Steps of scientific research


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By. Dr. Amin Al-Ashtal PhD Candidate at University of Bergen - Norway

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Steps of scientific research

  1. 1. Scientific Research Steps By Dr. Amin Al-Ashtal PhD Candidate at University of Bergen - Norway
  2. 2. The scientific method is a process by which scientific information is collected, analyzed, and reported in order to produce unbiased and replicable results in an effort to provide an accurate representation of observable phenomena.
  3. 3. To reach this goal, the following scientific steps must be followed: 1- Making an observation:- - Observation of a phenomenon, examples: - Exercise decrease weight. - Thalidomide causes congenital missing of ribs. - Persistent force can cause tooth movement.
  4. 4. 1- Making an observation Continued, - Formulating of research question: - Does persistent force cause tooth movement?
  5. 5. 2- Formulating a hypothesis: - Literature review ( original articles and books) - Hypothesis: “Persistent tooth movement appears to cause tooth movement”
  6. 6. 3- Designing an Experiment: - Design an experiment that will yield the data necessary to validly test a hypothesis. - Depend on data that you want to collect.
  7. 7. 4- Determine your research type: A- Observational Research: 1- Cross-sectional study, ex. Prevalence of dental caries in Yemen or Sana’a city or UST. 2- Case-Control study (backward), ex. Causes of cancer or periodontitis. 3- Cohort study (forward), ex. Causes of cancer or periodontitis.
  8. 8. 4- Determine your research type: B- Experimental Research: 1- Randomized clinical trials 2- Non-randomized clinical trials Ex. Zinc supplements can prevent or reduce severe diarrhea in children Ex. MTA has less micro-leakage than gutta-percha
  9. 9. 5- Proposal: 1- Introduction ( Justify the study (rationale) + aim) 2- Methods ( Study design and type ) 3- Statistical analysis plan 6- Ethical Clearance: Any research involving humans or animals must be conducted according to Helsinki declaration to avoid violation of human rights.
  10. 10. 7- Data collection: - Design a good case sheet for any type of research. - Make it easy to transfer to Spss. 8- Data transfer: - From case sheets to Spss. - Start the process early during data collection. - Must be done by the researcher to avoid mistakes.
  11. 11. 9- Data Analysis: - Requires good knowledge of biostatistics & Spss. - Statistician may be consulted in difficult analysis types, but not for the whole process. 10- Writing the article(manuscript) or thesis: - Good proposal saves time. - Scientific writing ( IMRAD )
  12. 12. 10- Writing the article(manuscript) or thesis: - Introduction: (same as proposal) - Use up to date references - Take the advantage of endnote software ( it saves a lot of time and effort) - Methods: ( same as proposal unless certain modifications were necessary during data collection) - Results: - Explain your results without making any interpretation or comparisons with other studies. - Use tables and figures where necessary.
  13. 13. 10- Writing the article(manuscript) or thesis: - Discussion: - Justify your methods. - Interpret your results, try to show why these results are important. - Compare with other researches and show the difference or compliance. - Mention the limitations of the study. - Make summary of conclusions. - Recommend future investigations if needed.
  14. 14. 11- Publishing: - A well-designed and conducted study MUST be published. - Try to publish in a Pubmed indexed journal. - Read the Author guidelines carefully and follow them. - May require slight modification of your ready manuscript.
  15. 15. Tosen Takk ‫بالنرويجي‬ ‫شكر‬ ‫الف‬ 