandia.htm - 17k,the Vanguard newspaper, October 3, 2005.2.-Ibid.3.-Ibid.4.-Ibid.5.-Lessons from Finland, Rodrigo Santodomingo, Teaching Spanish,www.magisnet.com/articulo.asp?idarticulos=21016. - All Europe Look to Finland, www.stecyl.es/Prensa/051003_lv_Europa_mira_Finlandia.htm -17k, the Vanguard newspaper, October 3, 2005.7.-Ibid.8.-Ibid.9.-Ibid.10.-Ibid.11.-Ibid.12.-Rethinking Education, Inger Enkist, p.53.13.-Ibid. p.5414.-Ibid.p.5415.-Ibid.p.55.16.-Ibid.p.56
26 Crossing the pond:(The State of Education in Latin American countries)
27Excerpt from: "An examination they will have many years", Teaching Spanish, July 5, 2006, byAlejandra CarrascoIn recent years, Latin American countries are talking harder than a historical debt they have withtheir people: education. With investment efforts in the implementation of laws and social policies,each country has done its part to overcome a barrier to achieving the long-awaited development. They are all very different, but in them there is a common concern: the education of theirpeople as the key to development. It is therefore that each presidential candidate in recent yearshas taken this topic as the cornerstone of their political struggle. And fighting for that but it is noteasy, as there are many obstacles to overcome in this race for social justice.Basic Problems There are 22 countries that together account for 450 million people, each with its landscape,history and people, while sharing common aspects, "If anything unites the peoples of LatinAmerica is its strong indigenous component, is not the same in Guatemala, for example , whichowns 45 percent of the population that does not speak Spanish, that Uruguay, with a smallpercentage, but it is an important factor, "says Angela del Valle, a professor of comparativeeducation at UCM. In Latin America, the native languages in the hundreds, spread over numerous logs andlanguage families with little relation to each other. Its speakers are no larger than 500 and 50,000.Very few languages beyond the million speakers (Mayan, Nahuatl, quiche, Quechua, Aymara) andsettled mostly in scattered rural populations. "It is very difficult to provide each ethnic communityfrom a teacher who speaks their language and understands their culture, too is difficult to openroads to enable these communities to attend school, "says the academic UCM. Another importantpoint which has affected educational development is the lack of stability in democraticgovernments, coupled with periods of military dictatorships. For example, Chile suffered less thana month ago a great strike of high school students who demanded a change in the quality,direction and resource management, heritage Pinochet period. In Argentina, the situation forteachers is so poor that many of them do not attend their workplaces, not out of laziness, butbecause they have not paid and must take the time devoted to teaching to do other work to makeends meet.Deuda Externa y esfuerzos Foreign debt is also a serious problem. Critical cases are Ecuador and Brazil, whose GDPvanishes quickly in this item, defunding education projects and leaving what is left to pay teacherssalaries, very low compared to OECD countries (see attachments). In any case, efforts that give the Latin American nations are notorious educationaltheme: In the last five years, investment in education increased considerably, even more than in
28OECD countries. (5.9% of GDP). Investments have been noted in recent years. Thus, countries suchas Brazil and Mexico have increased the percentage of GDP spent on education (5.9 and 4.1respectively) to figures close to those recommended by UNESCO (7%). Illiteracy rates also have reduced (from 25% in 1990 to 13.5% in 2002). Thequestion of salaries of teachers is also present although progress has been made, subsistingdifferences. For example in Peru, a teacher receives $ 5,200 ppa year (calculated according topurchasing power) and in Chile a teacher earns $ 12,000 ppa. year, and although the mostelevating of the area, is well below the average salaries of OECD countries (22,000). Furthermore, the current governments of Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Cuba and Brazilhave enacted new reforms in this area. Less than a month ago, President Evo Morales announcedhis reform which will favor native language teaching with a special emphasis on the cultures of theindigenous groups and the change in the education system, which aims the standardization of allprograms school "with a community model, decolonization, scientific, productive, intercultural andmultilingual" in the words of President Andes. Further south, Nestor Kirchner last monthpresented a project to unify the education system throughout Argentina, in addition to improvingcontent quality and equality. In Mexico, between 1995 and 2001, spending on primary and secondary education hasincreased by 36% and spending per student increased by 25 percent, although there are still greatinequalities, as only two of every 100 students entering Primary achieve a college degree. Lula daSilva, Brazil-country with an illiteracy rate of 14 percent-enacted several measures to improve thebasic teachings, vocational and higher, and since last year, ordered the compulsory teaching ofSpanish.
29Interview:Interview with Angela del Valle, UCM professor Comparative Education"The Latin American people need better education" Professor of Comparative Education at UCM, Angela del Valle analyzes the situation of LatinAmerican countries. Recognizing the differences of this vast territory, easily explained the complexand paradoxical problems of an area rich in culture, landscapes and natural resources.What specific situations Iberoamerican catch y your attention?In Mexico, teachers earn so little to work three shifts a day, which influences the quality ofteaching, and also has a very sharp inflation, making poor people poorer overnight. In Argentina,the teacher absenteeism sometimes up to two years. The reason is that they are not paid andmust make a living elsewhere. Cuba, although it has good educational levels and zero illiteracy,lacks the necessary freedom that should be learning.Is there a feature that is common in Latin America to all countries?It is difficult to generalize, since Latin America is large and diverse, but a common feature is itsindigenous component. When talking about the educational element, the native will experience adifference in education access to education, as their language, culture, worldview, customs,traditions, gives them a very different ethic. Another is political instability, which has influencededucation, whether in dictatorships of Chile and Peru or the guerrillas of Nicaragua, the problemof drug trafficking in Colombia or the government of Fidel. Never mind. In all countries havedeviated Education resources for other items, such as defense, border wars, or simply to havegone by corruption.What about the budget for education?The most complicated is the problem of external debt, which requires countries to maintain abalance in their income and they do not address, for example, the salary of teachers or openingroads to isolated children to get to school . Another very serious problem, and scandalous, is theeternal inequality in income distribution, which is concentrated in a few families, while lackingclass is the most numerous. Those with more money studying in private schools, preferablybilingual, traveling abroad, take masters ... while others just end up, if they are lucky, Primary.What Nevertheless, there is a positive element in their education?In each country there is a school system, poor or not, is. This allows improvements insert within analready established. There is also a requirement, from the people to improve on this level, becausethere is a general awareness that without education there is progressing. Note also the thrustforce and feminine, it is they who are on the road to improvement of themselves or their children.Another aspect: all Latin American countries have as a reference to Europe. To begin, it is the
30Spanish language, this is good in the exchange of students, in the convergence and the recognitionof qualifications being done now, which makes things easier. For colonization also inheritedcultural references such as language, religion, traditions., A plus for the homogenization of thecountries.But this heritage brings no negative aspects?Hes always looking to Europe and models were copied as is, when what should be done is seenthemselves. It must start from the context. Always look out is destructive, take into account thecontext of each other, and to have her original cultures, so interesting but they are ashamed.Does this explain the sharing of educational problems such as oversupply of graduates andsecondary education aimed only to university?Secondary education has humanistic courses, but in the working world are useless, prepare forcollege. Its the same problem we have in Spain. There they are trying to change this system slowlymoving to a professional technical education that gives real working tools.Data from some Latin American countriesMexicoAnnual budget in Education (relative to GDP): 5.9%Illiteracy: 8.1%School Enrollment: 99% Primary 63% SecondaryExpenditure per student: $ 1357 Elementary and Secondary ppa.Years of compulsory education: 10average yearsenrollment: 7.2%Teacher Education Level: High AverageTeacher Starting Salary: $ 3,600 ppa. yearPupil / teacher ratios: 26 Primary, 29 SecondaryLast Educational Reform: The Fox government invested heavily in this area.ArgentinaEducation Budget (relative to GDP): 5.9%Illiteracy (2002): 3.3%Expenditure per student: $ 478 ppa. year.School Enrollment: 95% Primary 80% Secondary.Years of compulsory education: 10Average years of schooling (2002): 8.8Teacher Education level: Level sup. no univ.Teacher Starting Salary: $ 1,140 ppa. year.Pupil / teacher ratios: 11 in Primary and SecLast Educational Reform: This year, with Kirchner.
Ecuador 31Annual budget in Education (relative to GDP): 3.9%Illiteracy: 8.4%School Enrollment: 96% Primary, secondary 50%.Years of compulsory education: 12Average years of schooling: 6.4Teacher Education level: Mixed (normal school and university)Teacher Starting Salary: $ 3,000 ppa. yearPupil / teacher ratios: 23 Primary, 12 Secondary.Last Educational Reform: The 1998 constitutional reform was enacted mandatorybilingual and intercultural education.ChileAnnual budget in Education (relative to GDP): 7.4%Illiteracy: 3.9%School Enrollment: 85% Primary, Secondary 81%.Expenditure per student: 1940 Elementary, 2016 High (PPP dollar.)Hours of classes per year: 780 Primary, 936 SecondaryYears of compulsory education: 12Average years of schooling: 7.6Teacher Education Level: University degreeTeacher Starting Salary: $ 11,631 ppa. year.Pupil / teacher ratios: 33 Primary, 32 Secondary.Last Educational Reform: Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle in 1994, prompted the JEC, therewere changes this year, after the strike side.
32 And LOGSE .... What does that matter? (Influences of a failed method Education in a struggle to improve) For over twenty years The Editorial Santillana has accompanied American students, whoreceive this textbook publishing through public schools (and some private ones too), thanks toagreements made at the highest levels of government. This criticism has two events on the onehand are the vested interests of the publishers and governments on the other, it can be evenworse, the leak of a teaching method failed that, far from supporting the poor education southernCone, the influence is for students scoring less out of a rundown education, making the social gaphears rich and poor becomes ever deeper. In terms of content, any comparison is depressing. The contents of the History of Spainis now taught in 2nd year unfolded with much more intensity and precision, two decades ago, withstudents a year younger. The space saved Santillana-and competence-it devotes too manygraphics, illustrations, exercises, anecdotes and accessories plus, if applicable, the history of eachautonomy. But the case in mathematics, where there is a delay of at least two years, and inpractice sometimes more-established schedule and applied in the LGE. What all graduatesstudying Geography with fifteen years studying today only, reduced and treated as an optionalsubject, some students of Arts of eighteen. However, with the book are acquired audiovisualmaterials, exercises, teachers books: beautiful things that, if you make them learn, they are mostuseful.The history textbook in the history of Spain is a frustration. Born as support for the teacher, whowas understood to know essential depository. It was developed as official reference content thatmust be taught. And has flourished as expensive luxury item, comfortable and easy as pie, adaptedto a generation that wants to get away from any sacrifice. Be it so: but then we complain that theyare expensive, or that some are enriched. The big problem with these books is that, unless majorefforts are made to use, serve more to convey an ideological worldview that prepare young peoplefor the struggle of life.Grupo Prisa and its interests in Latin AmericaPrisa Latin America has the property of various media: three newspapers in Bolivia and is thelargest shareholder of the largest television network in the same country. In Venezuela, while Prisahas strong links with the biggest media giant that country. (1)
33"Given the risk that their interests are affected, the accuracy of information seems take abackseat. "A country ravaged by corruption and economic disarray, with infrastructure destroyedand ruined administration": The Venezuela of Hugo Chavez that presents the country is a republicon the verge of collapse. With Evo Morales in power, Bolivia has no more luck in your pages. A fewweeks ago, the newspaper Prisa Reference: "The increasing role of Caracas and Havana in thefuture of Bolivia began to create serious discomfort, both as political opposition from differentsectors of society." Despite this information, various opinion polls have to question this unrestamong citizens. According to the latest Latinobarómetro, 65% of Venezuelans approve the Chavezadministration running the country, a much higher percentage than the average for Latin America.In Bolivia, in turn, Morales won an absolute majority with 54% of the vote and his popularity hasincreased with the nationalization of hydrocarbons. "(2) Information How objective? Review Prisa economic interests in the area is a useful exercise to better understand theclash between reality perceived by citizens of both countries and the one in the middle of thisgroup. An example: in the same article on Morales, El Pais says that "the Bolivian press almostdaily reflects the growing unease about the here called tutelage of Chavez on Morales". Giventhat the group Prisa is the main shareholder of the largest television network in Bolivia (ATB) andalso produced three of the most important newspapers in the country (Extra, El Nuevo Dia andreason). (3) Press reviews are not minor in Venezuela, nor the presence of Prisa is less negligible. Jesusde Polanco has cross investments there with the Cisneros group, with the Venevision network byflag is the countrys largest media group. In 1996 Cisneros took 6.9% of Vía Digital, an integratedplatform that ended in Sogecable. Then there is the link between the two which is the businessgroup Valores Bavaria. Cisneros is one of the strategic partners of the company, through which ispresent in the Grupo Latino de Radio, the holding company which, with 87% of shares, Prisagroups all radio activity outside Spain. And Bavaria reappears on Caracol Radio, Colombias leadingchain where Polanco owns 19% of shares. (4) "As to its contents, Polancos partner in Venezuela is far from being an example ofobjectivity. His television channel, Venevision, not only is one of the pillars of opposition toChavez. He has also been accused of being involved directly in the coup attempt of April 2002. Thebig media group maintained since open war against the government. In that conflict, the publicinterest to make Cisneros Prisa not cost you decide which placed trench. "(5) Other business information Caracol Radio opens a new studio in the Latin American country and Alvaro Uribehonors Jesus de Polanco by "faith" of his group in the country. In June 2005, opened new studiesof Caracol Radio in Colombia, belonging to Grupo Latino de Radio (GLR), the holding company thatcombines the global activities of Grupo Prisa Radio outside Spain. Radio Caracol has a network of172 stations with a total audience of 8,551,000 listeners. With the inauguration of the newheadquarters station confirms its position as the first chain in Latin America. (6)
34 This transaction consolidates Prisa media network and influence in LatinAmerica, one of the major projects of Jesus de Polanco, once consolidated their businesses inSpain. Prisas activities in the field of radio outside the country are grouped into the holding GrupoLatino de Radio, which are integrated Radiópolis stations in Mexico, owned 50% by Televisa Radio,the Radio Caracol in Colombia and those of Latin American Radio Holdings, the company thatencompasses Prisa stations in France, USA, Chile, Costa Rica and Panama. Money versus education Radio and music are the pillars of growth in Latin America Prisa. Of the 1,205 millioneuro turnover last year Prisa, over 20% came from Latin America. 60% of the publishing unit sales,which totaled more than 300 million euros, were originated in the region. Argentina accounts for10% of total sales of Prisa publishers. The company led by Jesus de Polanco sold worth 39.2 millioneuros in Argentina, or 3.3% of its total turnover. In addition, 4.2% of its EBITDA (earnings beforeinterest, taxes and amortization) came from the Latin American country in crisis. With suchexposure of their sales to Latin America and Argentina, why Prisas punishment has beenmoderate in bag? The answer lies in the nature of sales in the region. (8) "This is especially books, which have a much more stable behavior than sellingadvertising. The importance of the publishing business. According to a recent report Ibersecurities,the Latin American crisis, particularly Argentina, should not have too negative an effect Prisa.Santillana is oriented primarily toward private client market a low average in purchasing power.The risk of default is very low, because the payments are made in relatively short. Santillana ispresent in Latinomérica since the 60s. "(9) His experience has shown that selling education books not affected as seriously as othersectors during economic crises, "the reports authors argue.s Relative earnings stability Prisa seemto justify the publishing trade at a multiple higher than other media companies. currently tradingat a multiple Prisa enterprise value (market capitalization + net debt / EBITDA 2002) more than 12times, while it makes Recoletos 9.5 times, due to the greater role of cyclical advertising revenues(almost 50%). No wonder. (10) It turns out that a third of sales are of books Prisa, an amount above what invoice withthe daily El Pais. Thus, 32.2% of revenues and 20.8% of Prisas EBITDA last year came from the unitEditorial (Santillana, Alfaguara, the Brazilian Editora Moderna acquired last year, etc ...). (11) This happens in Spain .... But across the pond ...
35 Santillana, is present in almost all Spanish speaking countries. Businesses of Jesus dePolanco also have converged directly with the Spanish state. The clearest example is given withSantillana. Through it, Prisa not only has nine imprints and implementation in a total of 22countries. In addition, under the PSOE governments, the publisher does big business withDevelopment Assistance Funds. (12). Often, the Spanish state condones poor country debt and invest some money in booksand educational materials for Spanish companies. Usually, the Prisa (13) This practice has sometimes been denounced as a scandal. In 2000, the Chilean pressrevealed that during his time at the Ministry of Education, President Ricardo Lagos boughtmaterial with a premium of 664 million pesetas, 70% above cost. Bolivia experienced a similarcase. Tito Hoz de Vila, Minister of Education during the tenure of former President Sanchez deLozada, was forced to answer in court for handling irregular in bidding for a controversialeducation reform Santillana left it to the production and sale of books for elementary students.And in 2002, the Bolivian newspaper La Prensa denounced that a ministers daughter, MariaCristina Hoz de Vila, was hired as a consultant in Madrid HR Santillana. (14) "Thirty years later, the scandal was the script of one of the first moves of Polanco. AsJesus tells Cacho in the business of freedom, in 1970 the Minister Franco Villar offered SantillanaPalasí insider on his education reform. By next year, this was the only publisher with booksupdated. Polanco got rich. Years later, Villar was hired in Santillana. In America, they have notmissed complicity over decades. Now change the political map. Several countries refuse to playalong. With so much money in the area, little surprises Prisas hostility toward Chavez and EvoMorales. "(15)
36 The exchange of foreign debt for Education Since the government of Felipe González, has been insisting on the idea of writingoff part of the debt of Latin American countries affected by severe economic crises, with theproviso that those resources are invested in Education released. In early 2005, Spain announced that it had allocated a total of $ 360 million to relievethe debt of countries like Ecuador, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Honduras, Bolivia, Peru andGuatemala. During his visit to that year Sudamércia Zapatero insisted on this idea. This time,reached a bilateral agreement with the presidents of Brazil and Argentina. In the case of the lattercountry the Prime Minister announced an agreement in the amount of 60 million euros, moneythat is part of the debt that Argentina has with Spain. The issue jumped back to the fore when, in January this year, the newly electedpresident of Bolivia, Evo Morales, visited the Moncloa. However, the issue of forgiveness is stilldebated: Critics warn that this government seems willing to apply the waiver only to countrieswith governments ideologically related to the current party leadership. Others claim that this offeris more due to economic interests of the group Prisa (Santillana), which has strong economicinterests in Latin America and who would benefit from these agreements, to acquire shares in thesale of textbooks. Bolivia has a debt of about 120 million euros in Spain. Argentina, meanwhile,owes 659 million euros. On his last visit to Spain two weeks ago, President Nestor Kirchnerpledged to settle their debt with our country.
37References Chapter:1. - Www.elsemanaldigital.com/articulos.asp?idarticulo=37978 - 37k -2. - Ibid.3. - Business interests PRISA mark rejecting the governments of Venezuela and Bolivia, MiguelAngel Lucas, Source: Diagonal www.rebelion.org4. - Business interests PRISA mark rejecting the governments of Venezuela and Bolivia, MiguelAngel Lucas, Source: Diagonal www.rebelion.org5. - Http://www.solidaridad.net/articulo3199_enesp.htm, Author: Solidaridad.net-Date: 2005-06-156.-Ibid.7.-Ibid.8. - Grupo Prisa continues to spread its tentacles Ibero Elsemanaldigital.com 23/06/20059. - Ibid.10.-http :/ / www.finanzas.com/id.3713661/noticias/noticia.htm12.-Francisco Pinon is Secretary General of the OEICOUNTRY - 11/10/2004, http://www.oei.es/deuda/pinon.htm13.-http :/ / www.magacin66.com/noticiasfrescas/43114.-Prisa, under the umbrella of Editorial Santillana15. - Teaching Spanish "An examination they will have many years", Alejandra Carrasco, July 5,2006