Nature and Nurture: The Enduring Developmental Issue
<ul><li>Developmental Psychology - patterns of growth and change throughout life </li></ul><ul><li>Nature-nurture issue </...
Prenatal Development: Conception to Birth
The Basics of Genetics <ul><li>chromosomes (body chromosomes and sex chromosomes) </li></ul><ul><li>genes </li></ul><ul><l...
 
Genetic Influences on the Fetus <ul><li>Phenylketonuria (PKU) </li></ul><ul><li>Sickle-Cell Anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Tay-S...
Teratogens: Prenatal Environmental Influences <ul><li>mother’s nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>mother’s illness </li></ul><ul>...
Alternative Paths to Conception <ul><li>in vitro fertilization (IVF) </li></ul><ul><li>gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIF...
Parenting Style <ul><li>Authoritarian </li></ul><ul><li>Permissive </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritative </li></ul><ul><li>Uninv...
Infancy
<ul><li>reflexes (rooting, sucking, gag, startle, Babinski) </li></ul><ul><li>limited voluntary movements </li></ul><ul><l...
 
 
 
Childhood
<ul><li>increasing growth </li></ul><ul><li>relationship of body parts sizes to one another changes </li></ul><ul><li>atta...
Adolescence
<ul><li>physical development and maturation brought by hormonal secretion </li></ul><ul><li>sexual attraction </li></ul><u...
Adulthood
<ul><li>early, middle, late adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>body is less efficient and more susceptible to disease </li></ul><...
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Human development

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Human development

  1. 1. Nature and Nurture: The Enduring Developmental Issue
  2. 2. <ul><li>Developmental Psychology - patterns of growth and change throughout life </li></ul><ul><li>Nature-nurture issue </li></ul>
  3. 3. Prenatal Development: Conception to Birth
  4. 4. The Basics of Genetics <ul><li>chromosomes (body chromosomes and sex chromosomes) </li></ul><ul><li>genes </li></ul><ul><li>specialized sex cells (egg and sperm cells) </li></ul><ul><li>fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>meiosis and mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>identical and fraternal twins </li></ul><ul><li>zygote (germinal period) </li></ul><ul><li>embryo (embryonic period) </li></ul><ul><li>fetus (fetal period) </li></ul><ul><li>age of viability </li></ul><ul><li>sensitive/critical periods </li></ul>
  5. 6. Genetic Influences on the Fetus <ul><li>Phenylketonuria (PKU) </li></ul><ul><li>Sickle-Cell Anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Tay-Sachs Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Down Syndrome </li></ul>
  6. 7. Teratogens: Prenatal Environmental Influences <ul><li>mother’s nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>mother’s illness </li></ul><ul><li>mother’s emotional state </li></ul><ul><li>mother’s use of drugs </li></ul><ul><li>alcohol use </li></ul><ul><li>nicotine use </li></ul><ul><li>age (younger than 18, older than 35) </li></ul><ul><li>radiation from X rays </li></ul>
  7. 8. Alternative Paths to Conception <ul><li>in vitro fertilization (IVF) </li></ul><ul><li>gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) </li></ul><ul><li>zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Parenting Style <ul><li>Authoritarian </li></ul><ul><li>Permissive </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritative </li></ul><ul><li>Uninvolved </li></ul>
  9. 10. Infancy
  10. 11. <ul><li>reflexes (rooting, sucking, gag, startle, Babinski) </li></ul><ul><li>limited voluntary movements </li></ul><ul><li>discriminate and imitate facial expressions </li></ul><ul><li>visual abilities grow rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>distinguish different sounds </li></ul><ul><li>recognize different tastes and smells </li></ul><ul><li>language development (6 months: babbling) </li></ul><ul><li>attachment </li></ul>
  11. 15. Childhood
  12. 16. <ul><li>increasing growth </li></ul><ul><li>relationship of body parts sizes to one another changes </li></ul><ul><li>attachment </li></ul><ul><li>less dependent on their parents and more self-reliant </li></ul><ul><li>play with friends (from independent to cooperative) </li></ul><ul><li>school age </li></ul><ul><li>more social interactions </li></ul><ul><li>physical and emotional control </li></ul>
  13. 17. Adolescence
  14. 18. <ul><li>physical development and maturation brought by hormonal secretion </li></ul><ul><li>sexual attraction </li></ul><ul><li>search for identity </li></ul><ul><li>seek independence </li></ul><ul><li>egocentrism </li></ul><ul><li>suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death for adolescents in US </li></ul>
  15. 19. Adulthood
  16. 20. <ul><li>early, middle, late adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>body is less efficient and more susceptible to disease </li></ul><ul><li>sense organs less sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>menopause (40 – 50) </li></ul><ul><li>more profound social development </li></ul><ul><li>careers, marriage, families </li></ul><ul><li>midlife crisis (40) </li></ul><ul><li>fluid intelligence (memory, calculations, analogies) declines </li></ul><ul><li>crystallized intelligence (skills, strategies) remain steady </li></ul>

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