I.1 Earthquakes

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I.1 Earthquakes

  1. 1. HAZARD #1: EARTHQUAKES 7.1 Araucania earthquake (Chile, 2011)Earthquake: result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismicwaves, followed by smaller aftershocks and potential secondary hazards (ex: tsunamis, industrialleaks, etc)
  2. 2. SAN ANDREAS FAULT 1. Describe the crustal movement of the San Andreas fault 2. Explain how this tectonic plate boundary different from the one near Seattle in its movement and geographical manifestation
  3. 3. EARTHQUAKE CHARACTERISTICS: PLATE BOUNDARY TYPES – Find regional examples for each typeOceanic-Continental convergence
  4. 4. EARTHQUAKE CHARACTERISTICS: FOCUS, EPICENTER, DEPTH, SHOCKWAVESShallow focus = ~100 km depth or lessDeep focus = 100-700 km depthP-waves (primary / push-pull) = felt first (5-8 km/s): feels like a shock wave rattling windowsS-waves (secondary / shake) = felt a few seconds later (3-5 km/s): can be very destructiveEx 1: Loma Prieta (California 1989): 6.7 magnitude at 18 km depth (inland)Ex 2: Sendai (Japan 2011): 9.0 magnitude at 32 km depth (70 km the coast)
  5. 5. SOIL LIQUEFACTION DUE TO EARTHQUAKES
  6. 6. Explain factors linked to the high soil liquefaction risk
  7. 7. SECONDARY HAZARDS DUE TO EARTHQUAKESTsunami in Japan (2011) Mudslide in Taiwan (2010) Fire in San Francisco (1906)
  8. 8. EARTHQUAKE CHARACTERISTICS: DAMAGE FACTORS Explain how each of the following factor can affect the outcome of an earthquake: • Strength and depth of earthquake • Number of aftershocks • Population density • Type of buildings • Time of day • Distance from epicenter • Types of rocks -> risk of liquefaction • Secondary hazards: tsunami, fire, mudslides, famine, epidemic • Development level (linked to preparedness and response)3 most destructive recent earthquakes1. Indonesia 2004 (9.1) 250,000 victims (tsunami)2. Haiti 2010 (7.0) 230,000 victims3. Pakistan 2005 (7.6) 86,000 victims
  9. 9. EARTHQUAKE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION: TECTONIC PLATE BOUNDARIES Most destructive recent earthquakesCASE STUDIES IN TEXTBOOK:Comparable strength earthquakes with different outcomes (p.201):• Kobe (Japan, 1995, 7.2): 5,000 victims• Kashmir (Pakistan, 2005, 7.6): 86,000 victims1. Suggest reasons why the Kobe earthquake was so devastating2. Explain why the Kashmir earthquake was more devastating than the one in Kobe
  10. 10. EARTHQUAKE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION: THE “RING OF FIRE” ON THE PACIFIC RIMConvergence (subduction) zones: 1. Name large four large cities located on the “ring of fire” 2. Explain why some regions located on the “ring of fire” are more vulnerable to earthquake hazards than others
  11. 11. EARTHQUAKE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION: SEISMIC HAZARD1. Name a megacity exposed to a high seismic hazard resulting from: • Lateral sliding • Subduction2. For one named vulnerable region, explain what factors may increase the seismic hazard

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