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Capturing Knowledge: Adding Value to an Organization


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Describes four levels of knowledge capture: eliciting from individuals, harvesting from communities, gathering from networks, and exploring cyberspace.

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Capturing Knowledge: Adding Value to an Organization

  1. 1. Albert Simard Knowledge Manager Defence R&D Canada Conference Board of Canada Public Sector Social Media 2011 March 29-30, 2011; Ottawa, ON Capturing Knowledge: Adding Value to an Organization
  2. 2. A Definition… <ul><li>Knowledge Capture: Using social technology to find, access, and validate existing knowledge.* </li></ul><ul><li>As used here, knowledge includes all forms of content: objects, data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Big Picture Knowledge Assets Knowledge Sharing Knowledge Work Knowledge Transfer Knowledge Infrastructure Create Discover Experiment Analysis Synthesis Write Draw n ew knowledge Acquire Purchase License Exchange Reengineer Collect Capture External sources existing knowledge
  4. 4. Social Technology <ul><li>Telephony </li></ul><ul><li>Video conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Chat rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Bulletin boards </li></ul><ul><li>On-line forums </li></ul><ul><li>Web portal </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing sites </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration sites </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise locator </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs, microblogs </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul>
  5. 5. Outline <ul><li>Eliciting from individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Harvesting from Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Gathering from Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring Cyberspace </li></ul>
  6. 6. Eliciting from Individuals <ul><li>Attributes: </li></ul><ul><li>In the minds of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Must be volunteered </li></ul><ul><li>Process: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify experts </li></ul><ul><li>Engage them </li></ul><ul><li>Make their knowledge explicit </li></ul><ul><li>Validate knowledge </li></ul>Individuals
  7. 7. Tacit Knowledge <ul><li>Intangible personal knowledge gained through experience and self-learning; influenced by beliefs, perspectives, and values. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wisdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate memory </li></ul></ul>Individuals The Thinker - Rodin
  8. 8. Sharing Barriers <ul><li>Trust and safety </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational culture </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives and motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty of explaining </li></ul><ul><li>Different expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Security and privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Control and hoarding </li></ul><ul><li>Large distances </li></ul><ul><li>Different languages </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate technology </li></ul>Individuals
  9. 9. Incentives <ul><li>Compliance (you will) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay, job security, duty, penalties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military, manufacturing, law, policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet quotas, minimum standards, no change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation (you’ll be rewarded) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambition, challenges, bonuses, rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency, productivity, quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvements, increases, evolutionary changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engagement (would you like to?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy, mastery, purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design, innovation, discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment, involvement, revolutionary changes </li></ul></ul>Individuals
  10. 10. Motivating Sharing <ul><li>Communicate sharing goals regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Train employees on using sharing tools </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the benefits of sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight sharing success stories </li></ul><ul><li>Practice good sharing behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Reward good sharing behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Discourage poor sharing behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage community development </li></ul>Stan Garfield (2010) Individuals
  11. 11. What is Engagement? <ul><li>Autonomy: What to do, when to do it, where to do it, how to do it, and who to work with </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery: Want to excel, increase ability, practice, perseverance, obstacles, approach but not attain </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose : quality of life, meaning, social responsibility, stewardship, attitude and behavior, soul-stirring, ethics </li></ul>Daniel Pink (2009) Individuals
  12. 12. Why Engage Knowledge Workers? <ul><li>Knowledge cannot be conscripted; it must be volunteered. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge workers need to commit to and become truly involved in their work. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally, they work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not because they are told to, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not because they expect something in return, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because they want to; they enjoy doing it. </li></ul></ul>Individuals
  13. 13. Engagement Techniques <ul><li>Hire “engageable” employees </li></ul><ul><li>Match projects, passions, proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Stress employee ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Earn trust continuously </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify mutual goals and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Provide frequent feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Talk and listen often </li></ul>Wendy Fenci (2008) Individuals
  14. 14. Eliciting Methods <ul><li>Conversations, discussions, dialogue (colleagues, peers) </li></ul><ul><li>Questions & answers, problems & solutions (novice/expert) </li></ul><ul><li>After-action reviews, lessons learned (event/group) </li></ul><ul><li>Capture, document, interview, record (expert/facilitator) </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction, identify, codify, organize (expert/know engineer) </li></ul><ul><li>Advising, briefing, recommending (subordinate/superior) </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching, educating, training (teacher/student) </li></ul><ul><li>Storytelling, narratives, anecdotes (teller/listener) </li></ul><ul><li>Explaining, demonstrating, describing (technician/user) </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations, lectures, speeches (speaker/audience) </li></ul>Individuals
  15. 15. Eliciting Example NRCAN - Canadian Forest Service Individuals
  16. 16. Harvesting from Communities <ul><li>Attributes: </li></ul><ul><li>In-house knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Already validated </li></ul><ul><li>Process: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Collect knowledge </li></ul>Communities
  17. 17. Community of Practice <ul><li>Government, department </li></ul><ul><li>Sector, branch, division staff </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists, engineers, lawyers </li></ul><ul><li>Policy analysts, regulators </li></ul><ul><li>Finance, purchasing officers </li></ul><ul><li>Information, communication specialists </li></ul>Communities People who share common expertise, skill, or profession (position, work, colleagues)
  18. 18. Communities and Knowledge <ul><li>Knowledge exists in the minds of people. Experience is as important as formal knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is tacit as well as explicit. Transferring tacit knowledge is more effective through human interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is social as well as individual. Today’s knowledge is the result of centuries of collective research. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is changing at an accelerating rate. It takes a community of people to keep up with new concepts, practices, and technology. </li></ul>Communities
  19. 19. Community Characteristics <ul><li>Self-governed: norms and guidelines govern practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-organized: purpose, direction, and management. </li></ul><ul><li>Productive enquiry: answer questions based on practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate: synchronous and asynchronous channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Generate knowledge: new knowledge is created. </li></ul><ul><li>Support members: provides a forum for mutual support. </li></ul>Saint-Onge & Wallace (2003) Communities
  20. 20. Community Behaviors <ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Meritocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Equality </li></ul><ul><li>Outliers </li></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Debating </li></ul><ul><li>Arguing </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming </li></ul><ul><li>Majority </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Groupthink </li></ul>Communities
  21. 21. Harvesting Methods <ul><li>Service Center: repository for community outputs; i nterface with communities, minimize duplication, inform communities </li></ul><ul><li>Leader: transfer community outputs; I dentify emerging trends, prioritize issues </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor: endorse community outputs; bridge between the community and the organization, provide support, minimize organizational barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Champion: ensure adoption of community outputs; communicate purpose, promote the community </li></ul>Communities
  22. 22. Harvesting Example DRDC - Centre for Security Science Communities
  23. 23. Gathering from Networks <ul><li>Attributes : </li></ul><ul><li>Members know about knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Quality is variable </li></ul><ul><li>Process : </li></ul><ul><li>Identify networks and members </li></ul><ul><li>Bring knowledge into the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Validate knowledge </li></ul>Networks
  24. 24. Social Networks <ul><li>Large numbers of people who share a common interest or passion (enjoyment, hobbies, friends) </li></ul>Networks
  25. 25. Network Attributes <ul><li>Networks are much bigger than communities (100s to 1,000,000s of members). </li></ul><ul><li>Participants don’t know most other participants, limiting trust and security. </li></ul><ul><li>Large numbers of nodes leads to complex behavior. </li></ul>Networks
  26. 26. Network Behavior <ul><li>Positive feedback - The bigger the network, the bigger it gets. </li></ul><ul><li>Biological growth - Crossing a “threshold” yields self-sustaining, exponential growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Synergy & emergence – Networks can yield more than any individual can accomplish. </li></ul><ul><li>Winner take most – There is a tendency for one member to dominate. </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme leveraging – A small effort can trigger market domination. </li></ul>Kevin Kelly (1998) Networks
  27. 27. Network Value <ul><li>Value is proportional to the number of participants squared. </li></ul><ul><li>Value is created by all; not by an individual or organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Value is external to member organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Value is shared by all; capturing value is often uneven. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who own network standards have an advantage. </li></ul>Kevin Kelly (1998) Networks
  28. 28. Gathering Methods Network members bring it into the organization Communities validate it Networks
  29. 29. Gathering Example Networks
  30. 30. Exploring Cyberspace <ul><li>Attributes : </li></ul><ul><li>Masses of unknown content </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown locations </li></ul><ul><li>Process: </li></ul><ul><li>Discover content </li></ul><ul><li>Filter relevant content </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze content </li></ul><ul><li>Validate knowledge </li></ul>Cyberspace
  31. 31. Why Explore Cyberspace? <ul><li>Anticipate emerging issue </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipate stakeholder actions </li></ul><ul><li>Discover new stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Discover potential partners </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from others </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about new technology </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor institutional changes </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor public opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Find useful information </li></ul><ul><li>Detect new risks </li></ul>Only way to keep up with accelerating change Cyberspace
  32. 32. Exploration Methods <ul><li>Planning & direction </li></ul><ul><li>Assign tasks & teams </li></ul><ul><li>Search must be Automated </li></ul><ul><li>Use artificial intelligence filters </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial search services </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis is essential </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Validate knowledge </li></ul>Cyberspace
  33. 33. Exploration Example Cyberspace
  34. 34. Capturing Knowledge Conclusion <ul><li>Eliciting individual knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Harvesting community knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Gathering network knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring cyberspace </li></ul>Adding value to an organization