Reasons For E Government


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Reasons For E Government

  1. 1. ELECTRONIC GOVERNANCE Paradigma Armenia CJSC & APMA NGO Digitec2008 3 rd of October, 2008
  2. 2. Content <ul><li>Reasons for eGovernment </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges to eGovernment </li></ul><ul><li>eGovernance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing Human Capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying Stakeholders’ Roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing a Business Model </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>REASONS FOR eGOVERNMENT </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reasons for eGovernment <ul><li>The main reasons to embrace eGovernment: </li></ul><ul><li>eGovernment improves efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>eGovernment improves service quality </li></ul><ul><li>eGovernment helps achieve policy outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>eGovernment contributes to achieving economic objectives </li></ul><ul><li>eGovernment can be the major contributor to reform </li></ul><ul><li>eGovernment builds trust between citizens and government </li></ul><ul><li>Until now, the main drivers for eGovernment have been efficiency gains and effective delivery of policy outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Recently, the focus has shifted to other objectives: improving services, increasing accountability, facilitating engagement. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Efficiency <ul><li>Cost reduction is the major driver for ICT use by governments: </li></ul><ul><li>replacing paper-based application processes with Internet applications – </li></ul><ul><li>cut down costs of data re-entry and checking </li></ul><ul><li>improved booking arrangements – more efficient use of scarce resources: </li></ul><ul><li>skilled staff and facilities </li></ul><ul><li>greater sharing of data within government – eliminate costs of multiple </li></ul><ul><li>collections, data reconciliation and checking </li></ul><ul><li>reduce government publication and distribution costs by relying more on </li></ul><ul><li>on-line publications, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater efficiencies are generated from ICT projects that involve transformation of business processes. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Customer Focus (customer focus initiatives ) <ul><li>Adopting customer focus should be the main part of the country public reform agendas and eGovernment strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Customer focus is about providing citizens and businesses with a coherent interface with government which reflects their needs rather than the structure of the government. </li></ul><ul><li>eGovernment initiatives to improve customer focus: </li></ul><ul><li>on-line portals focused on particular topics or groups, bringing together relevant information and services </li></ul><ul><li>targeting of on-line information to specific groups of citizen so that relevant information can be found more readily </li></ul><ul><li>e-mail lists to push customised information to specific groups, whenever the information becomes available </li></ul><ul><li>allowing identified users to carry out routine transactions with the government as on-line government services </li></ul>
  7. 7. Example: Customer Focus <ul><li>Example: Customer-Focused Portals in Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>The Government of Mexico launched a government-wide portal that </li></ul><ul><li>organizes information in a thematic and not institutional fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>For instance, under “work” theme one can find: </li></ul><ul><li>labor rights </li></ul><ul><li>public housing </li></ul><ul><li>job matchmaker services </li></ul><ul><li>taxation on labour services, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1500 services from about 100 government agencies. </li></ul><ul><li>The bundling of information and services in thematic channels required horizontal coordination of government agencies. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Improved Policy Outcomes <ul><li>eGovernment can help achieve better outcomes in major policy areas, such as: </li></ul><ul><li>taxation policy - improved collection of taxes through increased sharing of information by agencies </li></ul><ul><li>health policy - reduced demand for health services through better use of health information and scarce health resources </li></ul><ul><li>social policy - promoting the use of native languages and awareness of indigenous people </li></ul><ul><li>It is expected that all policy areas will be affected by eGovernment. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Economic Objectives <ul><li>Through reduced corruption, greater openness and increased trust in </li></ul><ul><li>government, eGovernment contributes to economic objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific measures: </li></ul><ul><li>improving business productivity by administrative simplification and online support for small and medium-size businesses </li></ul><ul><li>business portals providing access to economic information - market </li></ul><ul><li>trends, export opportunities, assistance programmes </li></ul><ul><li>reduced government calls through more effective programs and operations </li></ul><ul><li>direct consumption of ICT goods and services by government is </li></ul><ul><li>significant and more stable than by private sector </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reform for eGovernment <ul><li>Reform is necessary for e G overnment to deliver: </li></ul><ul><li>The promise of eGovernment will not materialise by simply digitising government information and placing it on-line. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, eGovernment is about the use of ICT to transform the structures, operations and the culture of government. </li></ul>
  11. 11. eGovernment for Reform <ul><li>eGovernment is an enabler of the reform: </li></ul><ul><li>it serves as a tool for reform: </li></ul><ul><li>simplifies administrative processes </li></ul><ul><li>makes such processes more transparent </li></ul><ul><li>helps to deliver services in more efficient ways </li></ul><ul><li>facilitates the integration of services and processes </li></ul><ul><li>enables seamless government </li></ul><ul><li>highlights internal government inconsistencies </li></ul><ul><li>underscores commitment to good governance objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Modernizing government structures and processes to meet eGovernment will have a major impact on how services are delivered. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Citizen Engagement <ul><li>Building trust between government and citizens is fundamental. </li></ul><ul><li>In the absence of trust: </li></ul><ul><li>the rule of law </li></ul><ul><li>legitimacy of government decisions </li></ul><ul><li>support for specific government reforms </li></ul><ul><li>may be all called into question. </li></ul><ul><li>ICT is an enabler to build trust by engaging citizens. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Citizen Engagement <ul><li>Ways of engagement: </li></ul><ul><li>consultation and feedback by service users – web logs, questionnaires and feedback contacts </li></ul><ul><li>citizen engagement in policy making – consultation and active participation to better address constituents' needs </li></ul><ul><li>helping individual's voice be heard </li></ul>
  14. 14. Example: Citizen Engagement <ul><li>Example: Engaging the Citizen in Scottish Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish Parliament maintains a website to inform and engage citizens in the democratic process: </li></ul><ul><li>public education about parliament </li></ul><ul><li>web casting of parliamentary sessions </li></ul><ul><li>enabling citizens to petition parliament on-line </li></ul><ul><li>enabling citizens to contact their parliament members </li></ul><ul><li>providing for direct participation using discussion boards </li></ul><ul><li>All serve to advance the principles of openness, accountability and citizen engagement in the parliamentary process. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>CHALLENGES to ELECTRONIC </li></ul><ul><li>GOVERNMENT </li></ul>
  16. 16. Challenges to eGovernment <ul><li>Implementation of eGovernment can face a number of challenges. </li></ul><ul><li>The following have to be addressed on a whole-of-government basis in order </li></ul><ul><li>to be overcome: </li></ul><ul><li>legislative barriers – eGovernment processes must have the same </li></ul><ul><li>standing as paper-based processes </li></ul><ul><li>financial barriers – funding arrangements should account for the agencies </li></ul><ul><li>working together on eGovernment projects </li></ul><ul><li>technology change – adoption of whole-of-government standards, </li></ul><ul><li>software integration and middleware technologies </li></ul><ul><li>digital divide – large differences in the level of access to the Internet and </li></ul><ul><li>therefore ability to benefit from eGovernment </li></ul>
  17. 17. Legislative Barriers <ul><li>Governments must ensure that a proper legal framework exists before egovernment initiatives and processes can take up. </li></ul><ul><li>What is needed: </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of electronic processes and services as equivalent with paperbased processes and services. Legal recognition of digital signatures! </li></ul><ul><li>Clarification of requirements on the agencies implementing eGovernment: what they can and cannot do. </li></ul><ul><li>Overcoming collaboration barriers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>accountability rules designed to ensure responsible use of public resources by clearly identifying who does what </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who is responsible for the shared project? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>performance management also follows clear distinction of who does what </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How to evaluate shared project? </li></ul><ul><li>Legislations designed to protect the privacy and security of data, to balance free access with society's expectations. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Budgetary Barriers <ul><li>Traditional public management funding: </li></ul><ul><li>vertical funding structure </li></ul><ul><li>agency is held accountable for achieving its mission </li></ul><ul><li>agency receives the resources to accomplish its mission </li></ul><ul><li>the resources are budgeted on the annual basis </li></ul><ul><li>This principle does not act in favour of eGovernment projects that involve long-term funding and collaboration across agencies. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Technology Change <ul><li>Technology-related barriers to eGovernment: </li></ul><ul><li>legacy systems </li></ul><ul><li>lack of shared infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>too rapid technological changes, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Complex technical issues arise. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Legacy Systems and eGov <ul><li>Legacy systems can be a major barrier to eGovernment. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating back-office information systems with Internet to provide on-line access to clients, has occupied many eGovernment projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Common solutions: </li></ul><ul><li>middleware and web services </li></ul><ul><li>data-exchange standards relying on XML </li></ul><ul><li>Also, promotion of government-wide frameworks , standards and data definitions by eGovernment coordinators. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Lack of Shared Infrastructure <ul><li>Technology-related barriers to collaboration between agencies and the uptake of eGovernment: </li></ul><ul><li>lack of shared standards </li></ul><ul><li>lack of compatible infrastructure between agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure development is too expensive for a single agency. </li></ul><ul><li>Shared development faces budgetary and collaboration barriers. </li></ul><ul><li>What can be done? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Shared Infrastructure and eGov <ul><li>Governments can provide a technological, legal and organizational framework for delivering electronic services: </li></ul><ul><li>common technical standards </li></ul><ul><li>common technical infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>whole-of-government approach to lower the legal and technical barriers for inter-agency cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>whole-of-government approach to reduce redundancy , e.g. by adopting common back-office processes </li></ul>
  23. 23. Technology Change <ul><li>How to plan development of eGovernment facing uncertainty over the fastmovingtechnological change? </li></ul><ul><li>Public-private partnership is one solution, provided they are in the areas where established standards already exist in the market. </li></ul><ul><li>Other approaches: </li></ul><ul><li>1) technology neutrality in legislation and regulation </li></ul><ul><li>2) flexibility within broad regulatory frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>3) adaptation of current laws to a digital world </li></ul><ul><li>4) involvement of all stakeholders in the regulatory process </li></ul><ul><li>5) international cooperation to harmonise approaches </li></ul><ul><li>6) performance requirements rather than technical specifications when </li></ul><ul><li>procuring new technologies </li></ul>
  24. 24. Digital Divide <ul><li>eGovernment can indirectly improve services to citizens with no Internet </li></ul><ul><li>access through back-office improvements, however: </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of on-line services cannot be replicated off-line, so people without Internet access will be unable to benefit. </li></ul><ul><li>The groups in society with lower level of access are already disengaged the target of government intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>Such groups have higher level of interaction with government: </li></ul><ul><li>establishing identity </li></ul><ul><li>entitlement for assistance </li></ul><ul><li>complex medical or social intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Some, but not all, suited for on-line provision. </li></ul><ul><li>Many governments pursue policies to reduce digital divide. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>ELECTRONIC GOVERNANCE </li></ul>
  26. 26. eGovernment <ul><li>Different common definitions: </li></ul><ul><li>Internet (on-line) service delivery and other Internet-based activity by governments – front-office only </li></ul><ul><li>All uses of ICT by governments, on-line and off-line, front-office and back-office </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity to transform public administration through the use of ICT or new forms of government built around ICT </li></ul><ul><li>[Definition] eGovernment refers to the use of ICT, particularly the Internet, as a tool to achieve better government. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Governance is a set of processes, formal and informal, through which social action occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also a guiding process through which societies make decisions, manage daily activities and interact to achieve their goals. </li></ul>Governance Government vs. governance Government gets its work done trough governance processes Governance only for government? No, other organizations and groups engage in governance as well
  28. 28. eGovernance eGovernance refers to the use of information and communication technologies to transform and support the processes and structures of a governance system. Observation <ul><li>Many definitions exist </li></ul><ul><li>The notion of eGovernance strictly depends on the perspective taken on governance </li></ul>Our view <ul><li>eGovernance = eGovernment + eDemocracy + … </li></ul><ul><li>eGovernance is about public service delivery </li></ul><ul><li>eGovernance, while including eGovernment, imphasizes participation, interaction and engagement of stakeholders in decision processes </li></ul>
  29. 29. Government Stakeholders <ul><li>A person, group or any entity that can affect or is affected by an action taken by government. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical government stakeholders: </li></ul><ul><li>citizens </li></ul><ul><li>businesses </li></ul><ul><li>government employees </li></ul><ul><li>government ministries, department and agencies </li></ul><ul><li>union leaders </li></ul><ul><li>community leaders </li></ul><ul><li>politicians </li></ul><ul><li>foreign investors </li></ul>
  30. 30. Strategic Planning <ul><li>Strategic planning involves determining the required actions to achieve adesired vision considering the present state of an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>A strategic plan: </li></ul><ul><li>is a road map to lead an organization from its present state to its desired medium or long term future state </li></ul><ul><li>specifies the mission, vision, goals, strategies and objectives </li></ul>
  31. 31. Strategic Planning Process <ul><li>Steps include: </li></ul><ul><li>analyzing the present environment – SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) </li></ul><ul><li>providing a vision statement </li></ul><ul><li>refining vision into goals </li></ul><ul><li>determining strategies using the outcomes of SWOT analysis and specified goals </li></ul><ul><li>formulating concrete and measurable objectives from strategies </li></ul><ul><li>communicating and reviewing the strategic plan </li></ul>
  32. 32. Strategies <ul><li>Attributes of a good strategy: </li></ul><ul><li>builds on strength </li></ul><ul><li>resolve weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>exploit opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>avoid threats </li></ul><ul><li>with respect to specific goals </li></ul><ul><li>Note: </li></ul><ul><li>implementing a strategy may unveil and cause new threats as well as opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>long term strategies therefore must be accompanied by periodic reassessments of strengths, weaknesses and opportunities and threats </li></ul>
  33. 33. eGovernance Strategy <ul><li>A plan for the development of eGovernance specifying, among other things, the vision, goals, milestones, concrete initiatives, priorities, challenges and enabling policies for the eGovernance agenda as a whole. </li></ul><ul><li>a sound strategy is essential for any eGovernance initiative to succeed </li></ul><ul><li>strategy provides the roadmap for transforming a governance system into the desired state through ICT support </li></ul><ul><li>strategy must have the support of all major stakeholders </li></ul>
  34. 34. eGovernance Strategy – Why? <ul><li>creating the right policy and institutional framework from the start </li></ul><ul><li>maximizing the use of ICT initiatives within government </li></ul><ul><li>managing the increasing costs of ICT in government </li></ul><ul><li>mapping path from pilot experiments to sustainable, scalable systems </li></ul><ul><li>pursuing real economic development goals and not just technology </li></ul><ul><li>designing technology architecture (infrastructure, data and standards) for the public sector </li></ul>
  35. 35. eGovernance Strategy Elements <ul><li>Key elements include: </li></ul><ul><li>definition of eGovernance </li></ul><ul><li>formulation and communication of the expected value of eGovernance </li></ul><ul><li>goals, objectives and targets </li></ul><ul><li>enabling and supporting policies </li></ul><ul><li>portfolio of initiatives and a process for executing them </li></ul><ul><li>methodology for e-Readiness assessment </li></ul><ul><li>business models for sustainability </li></ul>
  36. 36. Vision <ul><li>An eGovernance vision is a medium or long term statement concerning broad goals which provides a roadmap and general guidance for institutional change. </li></ul><ul><li>must be clear, intuitive and simple </li></ul><ul><li>states what will be done and what will not be done </li></ul><ul><li>can be central or public agency specific </li></ul><ul><li>considers needs and opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>must be aligned with national development strategy </li></ul><ul><li>involves consensus building by stakeholders </li></ul>
  37. 37. Visioning <ul><li>Steps in the vision building process include: </li></ul><ul><li>identifying and consulting stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>allowing stakeholders to present or explain their own vision for eGovernance </li></ul><ul><li>draft a common vision based stakeholders’ visions </li></ul><ul><li>aligning vision with more general national and local development needs and opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>consolidating and agree on final vision </li></ul>
  38. 38. Strategic Goals <ul><li>Statements that set the direction for eGovernance based on the vision. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic goals typically include: </li></ul><ul><li>social and economic development using ICT </li></ul><ul><li>effective delivery of quality public services, which are accessible and affordable </li></ul><ul><li>improved capacity of government in participatory and consultative decision making processes which progresses democracy </li></ul><ul><li>increased satisfaction of stakeholders through accountability, efficiency, effectiveness, and cost reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinated and transparent policy design, policy implementation, policy maintenance, and policy review </li></ul>
  39. 39. Organization <ul><li>Two prevalent models for implementing eGovernance: centralized and decentralized models. </li></ul><ul><li>Whichever model is adopted, central coordination is required through an agency which is either independent or nested within a ministry. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities of central coordination: </li></ul><ul><li>coordinate the implementation of the eGovernance strategy </li></ul><ul><li>review e-readiness on a regular basis </li></ul><ul><li>coordinate advocacy and awareness campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>coordinate the use of seed funding for co-financing new and innovative </li></ul><ul><li>pilot projects </li></ul><ul><li>provide advice on possible public-private partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>monitor, evaluate and report on progress made in eGovernment </li></ul>
  40. 40. Future eGovernment Organization
  41. 41. Developing Human Capacity <ul><li>Skills required by public administrations: </li></ul><ul><li>change management </li></ul><ul><li>program management </li></ul><ul><li>IT systems development </li></ul><ul><li>IT service management </li></ul><ul><li>IT outsourcing management </li></ul><ul><li>client relationship management </li></ul><ul><li>management based on PRINCE 2 </li></ul>Public administration, citizens, businesses and local IT community must be equipped with the skills required for eGovernance.
  42. 42. Financing <ul><li>Issues to consider: </li></ul><ul><li>eGovernment is cross-cutting, pooling of resources across agencies may be necessary </li></ul><ul><li>reward system could be developed for management and employees to stimulate the drive for eGovernment </li></ul><ul><li>extra-budgetary resources should be considered, e.g. partnership with private-sector in infrastructure development and maintenance </li></ul>Availability of funds determine the type of eGovernment projects that can be carried out.
  43. 43. Funding Strategies Public Private Partnership government and private organizations share the costs, risks and benefits in eGovernance development Outsourcing <ul><li>government invests directly but external enterprises carry out the development </li></ul><ul><li>government owns the system and has complete control </li></ul>Issuance of Bonds • bonds are issued by the government • returns from investment are use to offset bond Advertising • controlled traditional advertisement on the government web sites Government-Enterprise • project development is the responsibility of the enterprise • investment by enterprise is covered by transaction fees
  44. 44. eGov Budget Figures
  45. 45. Mongolian Budget Security Plan
  46. 46. Identifying Stakeholders’ Roles Identifying and filling stakeholders roles is important for assigning responsibilities. Typical stakeholders roles project team those who will directly work on eGovernance projects suppliers suppliers of technologies, resources and expertise operators agency employees who will operate the eGovernance systems champions entities to drive and seek justification for the projects sponsors entities paying for the expense and efforts for the projects owner management of the agency that will own and use the system others others with significant influence on the project
  47. 47. Example -Stakeholders <ul><li>Office of the President, Chief Executive and ministry/agency in charge of eGovernment </li></ul><ul><li>Legislature or parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Government agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Political parties </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Unions </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Research institutions </li></ul><ul><li>International agencies </li></ul>
  48. 48. Developing a Business Model <ul><li>A business model includes: </li></ul><ul><li>how eGovernment solutions would be developed – outsourcing versus internal development </li></ul><ul><li>funding options for provided services -pay-as-you-go, bonds, transaction fees, partnership with third parties, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>how to ensure take up of the various e-Services to be offered </li></ul><ul><li>how to attract the participation of private sector in the continued development of the eGovernance </li></ul>A plan for ensuring the sustainability of eGovernment in terms of resources and adoption.