VSEPR Notes

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Notes about the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory, 3D molecular geometries, and hybridized orbitals.

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VSEPR Notes

  1. 1. VSEPR
  2. 2. What is “vesper”? <ul><li>V alence S hell E lectron P air R epulsion theory </li></ul><ul><li>According to VSEPR theory, the repulsion between electron pairs causes molecular shapes to adjust so that the valence-electron pairs stay as far apart as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Able to use Lewis Structures to predict 3D geometry of molecule </li></ul>
  3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Hybridization </li></ul><ul><li>3D Geometry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balloons and a Table to Fill Out </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Hybridization <ul><li>Step 1: Draw the Lewis Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Count the number of “things” stuck to the central atom. </li></ul><ul><li>A “thing” can be another atom. </li></ul><ul><li>A “thing” can be up to a lone-pair of electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>A “thing” can NOT be a bond. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul>Thing 1 Thing 2 Thing 3 Thing 4
  5. 5. Hybridization Continued <ul><li>Step 3: Use flow chart to match “thing” number with hybridization. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hybridization -> Geometry <ul><li>Note that the hybridization for CH 4 is sp 3 </li></ul><ul><li>S = 1 thing; p 3 = 3 more things; total = 4 things </li></ul>
  7. 7. Special Geometries <ul><li>The chart that we filled out was for regular geometries. </li></ul><ul><li>Special geometries = lone pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Lone pairs take up more space than the standard “thing” balloon. </li></ul><ul><li>They squish atoms closer together. </li></ul><ul><li>Example on next slide. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Special Case Example <ul><li>H 2 O </li></ul>Thing 1 Thing 2 Thing 3 Thing 4 <ul><ul><li>4 things = sp 3 hybridization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should look like: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But actually looks like: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angle = < 109.5 degrees </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Base Shapes

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