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An optimal quantum algorithm for the oracle identification problem
In the oracle identification problem, we are given oracle access to an unknown N-bit string x promised to belong to a known set C of size M and our task is to identify x. We present a quantum algorithm for the problem that is optimal in its dependence on N and M. Our algorithm considerably simplifies and improves the previous best algorithm due to Ambainis et al. Our algorithm also has applications in quantum learning theory, where it improves the complexity of exact learning with membership queries, resolving a conjecture of Hunziker et al.
The algorithm is based on ideas from classical learning theory and a new composition theorem for solutions of the filtered γ2-norm semidefinite program, which characterizes quantum query complexity. Our composition theorem is quite general and allows us to compose quantum algorithms with input-dependent query complexities without incurring a logarithmic overhead for error reduction. As an application of the composition theorem, we remove all log factors from the best known quantum algorithm for Boolean matrix multiplication.