Nasrid kingdom of Granada
Granada after 1492
Parks of Granada
The city has been inhabited from the dawn of history. There was an Ibero-Celtic settlement
here, which made contact in turn with Phoenicians, Carthagenians and Greeks. By the 5th century
BCE, the Greeks had established a colony which they named Elibyrge or Elybirge . Under Roman
rule, in the early centuries CE, this name had become quot;Illiberisquot;. As Illiberis, the city minted its own
coins. The Visigoths maintained the importance of the city as a centre of both ecclesiastical and civil
administration and also established it as a military stronghold. It was also managed by Byzantines for
A Jewish community established itself in what was effectively a suburb of the city, called quot;Gárnataquot; or
quot;Gárnata al-yahud”. It was with the help of this community that Moorish forces under Tariq ibn-Ziyad
first took the city in 711, though it was not fully secured until 713. They referred to it under the Iberian
name quot;Ilbiraquot;, the remaining Christian community calling this quot;Elviraquot;, and it became the capital of a
province of the Caliphate of Cordoba. Civil conflicts that wracked the Caliphate in the early eleventh
century led to the destruction of the city in 1010. In the subsequent reconstruction, the suburb of
Gárnata was incorporated in the city, and the modern name in fact derives from this. With the arrival
of the Zirid dynasty in 1013, Granada became an independent emirate Taifa of Granada. By the end
of the eleventh century, the city had spread across the Darro to reach what is now the site of the
Nasrid Kingdom of Granada
In 1228, with the departure of the Almohad prince, Idris, who left Iberia to take the Almohad leadership, the
ambitious Ibn al-Ahmar established the longest lasting Muslim dynasty on the Iberian peninsula - the Nasrids.
With the Reconquista in full swing after the conquest of Cordoba in 1236, the Nasrids aligned themselves with
Ferdinand III of Castile, officially becoming a tributary state in 1238. The state officially became the Kingdom of
Granada in 1238.
Granada was held as a vassal to Castile for many decades, and provided trade links with the Muslim
world, particularly the gold trade with the sub-saharan areas south of Africa. The Nasrids also provided troops
for Castile while the kingdom was also a source of mercenary fighters from North Africa.
Historic map of Granada by Piri Reis
On January 2, 1492, the last Muslim leader, Muhammad XII, known as Boabdil to the Spanish, surrendered
complete control of Granada, to Ferdinand and Isabella, Los Reyes Católicos , after the city was besieged.
See Nasrid dynasty for a full list of the Nasrid rulers of Granada. The most prominent members of the dynasty
Mohammed I ibn Nasr (died 1273), the founder of the dynasty
Yusuf I (1334–1354)
Muhammed V (1354–1391), builder of the royal palace within the Alhambra
Muhammad XII of Granada, the last of the line, who surrendered in 1492 to Ferdinand and Isabel and was
given the Alpujarras mountains to rule to the East of Granada, although he left for Tlemsen in Morocco.
Granada after 1492
The capture of Muslim Granada by the forces of Ferdinand and Isabella is one of the more significant
events in Granada's history. The terms of the surrender treaty explicitly allowed the city's Muslim
inhabitants to continue unmolested in their faith and customs. By 1499, however, Cardinal Francisco
Jiménez de Cisneros grew frustrated with the slow conversion efforts of Granada's first
archbishop, Fernando de Talavera, and undertook a program of forced baptisms. Cisneros's new
tactics, which were a direct violation of the terms of the treaty, provoked an armed revolt centered in
the Alpujarras, a rural region to the southwest of the city. In response to the rebellion, in 1501 the
Castilian Crown rescinded the surrender treaty, demanding that Granada's Muslims convert or
emigrate. While many elites chose to emigrate to North Africa, the majority of the city's Muslims
converted to Christianity while keeping their Islam secretly, becoming Moriscos, Catholics of Moorish
Over the course of the sixteenth century, Granada took on an ever more Christian and Castilian
character, as immigrants flocked to the city from other parts of the Iberian Peninsula. The city's
mosques, some of which had been established on the sites of former Christian churches, were
converted to Christian uses. New structures, such as cathedral and the Chancillería, or Royal Court of
Appeals, helped transform the urban landscape, and in the wake of the 1492 Alhambra decree that
expelled Spain's Jewish population, Granada's Jewish neighborhood was demolished to make way for
new Christian and Castilian institutions.
The fall of Granada holds an important place among the many significant events that mark the latter
half of the 15th century. It ended the eight hundred year-long Islamic presence in the Iberian
Peninsula. Freed from internal conflict, a unified Spain embarked on its greatest phase of expansion
around the globe, leading to the arrival in the Americas by Isabella's protégé Christopher Columbus.
Subsequent colonization led to the creation of the Spanish Empire, the largest empire of the world for
There are many important Moorish and Catholic architectural sites in Granada:
The Alhambra and Generalife
The Palace of Charles V
Capilla Real. Royal Chapel, with the tombs of Isabella and Ferdinand, the Catholic
The Albayzín, or Albaicín: The ancient Arab quarter, containing many original houses
from the 16th century
The Charterhouse: A Carthusian monastery; one of the most impressive pieces of
ornamental Baroque in Spain.
Calle Calderería: An Albayzin street where you can taste Arab typical food, especially
teas and desserts from North Africa
El Cármen de los Mártires: A lovely palace with a beautiful botanic garden near the
Santa Ana Church: 16th century, Mudejar Style
San Salvador Church: 16th century, Mudejar Style. With Moorish Almohad patio from
the former mosque
El Corral del Carbón: Deposit of merchandise and shelter of merchants. Adapted after
16th century for theater plays
Hospital Real: Founded in 1504 by the Reyes Católicos, now part of the University
Santo Domingo Church: Founded in 1512 by the Reyes Católicos
San José Church: On the site of the quot;moansquot;
Almorabitín, the mosque of the Almoravids, one of oldest in Granada, dating from the 10th century
Sacromonte Abbey: Founded in the 17th century. Legend says that the catacombs under the church
were the site of the martyrdom of San Cecilio, the city's first bishop and now its patron saint
Old University: Originally Granada's Jesuit college, this building now houses the law school of the
University of Granada. The building is particularly notable for its original 17th century facade.
Bermejas Towers: Strongpoints on the encircling wall of the Alhambra, they date from the 8th and 9th
Basilica of St. John of God: The remains of this saint are preserved in this Baroque basilica.
The Gate of Elvira: The principal gate to the old city. Part of the Moorish wall
Casa de los Tiros, 16th century. With a complex iconographic program of sculputure and painting
about Spanish history and full of cryptograms, it was the palace of Gil Vázquez-Rengifo, who helped
the Catholic Kings in the fight for the city. Nowadays it is a museum where visitors can follow the
history of Granada from the Middle Age to the present day
The 16th century Castril palace which hosts the Archaeological Museum of Granada
The Cube: Main building for CajaGranada has won a lot of international architects awards.
Zaida Building: Situated in the city centre, this residential building designed by Alvaro Siza is a good
example of modern architecture surrounded by historical structures
Parks of Granada
The garden of Alhambra and Generalife
The garden of Fuente nueva
The garden of Federico Garcia Lorca
The garden of Carmen de los Mártires
The garden of Zaidin
The Botanical Garden of the University of Granada
The Alhambra is a palace and fortress complex of the Moorish rulers of Granada in
southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed during the mid
14th century), occupying a hilly terrace on the southeastern border of the city of
Once the residence of the Muslim rulers of Granada and their court, the Alhambra is
now one of Spain's major tourist attractions exhibiting the country's most famous
Islamic architecture, together with Christian 16th century and later interventions in
buildings and gardens that marked its image as it can be seen today. Within the
Alhambra, the Palace of Charles V was erected by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in
The Generalife is the city with gardens became a place of recreation and rest of the
Muslim kings Grenadians when they wanted to flee the palace's official life. Occupies
the slopes of the Cerro del Sol, from which cover the entire city and valley of the Darro
and Genil. It was conceived as a rural village, where he gardens, orchards and
integrated architecture, near the Alhambra. The origin of the name is disputed, some
say that could mean the most sublime garden. It was declared a World Heritage Site by
Unesco meeting in 1984.
It was built during the XII and XIV and was transformed by Abu I-Walid Isma'il. It nazari
Arabic style. It consists of a set of buildings, courtyards and gardens, making it one of
the biggest attractions of the city of Granada and one of the architectural highlights of
the Muslim architecture. At present, the Generalife is formed by two sets of
buildings, connected by the Patio de la Acequia. Models reproduced the confined
spaces of the courtyards of Granada Nazarene comes from the combination of
historical references and tradition Granada (stone floors, the use of water, lush flower
It is difficult to know the original appearance of the Generalife, which has been
undergoing modifications and reconstructions throughout the Christian period, initially
due to the necessary state of deterioration and neglect that had befallen Muslim in the
last stage, but subsequently disrupted available and disfigured many of its aspects.
Contrary to the Alhambra, Generalife entire building, though solid, is generally very
poor and very simple. Are only decorative plaster varied little, but extremely cunning
and good taste. Lately, much of the gardens have been destroyed for the construction
of an auditorium.
The Sacromonte is famous for being the old quarter of the Roma, Egyptian calls tribes known as the
Gypsies of the era of the Catholic Monarchs who settled in Granada after the conquest of the city.
Their way of life, their language and their dances and feasts built their homes in caves, its reputation
grew among the Romantic writers, so that over time the neighborhood has become one of the most
important tourist attractions of the city.
At the end of the route through the neighborhood at the top of Mount Valparaíso is the Abbey of
Sacromonte and the College, founded in the seventeenth century by the then Archbishop of Granada
Pedro de Castro. Part of school was destroyed in a fire and it is visited the Abbey has a large library
with about 25,000 volumes. The Abbey consists of a central courtyard with a fountain and twenty-five
arches with the coat of the founder, then the museum is very valuable pieces like the Virgen de la
Rosa, and three Inmaculadas. The church, built in the early seventeenth century, has good seating
and baroque altarpieces. The sacristy is decorated with small paintings of the Italian school and a
table decorated with motifs made Indians in the sixteenth century in Peru, which was a gift from the
father of Archbishop Pedro de Castro who was viceroy of Peru.
La Cartuja is a monastery of monks of closure, which is located in what was a farm, or
recreational Muslim named carmen Aynadamar source or the tears that had an
abundance of water and fruit trees. The idea of building the monastery in that place left
Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordova, known as El Gran Capitán. The donation of land to
build on that farm was in Loja in 1513. The works were started but then suffered a
break following the death of the Great Captain occurred in 1515 and were resumed in
1519 and completed in 1545.
The monastery suffered extensive damage during the War of Independence, the farm
and lost considerable ground in 1837 as a result of the confiscation of Mendizábal. At
present (2008) belongs to the monastery of the Carthusian Order, depending directly
from the Diocese of Granada.
Existing installations can be visited by tourists, the highlight of the visit Claustrillo, De
Profundis Chapel, where the monks did their penance, the Chapter House of the
Legos, it follows the visit to the Chapter House of the monks, where the monks met to
discuss where and pronounced his sermons, with the acoustics of the room. The
Church is a baroque style and was built in 1662, is divided into a number of areas for
the monks, totally isolated and incommunicado with the rest of the church, one for the
faithful and for laymen. The Sancta Santorum behind the altar and the relics are kept
there, which owns the Monastery. It is noteworthy for its artistic beauty of the dome of
the church, frescoed by Antonio Palomino, and Juan Risueño, the participants will go to
the sacristy, where there are paintings of great value, and other ecclesiastical objects.
In the gastronomy of Granada, which is enormously rich mix different
inputs. Above all, they bring new settlers to products that previously
could be closed. This will, for example, beans with ham, because it
Trevelez to have a delicate and mild flavor.
The pot of San Antón is a traditional dish of the city and its
province, but the most representative dishes of Granada are Saladillo
with beans appetizer for the day or the day San Cecilio de la Cruz or
the famous tortilla Sacromonte. Apart from these foods, depending, of
course, the capacity of the diner, another may be interesting to taste a
dish of potatoes to the poor or crumbs, mixed with anything
either, although it is recommended that this thing comes from a pig.
As for desserts, there are a wide variety of fresh eggs as moles of San
Antón, the bizcochaza de Zafra, pestiños of the Incarnation or the puff
of San Jerónimo. The pionono is a sweet from the nearby metropolitan
area of Santa Fe, but by extension also is considered typical of the city
of Granada. The fruit is symbolic of Granada, of
course, Granada, whose tree is ubiquitous in Carmena and gardens.
Other fruits such as persimmons, Acerola, quinces, and Serbo
almecinas fill the markets of the city on the feast of the patron.
January 2 - Day of the Notes is one of the most popular celebrations
and also at Granada, which recalls the Nasrid surrender before the
Catholic Monarchs in 1492.
February 1 - St. Cecilia is the patron saint of the city of
Granada, Granada was a bishop and martyr of the century I.
Spring Festival the weekend closest to March 21.
May 3 - Day of the Cross
May 15 - Fiesta de San Isidro
May 26 - Procession of the Sacred Heart
Date changed - Day of the Tarascan
September 15 - Offering flowers to the Virgin of Sorrows. Patron saint
of the city
Last Sunday in September - Procession of Our Lady of Sorrows.
Patron saint of the city
September 29 - San Miguel