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Quantum computing and the entanglement frontier

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Quantum information science explores the frontier of highly complex quantum states, the "entanglement frontier." This study is motivated by the observation (widely believed but unproven) that classical systems cannot simulate highly entangled quantum systems efficiently, and we hope to hasten the day when well controlled quantum systems can perform tasks surpassing what can be done in the classical world. One way to achieve such "quantum supremacy" would be to run an algorithm on a quantum computer which solves a problem with a super-polynomial speedup relative to classical computers, but there may be other ways that can be achieved sooner, such as simulating exotic quantum states of strongly correlated matter. To operate a large scale quantum computer reliably we will need to overcome the debilitating effects of decoherence, which might be done using "standard" quantum hardware protected by quantum error-correcting codes, or by exploiting the nonabelian quantum statistics of anyons realized in solid state systems, or by combining both methods. Only by challenging the entanglement frontier will we learn whether Nature provides extravagant resources far beyond what the classical world would

https://arxiv.org/abs/1203.5813

Published in: Science
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Quantum computing and the entanglement frontier

  1. 1. Quantum computing and the entanglement frontier John Preskill Caltech Board of Trustees 31 October 2015
  2. 2. Turing Planck Shannon Quantum Information Science quantum theory + computer science + information theory quantum information science
  3. 3. Caltech and Information Science Nanotechnology: “There’s plenty of room at the bottom.” Mead Feynman Hopfield Computation & Neural Systems (CNS): How does the brain compute? Very-Large-Scale Integration (VLSI): Paradigms for the semiconductor industry.
  4. 4. Frontiers of Physics short distance long distance complexity Higgs boson Neutrino masses Supersymmetry Quantum gravity String theory Large scale structure Cosmic microwave background Dark matter Dark energy Gravitational waves “More is different” Many-body entanglement Phases of quantum matter Quantum computing Quantum spacetime
  5. 5. Quantum Supremacy! ???
  6. 6. Shell Game
  7. 7. Shell Game
  8. 8. Shell Game
  9. 9. Shell Game
  10. 10. Shell Game
  11. 11. Shell Game When the Gorilla give thumbs up, and you look under Cup Number 1, you always find the ball. 1 32
  12. 12. Shell Game What if the Gorilla gives thumbs up, and you look under Cup Number 2? 1 32 ?
  13. 13. (Classical) Shell Game When the Gorilla gives thumbs up & you look under Cup Number 1, you always find ball. ? When the Gorilla gives thumbs up & you look under Cup Number 2, you find the ball ... A. Always B. Never C. Sometimes
  14. 14. (Classical) Shell Game When the Gorilla gives thumbs up & you look under Cup Number 1, you always find ball. When the Gorilla gives thumbs up & you look under Cup Number 2, you find the ball ... A. Always B. Never C. Sometimes
  15. 15. (Quantum) Shell Game When the Gorilla gives thumbs up & you look under Cup Number 1, you always find ball. ? When the Gorilla gives thumbs up & you look under Cup Number 2, you find the ball ... A. Always B. Never C. Sometimes
  16. 16. (Quantum) Shell Game When the Gorilla gives thumbs up & you look under Cup Number 1, you always find ball. When the Gorilla gives thumbs up & you look under Cup Number 2, you find the ball ... A. Always B. Never C. Sometimes
  17. 17. (Quantum) Shell Game Secret of the Quantum Gorilla: Before deciding whether to give thumbs up, he checks the cups collectively, rather than one at a time.
  18. 18. Quantum entanglement Nearly all the information in a typical entangled “quantum book” is encoded in the correlations among the “pages”. You can't access the information if you read the book one page at a time. This Page Blank This Page Blank This Page Blank This Page Blank This Page Blank ….….
  19. 19. To describe 300 quantum bits (e.g., atoms), we would need more numbers than the number of atoms in the visible universe!
  20. 20. Caltech Course 1983-84: Potentialities and Limitations of Computing Machines “Nature isn't classical, dammit, and if you want to make a simulation of nature, you'd better make it quantum mechanical.”
  21. 21. Classically Easy Quantumly Hard Quantumly Easy Problems What’s in here?
  22. 22. A quantum computer can simulate efficiently any physical process that occurs in Nature. (Maybe. We don’t actually know for sure.) particle collision entangled electronsmolecular chemistry black hole early universesuperconductor
  23. 23. ( + ) Decoherence Environment ( + )1 2 1 2
  24. 24. EnvironmentDecoherence ERROR! To avoid errors, we must prevent the environment from “learning” about the state of the quantum computer during the computation. Quantum Computer
  25. 25. Quantum error correction The protected “logical” quantum information is encoded in a highly entangled state of many physical qubits. The environment can't access this information if it interacts locally with the protected system. This Page Blank This Page Blank This Page Blank This Page Blank This Page Blank ….…. Environment
  26. 26. Kitaev’s magic trick: sawing an electron in half!
  27. 27. Jason Alicea Gil Refael Alexei Kitaev
  28. 28. Eddy Ardonne Nordita Salman Beigi IPM Robin Blume-Kohout Sandia Sougato Bose UC London Sergio Boixo Google Sergey Bravyi IBM Darrick Chang ICFO Andrew Childs Maryland Andrew Doherty Sydney Luming Duan Michigan Omar Fawzi ENS Lyon Lukasz Fidkowski Stony Brook Steve Flammia Sydney Alexei Gorshkov NIST David Gossett IBM Sean Hallgren Penn State Patrick Hayden Stanford Liang Jiang Yale Stephen Jordan NIST Liang Kong Tsinghua Robert Koenig Munich Debbie Leung Waterloo Netanel Lindner Technion Yi-Kai Liu NIST Ashwin Nayak Waterloo Stefano Pironio Brussels David Poulin Sherbrooke Robert Raussendorf UBC Ben Reichardt USC Norbert Schuch Aachen Yaoyun Shi Michigan Kirill Shtengel UC Riverside Kristan Temme IBM Barbara Terhal Aachen Frank Verstraete Vienna Guifre Vidal Perimeter Ling Wang Beijing Stephanie Wehner Delft Pawel Wocjan UCF Shengyu Zhang Hong Kong Institute for Quantum Information (IQI): Postdoc Alumni 40 former IQI postdocs hold faculty positions (or the equivalent). 18 US, 5 Canada, 10 Europe, 3 Asia, 2 Australia, 2 Middle East.
  29. 29. Challenging the entanglement frontier! Quantum Information Mechanical Quantum SystemsQuantum Optics Quantum Matter 1 atom Surface-spin γγ
  30. 30. Jason Alicea, 2012 Quantum Matter Theory (Physics) David Hsieh, 2012 Quantum Matter Experiment (Physics) Andre Faraon, 2012 Quantum Optics Experiment (Applied Physics) Xie Chen, 2014 Quantum Matter Theory (Physics) Thomas Vidick, 2014 Quantum Information Theory (Computer Science) Manuel Endres, 2016 Quantum Optics Experiment (Physics) Fernando Brandão, 2016 Quantum Information Theory (Physics) Stevan Nadj-Perge, 2016 Quantum Matter Experiment (Applied Physics)
  31. 31. IQIM Annual Retreat
  32. 32. iqim.caltech.edu/outreach IQIM quantum animations in collaboration with Jorge Cham of PHD Comics. Over 1 million views so far!
  33. 33. Unveiling the qCraft mod to MineCraft at MineCon 2013. qCraft has been downloaded over 3 million times from qcraft.org
  34. 34. WHAT’S INSIDE A BLACK HOLE?
  35. 35. Holographic Principle All information inside the room is encoded, in a scrambled form, on the boundary of the room.
  36. 36. Holographic Principle This scrambled encoding may be a quantum error- correcting code. The emergent space inside the room is robust against errors on the walls of the room.
  37. 37. Holographic Principle Quantum entanglement holds space together.
  38. 38. Richard Feynman
  39. 39. (Quantum) Shell Game When the Gorilla gives thumbs up & you look under Cup Number 1, you always find ball. When the Gorilla gives thumbs up & you look under Cup Number 2, you find the ball ... A. Always B. Never C. Sometimes
  40. 40. From: Robbert Dijkgraaf at the inauguration of Caltech’s Burke Institute.
  41. 41. From: Robbert Dijkgraaf at the inauguration of Caltech’s Burke Institute.
  42. 42. iqim.caltech.edu quantumfrontiers.com @IQIM_Caltech

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