SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 4
Download to read offline
Globalization
A Short History
by Jürgen Osterhammel and Niels P. Petersson
Princeton University Press © 2005
200 pages
The Roots of “Globalization”
The word “globalization” actually describes a number of processes that are neither
simultaneous nor always moving in the same direction. These processes affect different
parts of the world differently. Globalization goes back much farther than the creation of the
Internet and the development of modern trade relationships; it goes back to the barbarians.
The Mongol Empire united the world for several consequential decades during the thirteenth
century. Another phase of globalization began in the late eighteenth century and continued
through the nineteenth, with the development of imperialism, the so-called industrial
revolution and the spread of free trade. That phase came to a crisis in a shocking series of
disruptions during the early twentieth century. Between 1945 and the mid-1970s, the main
global orders of Soviet communism and U.S. capitalism emerged and coalesced into blocs.
Although people speak of today’s new global order as unprecedented, it has historical
precedents. Networks that transcended national boundaries have existed throughout history.
In fact, the nineteenth and twentieth century nation-states were something of an aberration
in that historic pattern.
Imperial Integration
The Mongol empire tied together the Orthodox and Latin Christian worlds, the Islamic world
and China. However, because the Mongol Empire lacked a common ideology, among other
essentials, it failed to integrate the smaller entities within it and fell apart rapidly. Empires
that endure share these four characteristics:
1. Political structures – The government is a hierarchy, usually monarchic, with military
power that the empire can project over long distances and a common ideology, including the
belief that the center of the empire is the center of the civilized world.
2. Religious ecumenes – Usually, the geographic spread of religion is greater than the
empire’s political or military extent. A religious movement can embrace numerous political
entities, and its source of unity goes beyond mere shared belief. For a religion to provide a
basis for political stability, believers must make pilgrimages to holy sites, and abide by
certain rituals and life rules.
3. Trade – Routes such as the silk road linking China with the Mediterranean, the shipping
lanes between Arabia and India, and the caravan routes between the Near East and North
Africa enabled the spread of people, goods and ideas.
4. Migration – The peace the Mongols established, although brief, was significant.
Among other things, mobility through the empire spread bubonic plague and facilitated the
travels of European missionaries to East Asia.
The Beginning of the Modern Era
The modern era does not begin with the Mongols, but rather in the late fifteenth century,
when the Portuguese – after the voyages of Vasco da Gama – established an
unprecedented European presence in Asia and opened the Pacifi c to Europe. Trade spread
European military technology, including fi rearms and artillery expertise, throughout the
world, and the Islamic and European empires expanded simultaneously in Eurasia and the
Americas. Crops and technologies moved back and forth between Europe and the Americas.
Europeans brought horses and guns to the New World, making the Plains buffalo culture of
the Sioux, Kiowa and other tribes possible. Diseases also moved from the Old to the New
World, and may have been the most effective weapon the Europeans deployed against the
native population. Meanwhile, plants such as potatoes, tomatoes and peppers traveled to
Europe.
During this period, integration was strengthening, but usually within already existing empires,
religious ecumenes and trading networks. The world had numerous “centers” in addition to
Western Europe, such as the Ottoman Empire and China, which were autonomous and self-
contained. Only the Europeans aggressively sent travelers to learn about the other centers.
The Sultan and the Chinese court had little interest in events in Europe or elsewhere.
1750 to 1880: The Expansion of Trade
Revolutions in the Americas did not break the New World’s connections with the Old World
but rather reshaped them. For example, the colonies that revolted against Spain sought new
links with Britain. The revolutionaries of Britain’s North American colonies did not terminate
relations with Britain but instead developed a “special relationship” that continues today. In
the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, navies and merchant marines became
essential components of the modern state. Some of the best minds applied themselves to
naval and merchant marine affairs, such as managing the British East India Company and
the British Royal Navy. Naval organizations became centers of creativity, innovation and
technology. Shipping became a major sector of the economy.
Advances in shipping encouraged the development of a nascent global economy. As people
migrated and settled in frontier areas, they established new economic enterprises and
imported goods from home. Perhaps no indicator of global economic integration was clearer
than the linking of the world’s economic cycles. The great depression of 1873 was
worldwide.
The So-Called Industrial Revolution
The term “Industrial Revolution” is one of the most controversial in modern historical studies.
It may not have been a revolution at all. When it began, Britain was already an important
center of economic innovation, and its textile sector was already global. Furthermore, the
Industrial Revolution was not a single global process but instead many processes. It did not
proceed by imitation but rather through creative adaptation, as each country developed its
own patterns and models of industrialization. If it was a revolution, it was a slow-moving one.
Decades passed before industrial production became the norm and affected every aspect of
life. Yet industrialization had an undeniable impact, especially in the transportation and
military sectors. Using steamships on existing sailing-ship trading networks reduced costs.
Throughout the world, demand grew for Western goods, especially the heavy artillery
produced by European arms manufacturers. These weapons gave colonial rulers an
insuperable advantage over indigenous people. Rail development, often encouraged for
military purposes, helped integrate the remotest regions – although by the midnineteenth
century, the telegraph cable became even more powerful than the railroad as a force for
global integration.
Free Trade and Marxist Utopians
The nineteenth century gave rise to two great, utopian political ideologies: free trade
liberalism and Marxism. Free traders envisioned a world of prosperity and peace that would
arrive when states stopped intervening in agreements between individuals. Marxists, too,
believed that the state’s withering would mark the achievement of the communist dream.
The free traders achieved an important part of their objective when Britain abolished tariffs in
1846. By 1870, enough states had followed that all of Western Europe was one large free-
trade zone, although non-European empires did not join this movement except under
duress. Even within the British Empire, Canada and Australia retained common and
protective tariffs, although they tended to be more politically modern than Britain itself.
Beyond Europe, Japan led modernization. Although it was not a democracy, Japan was, by
the 1880s, a constitutional state. The United States remained in the shadow of Great Britain
throughout the nineteenth century. Its slavery and civil strife made it anything but a model for
global emulation.
World Culture
The invention of the printing press in the 1400s made possible an information revolution in
which ideas spread with unprecedented facility and with a speed that increased over the
centuries. In 1851, Paul Julius Reuter founded the fi rst news agency, and within 10 years
his network spanned six continents. By the 1870s, Egypt, China and Japan all had the
beginings of a modern press. From 1880 onward, the spread of literacy made information
and ideas accessible throughout the world. Journalism emerged as a profession, and
educated classes everywhere were able to read reports of world events in their own
languages.
An international agreement in 1884 established a worldwide system of time-keeping, with the
zero meridian passing through Greenwich, England, and numerous time zones. Pocket
watches became commonplace. A worldwide network of weather stations enabled people to
see climate linkages. Global environmental awareness made its fi rst appearance during the
turn of the century “timber famine,” when people began to criticize economies based on
environmental exploitation and degradation.
Public attitudes toward time and distance changed. Steamship travel became not only an
indulgence of the elite but an economic necessity for ordinary people, including Chinese
economic migrants among others. The bicycle, the automobile and, eventually, the airplane
seemed to shrink the globe. Indeed, people begin to think of the globe as their “frame of
reference”.
World Economy
Labor, capital and goods fl owed among continents. British citizens invested in foreign
securities, exporting capital to meet the demand for European industrial products,
technology and labor. Between 1870 and 1914, trading networks and the multilateral
settlement of trade and payment balances consolidated. States undertook initiatives to
support the infrastructure of transportation and communication, such as rail, post and
telegraph. The gold standard removed most currency and infl ation risk, and in turn dictated
decisions about economic policy. Although global developments scarcely affected some
remote enclaves, in others, such as Argentina, exports became the foundation of the entire
economic structure.
Globalization – although no one called it that – became a contentious political issue. To be a
serious player in the world, a state had to project its power globally. Distance was no longer
a barrier. The European powers partitioned Africa without consulting the Africans and might
well have done the same in China if the complexity of European interests there hadn’t made
achieving a neat division impossible.
World War I would never have happened without globalization. It affected people
everywhere and ultimately ended Europe’s world domination. However, microbes may have
been an even more dramatic manifestation of globalization than the war, trade or politics.
The great infl uenza epidemic of 1918 killed more people than the world war. After World
War I, the great powers attempted to build a new political order. U.S. President Woodrow
Wilson’s 14-point plan for peace did not seem impossible initially. However, suspicion and
hostility among the nations killed it. Efforts to reconstruct the prewar global economy also
encountered opposition in such forms as demand stagnation, government control of
economies and the collapse of the gold standard. The 1929 Wall Street crash and the
ensuing Great Depression turned people against globalization and in favor of regionalism.
The World Split in Two
The two nineteenth-century ideologies of free trade and Marxism developed into the
twentieth-century division of the world into the Soviet bloc, essentially a zone of military
security; and the Western bloc, which aimed to contain communism and to build a global
capitalist economy. This required economic and political coordination. Neither bloc could
achieve military supremacy over the other, and ultimately, the Cold War forced the West, at
least, to recognize the two blocs’ mutual dependence.
About The Authors
Jürgen Osterhammel is a professor of modern and contemporary history at the University of
Konstanz, where Niels P. Peterson is a lecturer in history.

More Related Content

What's hot

globalization and Pakistan
globalization and Pakistanglobalization and Pakistan
globalization and PakistanTahreem Mehmood
 
Introduction to Globalisation
Introduction to GlobalisationIntroduction to Globalisation
Introduction to Globalisationmattbentley34
 
North-South Divide (Generic)
North-South Divide (Generic)North-South Divide (Generic)
North-South Divide (Generic)brianbelen
 
Deng Xiaoping Reforms: Changes and Challenges
Deng Xiaoping Reforms: Changes and ChallengesDeng Xiaoping Reforms: Changes and Challenges
Deng Xiaoping Reforms: Changes and ChallengesJonathon Flegg
 
World systems theory
World systems theoryWorld systems theory
World systems theoryMark Peterson
 
major issues of world politics
major issues of world politicsmajor issues of world politics
major issues of world politicsAbhilash Reddy
 
Neo liberalism
Neo liberalismNeo liberalism
Neo liberalismZaid Uddin
 
Mao zedong (Mao Tse-tung)
Mao zedong (Mao Tse-tung)Mao zedong (Mao Tse-tung)
Mao zedong (Mao Tse-tung)EssaBaig18
 
The Rise And Fall Of Arab Nationalism
The Rise And Fall Of Arab NationalismThe Rise And Fall Of Arab Nationalism
The Rise And Fall Of Arab Nationalismrodneyyeoh
 
Overview of Socialism 12.08
Overview of Socialism 12.08Overview of Socialism 12.08
Overview of Socialism 12.08sarahbutterworth
 
101 Globalisation And Culture
101 Globalisation And Culture101 Globalisation And Culture
101 Globalisation And CultureEcumene
 
history of international relations presentation
history of international relations presentationhistory of international relations presentation
history of international relations presentationgilani syeda
 
Globalization presentation
Globalization presentationGlobalization presentation
Globalization presentationprakatkafle
 
International Relations: Constructivism pt1
International Relations:  Constructivism pt1International Relations:  Constructivism pt1
International Relations: Constructivism pt1Timothy Lim
 

What's hot (20)

globalization and Pakistan
globalization and Pakistanglobalization and Pakistan
globalization and Pakistan
 
Introduction to Globalisation
Introduction to GlobalisationIntroduction to Globalisation
Introduction to Globalisation
 
North-South Divide (Generic)
North-South Divide (Generic)North-South Divide (Generic)
North-South Divide (Generic)
 
Deng Xiaoping Reforms: Changes and Challenges
Deng Xiaoping Reforms: Changes and ChallengesDeng Xiaoping Reforms: Changes and Challenges
Deng Xiaoping Reforms: Changes and Challenges
 
World systems theory
World systems theoryWorld systems theory
World systems theory
 
The emergence of china
The emergence of chinaThe emergence of china
The emergence of china
 
major issues of world politics
major issues of world politicsmajor issues of world politics
major issues of world politics
 
Neo liberalism
Neo liberalismNeo liberalism
Neo liberalism
 
Mao zedong (Mao Tse-tung)
Mao zedong (Mao Tse-tung)Mao zedong (Mao Tse-tung)
Mao zedong (Mao Tse-tung)
 
The Rise And Fall Of Arab Nationalism
The Rise And Fall Of Arab NationalismThe Rise And Fall Of Arab Nationalism
The Rise And Fall Of Arab Nationalism
 
Overview of Socialism 12.08
Overview of Socialism 12.08Overview of Socialism 12.08
Overview of Socialism 12.08
 
101 Globalisation And Culture
101 Globalisation And Culture101 Globalisation And Culture
101 Globalisation And Culture
 
Dependency Theory
Dependency TheoryDependency Theory
Dependency Theory
 
The cultural_revolution_of_china
 The cultural_revolution_of_china The cultural_revolution_of_china
The cultural_revolution_of_china
 
Political Economy
Political EconomyPolitical Economy
Political Economy
 
Chinese Cultural revolution
Chinese Cultural revolutionChinese Cultural revolution
Chinese Cultural revolution
 
Modernization Theory
Modernization TheoryModernization Theory
Modernization Theory
 
history of international relations presentation
history of international relations presentationhistory of international relations presentation
history of international relations presentation
 
Globalization presentation
Globalization presentationGlobalization presentation
Globalization presentation
 
International Relations: Constructivism pt1
International Relations:  Constructivism pt1International Relations:  Constructivism pt1
International Relations: Constructivism pt1
 

Similar to Summary - Globalization - A Short History

Assign 2 ways of world
Assign 2 ways of world Assign 2 ways of world
Assign 2 ways of world jmkatz88
 
The Making Of A Global World
The Making Of A Global WorldThe Making Of A Global World
The Making Of A Global WorldAkanksha Akode
 
The Making Of A Global World
The Making Of A Global WorldThe Making Of A Global World
The Making Of A Global WorldAkanksha Akode
 
Victorian england - Overview of Queen Victoria impact in England
 Victorian england - Overview of Queen Victoria impact in England Victorian england - Overview of Queen Victoria impact in England
Victorian england - Overview of Queen Victoria impact in Englandbabiiash
 
Power point presentation on work,life, and leisure
Power point presentation on work,life, and leisurePower point presentation on work,life, and leisure
Power point presentation on work,life, and leisuresubhangam dey
 
Under Kaiser Wilhelm II, Germany sought a political and i.docx
     Under Kaiser Wilhelm II, Germany sought a political and i.docx     Under Kaiser Wilhelm II, Germany sought a political and i.docx
Under Kaiser Wilhelm II, Germany sought a political and i.docxhallettfaustina
 
THE TRUE GENESIS OF THE RENAISSANCE, OF THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND OF THE ...
THE TRUE GENESIS OF THE RENAISSANCE, OF THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND OF THE ...THE TRUE GENESIS OF THE RENAISSANCE, OF THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND OF THE ...
THE TRUE GENESIS OF THE RENAISSANCE, OF THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND OF THE ...Faga1939
 
Home4 Why Europe and not China1. Why does Landes think that Chi.docx
Home4 Why Europe and not China1. Why does Landes think that Chi.docxHome4 Why Europe and not China1. Why does Landes think that Chi.docx
Home4 Why Europe and not China1. Why does Landes think that Chi.docxpooleavelina
 
Making of global world
Making of global worldMaking of global world
Making of global worldankit thakur
 
Globalization in world history
Globalization in world historyGlobalization in world history
Globalization in world historyHifza Junaid
 
CONTEMPORARY ARTS REPORT FOR ALL HEHE.pptx
CONTEMPORARY ARTS REPORT FOR ALL HEHE.pptxCONTEMPORARY ARTS REPORT FOR ALL HEHE.pptx
CONTEMPORARY ARTS REPORT FOR ALL HEHE.pptxellamaebronola0
 
The Contemporary World - CHAPTER 1.pptx
The Contemporary World - CHAPTER 1.pptxThe Contemporary World - CHAPTER 1.pptx
The Contemporary World - CHAPTER 1.pptxLanceAllera
 
The Difference Between Old, Old And New Imperialism
The Difference Between Old, Old And New ImperialismThe Difference Between Old, Old And New Imperialism
The Difference Between Old, Old And New ImperialismChristina Valadez
 
Ch. 17 industrial revolution
Ch. 17 industrial revolutionCh. 17 industrial revolution
Ch. 17 industrial revolutionlesah2o
 
History of western civilization
History of western civilizationHistory of western civilization
History of western civilizationJaylyn Geronimo
 
CBSE-Class-10-Social-Science-History-Notes-Chapter-3-The-Making-of-a-Global-W...
CBSE-Class-10-Social-Science-History-Notes-Chapter-3-The-Making-of-a-Global-W...CBSE-Class-10-Social-Science-History-Notes-Chapter-3-The-Making-of-a-Global-W...
CBSE-Class-10-Social-Science-History-Notes-Chapter-3-The-Making-of-a-Global-W...null806239
 
A RETROPERSPECTIVE OF EUROPEAN LIFE BETWEEN 1800 AND 1914
A RETROPERSPECTIVE OF EUROPEAN LIFE BETWEEN 1800 AND 1914A RETROPERSPECTIVE OF EUROPEAN LIFE BETWEEN 1800 AND 1914
A RETROPERSPECTIVE OF EUROPEAN LIFE BETWEEN 1800 AND 1914beduinpower135
 

Similar to Summary - Globalization - A Short History (19)

Assign 2 ways of world
Assign 2 ways of world Assign 2 ways of world
Assign 2 ways of world
 
The Making Of A Global World
The Making Of A Global WorldThe Making Of A Global World
The Making Of A Global World
 
The Making Of A Global World
The Making Of A Global WorldThe Making Of A Global World
The Making Of A Global World
 
Victorian england - Overview of Queen Victoria impact in England
 Victorian england - Overview of Queen Victoria impact in England Victorian england - Overview of Queen Victoria impact in England
Victorian england - Overview of Queen Victoria impact in England
 
Power point presentation on work,life, and leisure
Power point presentation on work,life, and leisurePower point presentation on work,life, and leisure
Power point presentation on work,life, and leisure
 
Under Kaiser Wilhelm II, Germany sought a political and i.docx
     Under Kaiser Wilhelm II, Germany sought a political and i.docx     Under Kaiser Wilhelm II, Germany sought a political and i.docx
Under Kaiser Wilhelm II, Germany sought a political and i.docx
 
THE TRUE GENESIS OF THE RENAISSANCE, OF THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND OF THE ...
THE TRUE GENESIS OF THE RENAISSANCE, OF THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND OF THE ...THE TRUE GENESIS OF THE RENAISSANCE, OF THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND OF THE ...
THE TRUE GENESIS OF THE RENAISSANCE, OF THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND OF THE ...
 
Home4 Why Europe and not China1. Why does Landes think that Chi.docx
Home4 Why Europe and not China1. Why does Landes think that Chi.docxHome4 Why Europe and not China1. Why does Landes think that Chi.docx
Home4 Why Europe and not China1. Why does Landes think that Chi.docx
 
Making of global world
Making of global worldMaking of global world
Making of global world
 
Globalization in world history
Globalization in world historyGlobalization in world history
Globalization in world history
 
CONTEMPORARY ARTS REPORT FOR ALL HEHE.pptx
CONTEMPORARY ARTS REPORT FOR ALL HEHE.pptxCONTEMPORARY ARTS REPORT FOR ALL HEHE.pptx
CONTEMPORARY ARTS REPORT FOR ALL HEHE.pptx
 
The Contemporary World - CHAPTER 1.pptx
The Contemporary World - CHAPTER 1.pptxThe Contemporary World - CHAPTER 1.pptx
The Contemporary World - CHAPTER 1.pptx
 
The Difference Between Old, Old And New Imperialism
The Difference Between Old, Old And New ImperialismThe Difference Between Old, Old And New Imperialism
The Difference Between Old, Old And New Imperialism
 
AP WH Chapter 16
AP WH Chapter 16AP WH Chapter 16
AP WH Chapter 16
 
Ch. 17 industrial revolution
Ch. 17 industrial revolutionCh. 17 industrial revolution
Ch. 17 industrial revolution
 
The 19th century phillipines as rizal's context
The 19th century phillipines as rizal's contextThe 19th century phillipines as rizal's context
The 19th century phillipines as rizal's context
 
History of western civilization
History of western civilizationHistory of western civilization
History of western civilization
 
CBSE-Class-10-Social-Science-History-Notes-Chapter-3-The-Making-of-a-Global-W...
CBSE-Class-10-Social-Science-History-Notes-Chapter-3-The-Making-of-a-Global-W...CBSE-Class-10-Social-Science-History-Notes-Chapter-3-The-Making-of-a-Global-W...
CBSE-Class-10-Social-Science-History-Notes-Chapter-3-The-Making-of-a-Global-W...
 
A RETROPERSPECTIVE OF EUROPEAN LIFE BETWEEN 1800 AND 1914
A RETROPERSPECTIVE OF EUROPEAN LIFE BETWEEN 1800 AND 1914A RETROPERSPECTIVE OF EUROPEAN LIFE BETWEEN 1800 AND 1914
A RETROPERSPECTIVE OF EUROPEAN LIFE BETWEEN 1800 AND 1914
 

More from Alberto Rocha

Local Traffic Blueprint - Online Profit Strategies
Local Traffic Blueprint - Online Profit StrategiesLocal Traffic Blueprint - Online Profit Strategies
Local Traffic Blueprint - Online Profit StrategiesAlberto Rocha
 
Summary - The Road to Global Prosperity
Summary - The Road to Global ProsperitySummary - The Road to Global Prosperity
Summary - The Road to Global ProsperityAlberto Rocha
 
Summary - That Used to Be Us - How America Fell Behind in the World It Invent...
Summary - That Used to Be Us - How America Fell Behind in the World It Invent...Summary - That Used to Be Us - How America Fell Behind in the World It Invent...
Summary - That Used to Be Us - How America Fell Behind in the World It Invent...Alberto Rocha
 
Summary - World 3.0 - Global Prosperity and How to Achieve It
Summary - World 3.0 - Global Prosperity and How to Achieve ItSummary - World 3.0 - Global Prosperity and How to Achieve It
Summary - World 3.0 - Global Prosperity and How to Achieve ItAlberto Rocha
 
Summary - China Goes Global - The Partial Power
Summary - China Goes Global - The Partial PowerSummary - China Goes Global - The Partial Power
Summary - China Goes Global - The Partial PowerAlberto Rocha
 
U.S. Department of the Navy - Alameda Naval Aviation Depot - Production Engin...
U.S. Department of the Navy - Alameda Naval Aviation Depot - Production Engin...U.S. Department of the Navy - Alameda Naval Aviation Depot - Production Engin...
U.S. Department of the Navy - Alameda Naval Aviation Depot - Production Engin...Alberto Rocha
 
U.S. Department of the Navy - Contracting Officer's Technical Representative ...
U.S. Department of the Navy - Contracting Officer's Technical Representative ...U.S. Department of the Navy - Contracting Officer's Technical Representative ...
U.S. Department of the Navy - Contracting Officer's Technical Representative ...Alberto Rocha
 
U.S. Department of Labor - OFFCP Contracts Compliance Officer Roles and Respo...
U.S. Department of Labor - OFFCP Contracts Compliance Officer Roles and Respo...U.S. Department of Labor - OFFCP Contracts Compliance Officer Roles and Respo...
U.S. Department of Labor - OFFCP Contracts Compliance Officer Roles and Respo...Alberto Rocha
 
CLI, Inc. Contract Manager Roles and Responsibilities
CLI, Inc. Contract Manager Roles and ResponsibilitiesCLI, Inc. Contract Manager Roles and Responsibilities
CLI, Inc. Contract Manager Roles and ResponsibilitiesAlberto Rocha
 
Robert Half Legal - Contract Manager Roles and Responsibilities
Robert Half Legal - Contract Manager Roles and ResponsibilitiesRobert Half Legal - Contract Manager Roles and Responsibilities
Robert Half Legal - Contract Manager Roles and ResponsibilitiesAlberto Rocha
 
Senior Contract Specialist Roles and Responsibilities at PG&E
Senior Contract Specialist Roles and Responsibilities at PG&ESenior Contract Specialist Roles and Responsibilities at PG&E
Senior Contract Specialist Roles and Responsibilities at PG&EAlberto Rocha
 
Alberto Rocha - Key Core Competencies
Alberto Rocha - Key Core CompetenciesAlberto Rocha - Key Core Competencies
Alberto Rocha - Key Core CompetenciesAlberto Rocha
 
Summary - Procurement 20/20 (Supply Entreprenurship in a Changing World)
Summary - Procurement 20/20 (Supply Entreprenurship in a Changing World)Summary - Procurement 20/20 (Supply Entreprenurship in a Changing World)
Summary - Procurement 20/20 (Supply Entreprenurship in a Changing World)Alberto Rocha
 

More from Alberto Rocha (14)

Local Traffic Blueprint - Online Profit Strategies
Local Traffic Blueprint - Online Profit StrategiesLocal Traffic Blueprint - Online Profit Strategies
Local Traffic Blueprint - Online Profit Strategies
 
Summary - The Road to Global Prosperity
Summary - The Road to Global ProsperitySummary - The Road to Global Prosperity
Summary - The Road to Global Prosperity
 
Summary - That Used to Be Us - How America Fell Behind in the World It Invent...
Summary - That Used to Be Us - How America Fell Behind in the World It Invent...Summary - That Used to Be Us - How America Fell Behind in the World It Invent...
Summary - That Used to Be Us - How America Fell Behind in the World It Invent...
 
Summary - World 3.0 - Global Prosperity and How to Achieve It
Summary - World 3.0 - Global Prosperity and How to Achieve ItSummary - World 3.0 - Global Prosperity and How to Achieve It
Summary - World 3.0 - Global Prosperity and How to Achieve It
 
Summary - China Goes Global - The Partial Power
Summary - China Goes Global - The Partial PowerSummary - China Goes Global - The Partial Power
Summary - China Goes Global - The Partial Power
 
U.S. Department of the Navy - Alameda Naval Aviation Depot - Production Engin...
U.S. Department of the Navy - Alameda Naval Aviation Depot - Production Engin...U.S. Department of the Navy - Alameda Naval Aviation Depot - Production Engin...
U.S. Department of the Navy - Alameda Naval Aviation Depot - Production Engin...
 
U.S. Department of the Navy - Contracting Officer's Technical Representative ...
U.S. Department of the Navy - Contracting Officer's Technical Representative ...U.S. Department of the Navy - Contracting Officer's Technical Representative ...
U.S. Department of the Navy - Contracting Officer's Technical Representative ...
 
U.S. Department of Labor - OFFCP Contracts Compliance Officer Roles and Respo...
U.S. Department of Labor - OFFCP Contracts Compliance Officer Roles and Respo...U.S. Department of Labor - OFFCP Contracts Compliance Officer Roles and Respo...
U.S. Department of Labor - OFFCP Contracts Compliance Officer Roles and Respo...
 
CLI, Inc. Contract Manager Roles and Responsibilities
CLI, Inc. Contract Manager Roles and ResponsibilitiesCLI, Inc. Contract Manager Roles and Responsibilities
CLI, Inc. Contract Manager Roles and Responsibilities
 
Robert Half Legal - Contract Manager Roles and Responsibilities
Robert Half Legal - Contract Manager Roles and ResponsibilitiesRobert Half Legal - Contract Manager Roles and Responsibilities
Robert Half Legal - Contract Manager Roles and Responsibilities
 
Senior Contract Specialist Roles and Responsibilities at PG&E
Senior Contract Specialist Roles and Responsibilities at PG&ESenior Contract Specialist Roles and Responsibilities at PG&E
Senior Contract Specialist Roles and Responsibilities at PG&E
 
Alberto Rocha - Key Core Competencies
Alberto Rocha - Key Core CompetenciesAlberto Rocha - Key Core Competencies
Alberto Rocha - Key Core Competencies
 
Summary - Procurement 20/20 (Supply Entreprenurship in a Changing World)
Summary - Procurement 20/20 (Supply Entreprenurship in a Changing World)Summary - Procurement 20/20 (Supply Entreprenurship in a Changing World)
Summary - Procurement 20/20 (Supply Entreprenurship in a Changing World)
 
Why Choose Me
Why Choose MeWhy Choose Me
Why Choose Me
 

Recently uploaded

1911 Gold Corporate Presentation Apr 2024.pdf
1911 Gold Corporate Presentation Apr 2024.pdf1911 Gold Corporate Presentation Apr 2024.pdf
1911 Gold Corporate Presentation Apr 2024.pdfShaun Heinrichs
 
Fundamentals Welcome and Inclusive DEIB
Fundamentals Welcome and  Inclusive DEIBFundamentals Welcome and  Inclusive DEIB
Fundamentals Welcome and Inclusive DEIBGregory DeShields
 
How the Insurance Industry is Scaling with AI
How the Insurance Industry is  Scaling with AIHow the Insurance Industry is  Scaling with AI
How the Insurance Industry is Scaling with AIPeter Ward
 
Darshan Hiranandani (Son of Niranjan Hiranandani).pdf
Darshan Hiranandani (Son of Niranjan Hiranandani).pdfDarshan Hiranandani (Son of Niranjan Hiranandani).pdf
Darshan Hiranandani (Son of Niranjan Hiranandani).pdfShashank Mehta
 
Driving Business Impact for PMs with Jon Harmer
Driving Business Impact for PMs with Jon HarmerDriving Business Impact for PMs with Jon Harmer
Driving Business Impact for PMs with Jon HarmerAggregage
 
Planetary and Vedic Yagyas Bring Positive Impacts in Life
Planetary and Vedic Yagyas Bring Positive Impacts in LifePlanetary and Vedic Yagyas Bring Positive Impacts in Life
Planetary and Vedic Yagyas Bring Positive Impacts in LifeBhavana Pujan Kendra
 
How To Simplify Your Scheduling with AI Calendarfly The Hassle-Free Online Bo...
How To Simplify Your Scheduling with AI Calendarfly The Hassle-Free Online Bo...How To Simplify Your Scheduling with AI Calendarfly The Hassle-Free Online Bo...
How To Simplify Your Scheduling with AI Calendarfly The Hassle-Free Online Bo...SOFTTECHHUB
 
Customizable Contents Restoration Training
Customizable Contents Restoration TrainingCustomizable Contents Restoration Training
Customizable Contents Restoration TrainingCalvinarnold843
 
5-Step Framework to Convert Any Business into a Wealth Generation Machine.pdf
5-Step Framework to Convert Any Business into a Wealth Generation Machine.pdf5-Step Framework to Convert Any Business into a Wealth Generation Machine.pdf
5-Step Framework to Convert Any Business into a Wealth Generation Machine.pdfSherl Simon
 
Paul Turovsky - Real Estate Professional
Paul Turovsky - Real Estate ProfessionalPaul Turovsky - Real Estate Professional
Paul Turovsky - Real Estate ProfessionalPaul Turovsky
 
Ivey Leveraging Information Technology MBA 2024
Ivey Leveraging Information Technology MBA 2024Ivey Leveraging Information Technology MBA 2024
Ivey Leveraging Information Technology MBA 2024Nihal Nishadul
 
Who is the Darshan Hiranandani Wife ????
Who is the Darshan Hiranandani Wife ????Who is the Darshan Hiranandani Wife ????
Who is the Darshan Hiranandani Wife ????surajkumarsk121223
 
How Generative AI Is Transforming Your Business | Byond Growth Insights | Apr...
How Generative AI Is Transforming Your Business | Byond Growth Insights | Apr...How Generative AI Is Transforming Your Business | Byond Growth Insights | Apr...
How Generative AI Is Transforming Your Business | Byond Growth Insights | Apr...Hector Del Castillo, CPM, CPMM
 
Interoperability and ecosystems: Assembling the industrial metaverse
Interoperability and ecosystems:  Assembling the industrial metaverseInteroperability and ecosystems:  Assembling the industrial metaverse
Interoperability and ecosystems: Assembling the industrial metaverseSiemens
 
GUIDELINES ON USEFUL FORMS IN FREIGHT FORWARDING (F) Danny Diep Toh MBA.pdf
GUIDELINES ON USEFUL FORMS IN FREIGHT FORWARDING (F) Danny Diep Toh MBA.pdfGUIDELINES ON USEFUL FORMS IN FREIGHT FORWARDING (F) Danny Diep Toh MBA.pdf
GUIDELINES ON USEFUL FORMS IN FREIGHT FORWARDING (F) Danny Diep Toh MBA.pdfDanny Diep To
 
Pistachio Caviar and raisins from Iran.pdf
Pistachio Caviar and raisins from Iran.pdfPistachio Caviar and raisins from Iran.pdf
Pistachio Caviar and raisins from Iran.pdfRezaSeif2
 
Simplify Your Funding: Quick and Easy Business Loans
Simplify Your Funding: Quick and Easy Business LoansSimplify Your Funding: Quick and Easy Business Loans
Simplify Your Funding: Quick and Easy Business LoansNugget Global
 
Data Analytics Strategy Toolkit and Templates
Data Analytics Strategy Toolkit and TemplatesData Analytics Strategy Toolkit and Templates
Data Analytics Strategy Toolkit and TemplatesAurelien Domont, MBA
 
Jewish Resources in the Family Resource Centre
Jewish Resources in the Family Resource CentreJewish Resources in the Family Resource Centre
Jewish Resources in the Family Resource CentreNZSG
 

Recently uploaded (20)

1911 Gold Corporate Presentation Apr 2024.pdf
1911 Gold Corporate Presentation Apr 2024.pdf1911 Gold Corporate Presentation Apr 2024.pdf
1911 Gold Corporate Presentation Apr 2024.pdf
 
Fundamentals Welcome and Inclusive DEIB
Fundamentals Welcome and  Inclusive DEIBFundamentals Welcome and  Inclusive DEIB
Fundamentals Welcome and Inclusive DEIB
 
How the Insurance Industry is Scaling with AI
How the Insurance Industry is  Scaling with AIHow the Insurance Industry is  Scaling with AI
How the Insurance Industry is Scaling with AI
 
Darshan Hiranandani (Son of Niranjan Hiranandani).pdf
Darshan Hiranandani (Son of Niranjan Hiranandani).pdfDarshan Hiranandani (Son of Niranjan Hiranandani).pdf
Darshan Hiranandani (Son of Niranjan Hiranandani).pdf
 
Driving Business Impact for PMs with Jon Harmer
Driving Business Impact for PMs with Jon HarmerDriving Business Impact for PMs with Jon Harmer
Driving Business Impact for PMs with Jon Harmer
 
Planetary and Vedic Yagyas Bring Positive Impacts in Life
Planetary and Vedic Yagyas Bring Positive Impacts in LifePlanetary and Vedic Yagyas Bring Positive Impacts in Life
Planetary and Vedic Yagyas Bring Positive Impacts in Life
 
WAM Corporate Presentation April 12 2024.pdf
WAM Corporate Presentation April 12 2024.pdfWAM Corporate Presentation April 12 2024.pdf
WAM Corporate Presentation April 12 2024.pdf
 
How To Simplify Your Scheduling with AI Calendarfly The Hassle-Free Online Bo...
How To Simplify Your Scheduling with AI Calendarfly The Hassle-Free Online Bo...How To Simplify Your Scheduling with AI Calendarfly The Hassle-Free Online Bo...
How To Simplify Your Scheduling with AI Calendarfly The Hassle-Free Online Bo...
 
Customizable Contents Restoration Training
Customizable Contents Restoration TrainingCustomizable Contents Restoration Training
Customizable Contents Restoration Training
 
5-Step Framework to Convert Any Business into a Wealth Generation Machine.pdf
5-Step Framework to Convert Any Business into a Wealth Generation Machine.pdf5-Step Framework to Convert Any Business into a Wealth Generation Machine.pdf
5-Step Framework to Convert Any Business into a Wealth Generation Machine.pdf
 
Paul Turovsky - Real Estate Professional
Paul Turovsky - Real Estate ProfessionalPaul Turovsky - Real Estate Professional
Paul Turovsky - Real Estate Professional
 
Ivey Leveraging Information Technology MBA 2024
Ivey Leveraging Information Technology MBA 2024Ivey Leveraging Information Technology MBA 2024
Ivey Leveraging Information Technology MBA 2024
 
Who is the Darshan Hiranandani Wife ????
Who is the Darshan Hiranandani Wife ????Who is the Darshan Hiranandani Wife ????
Who is the Darshan Hiranandani Wife ????
 
How Generative AI Is Transforming Your Business | Byond Growth Insights | Apr...
How Generative AI Is Transforming Your Business | Byond Growth Insights | Apr...How Generative AI Is Transforming Your Business | Byond Growth Insights | Apr...
How Generative AI Is Transforming Your Business | Byond Growth Insights | Apr...
 
Interoperability and ecosystems: Assembling the industrial metaverse
Interoperability and ecosystems:  Assembling the industrial metaverseInteroperability and ecosystems:  Assembling the industrial metaverse
Interoperability and ecosystems: Assembling the industrial metaverse
 
GUIDELINES ON USEFUL FORMS IN FREIGHT FORWARDING (F) Danny Diep Toh MBA.pdf
GUIDELINES ON USEFUL FORMS IN FREIGHT FORWARDING (F) Danny Diep Toh MBA.pdfGUIDELINES ON USEFUL FORMS IN FREIGHT FORWARDING (F) Danny Diep Toh MBA.pdf
GUIDELINES ON USEFUL FORMS IN FREIGHT FORWARDING (F) Danny Diep Toh MBA.pdf
 
Pistachio Caviar and raisins from Iran.pdf
Pistachio Caviar and raisins from Iran.pdfPistachio Caviar and raisins from Iran.pdf
Pistachio Caviar and raisins from Iran.pdf
 
Simplify Your Funding: Quick and Easy Business Loans
Simplify Your Funding: Quick and Easy Business LoansSimplify Your Funding: Quick and Easy Business Loans
Simplify Your Funding: Quick and Easy Business Loans
 
Data Analytics Strategy Toolkit and Templates
Data Analytics Strategy Toolkit and TemplatesData Analytics Strategy Toolkit and Templates
Data Analytics Strategy Toolkit and Templates
 
Jewish Resources in the Family Resource Centre
Jewish Resources in the Family Resource CentreJewish Resources in the Family Resource Centre
Jewish Resources in the Family Resource Centre
 

Summary - Globalization - A Short History

  • 1. Globalization A Short History by Jürgen Osterhammel and Niels P. Petersson Princeton University Press © 2005 200 pages The Roots of “Globalization” The word “globalization” actually describes a number of processes that are neither simultaneous nor always moving in the same direction. These processes affect different parts of the world differently. Globalization goes back much farther than the creation of the Internet and the development of modern trade relationships; it goes back to the barbarians. The Mongol Empire united the world for several consequential decades during the thirteenth century. Another phase of globalization began in the late eighteenth century and continued through the nineteenth, with the development of imperialism, the so-called industrial revolution and the spread of free trade. That phase came to a crisis in a shocking series of disruptions during the early twentieth century. Between 1945 and the mid-1970s, the main global orders of Soviet communism and U.S. capitalism emerged and coalesced into blocs. Although people speak of today’s new global order as unprecedented, it has historical precedents. Networks that transcended national boundaries have existed throughout history. In fact, the nineteenth and twentieth century nation-states were something of an aberration in that historic pattern. Imperial Integration The Mongol empire tied together the Orthodox and Latin Christian worlds, the Islamic world and China. However, because the Mongol Empire lacked a common ideology, among other essentials, it failed to integrate the smaller entities within it and fell apart rapidly. Empires that endure share these four characteristics: 1. Political structures – The government is a hierarchy, usually monarchic, with military power that the empire can project over long distances and a common ideology, including the belief that the center of the empire is the center of the civilized world. 2. Religious ecumenes – Usually, the geographic spread of religion is greater than the empire’s political or military extent. A religious movement can embrace numerous political entities, and its source of unity goes beyond mere shared belief. For a religion to provide a basis for political stability, believers must make pilgrimages to holy sites, and abide by certain rituals and life rules. 3. Trade – Routes such as the silk road linking China with the Mediterranean, the shipping lanes between Arabia and India, and the caravan routes between the Near East and North Africa enabled the spread of people, goods and ideas. 4. Migration – The peace the Mongols established, although brief, was significant. Among other things, mobility through the empire spread bubonic plague and facilitated the travels of European missionaries to East Asia. The Beginning of the Modern Era The modern era does not begin with the Mongols, but rather in the late fifteenth century, when the Portuguese – after the voyages of Vasco da Gama – established an unprecedented European presence in Asia and opened the Pacifi c to Europe. Trade spread European military technology, including fi rearms and artillery expertise, throughout the
  • 2. world, and the Islamic and European empires expanded simultaneously in Eurasia and the Americas. Crops and technologies moved back and forth between Europe and the Americas. Europeans brought horses and guns to the New World, making the Plains buffalo culture of the Sioux, Kiowa and other tribes possible. Diseases also moved from the Old to the New World, and may have been the most effective weapon the Europeans deployed against the native population. Meanwhile, plants such as potatoes, tomatoes and peppers traveled to Europe. During this period, integration was strengthening, but usually within already existing empires, religious ecumenes and trading networks. The world had numerous “centers” in addition to Western Europe, such as the Ottoman Empire and China, which were autonomous and self- contained. Only the Europeans aggressively sent travelers to learn about the other centers. The Sultan and the Chinese court had little interest in events in Europe or elsewhere. 1750 to 1880: The Expansion of Trade Revolutions in the Americas did not break the New World’s connections with the Old World but rather reshaped them. For example, the colonies that revolted against Spain sought new links with Britain. The revolutionaries of Britain’s North American colonies did not terminate relations with Britain but instead developed a “special relationship” that continues today. In the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, navies and merchant marines became essential components of the modern state. Some of the best minds applied themselves to naval and merchant marine affairs, such as managing the British East India Company and the British Royal Navy. Naval organizations became centers of creativity, innovation and technology. Shipping became a major sector of the economy. Advances in shipping encouraged the development of a nascent global economy. As people migrated and settled in frontier areas, they established new economic enterprises and imported goods from home. Perhaps no indicator of global economic integration was clearer than the linking of the world’s economic cycles. The great depression of 1873 was worldwide. The So-Called Industrial Revolution The term “Industrial Revolution” is one of the most controversial in modern historical studies. It may not have been a revolution at all. When it began, Britain was already an important center of economic innovation, and its textile sector was already global. Furthermore, the Industrial Revolution was not a single global process but instead many processes. It did not proceed by imitation but rather through creative adaptation, as each country developed its own patterns and models of industrialization. If it was a revolution, it was a slow-moving one. Decades passed before industrial production became the norm and affected every aspect of life. Yet industrialization had an undeniable impact, especially in the transportation and military sectors. Using steamships on existing sailing-ship trading networks reduced costs. Throughout the world, demand grew for Western goods, especially the heavy artillery produced by European arms manufacturers. These weapons gave colonial rulers an insuperable advantage over indigenous people. Rail development, often encouraged for military purposes, helped integrate the remotest regions – although by the midnineteenth century, the telegraph cable became even more powerful than the railroad as a force for global integration. Free Trade and Marxist Utopians The nineteenth century gave rise to two great, utopian political ideologies: free trade liberalism and Marxism. Free traders envisioned a world of prosperity and peace that would arrive when states stopped intervening in agreements between individuals. Marxists, too, believed that the state’s withering would mark the achievement of the communist dream. The free traders achieved an important part of their objective when Britain abolished tariffs in 1846. By 1870, enough states had followed that all of Western Europe was one large free- trade zone, although non-European empires did not join this movement except under duress. Even within the British Empire, Canada and Australia retained common and
  • 3. protective tariffs, although they tended to be more politically modern than Britain itself. Beyond Europe, Japan led modernization. Although it was not a democracy, Japan was, by the 1880s, a constitutional state. The United States remained in the shadow of Great Britain throughout the nineteenth century. Its slavery and civil strife made it anything but a model for global emulation. World Culture The invention of the printing press in the 1400s made possible an information revolution in which ideas spread with unprecedented facility and with a speed that increased over the centuries. In 1851, Paul Julius Reuter founded the fi rst news agency, and within 10 years his network spanned six continents. By the 1870s, Egypt, China and Japan all had the beginings of a modern press. From 1880 onward, the spread of literacy made information and ideas accessible throughout the world. Journalism emerged as a profession, and educated classes everywhere were able to read reports of world events in their own languages. An international agreement in 1884 established a worldwide system of time-keeping, with the zero meridian passing through Greenwich, England, and numerous time zones. Pocket watches became commonplace. A worldwide network of weather stations enabled people to see climate linkages. Global environmental awareness made its fi rst appearance during the turn of the century “timber famine,” when people began to criticize economies based on environmental exploitation and degradation. Public attitudes toward time and distance changed. Steamship travel became not only an indulgence of the elite but an economic necessity for ordinary people, including Chinese economic migrants among others. The bicycle, the automobile and, eventually, the airplane seemed to shrink the globe. Indeed, people begin to think of the globe as their “frame of reference”. World Economy Labor, capital and goods fl owed among continents. British citizens invested in foreign securities, exporting capital to meet the demand for European industrial products, technology and labor. Between 1870 and 1914, trading networks and the multilateral settlement of trade and payment balances consolidated. States undertook initiatives to support the infrastructure of transportation and communication, such as rail, post and telegraph. The gold standard removed most currency and infl ation risk, and in turn dictated decisions about economic policy. Although global developments scarcely affected some remote enclaves, in others, such as Argentina, exports became the foundation of the entire economic structure. Globalization – although no one called it that – became a contentious political issue. To be a serious player in the world, a state had to project its power globally. Distance was no longer a barrier. The European powers partitioned Africa without consulting the Africans and might well have done the same in China if the complexity of European interests there hadn’t made achieving a neat division impossible. World War I would never have happened without globalization. It affected people everywhere and ultimately ended Europe’s world domination. However, microbes may have been an even more dramatic manifestation of globalization than the war, trade or politics. The great infl uenza epidemic of 1918 killed more people than the world war. After World War I, the great powers attempted to build a new political order. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson’s 14-point plan for peace did not seem impossible initially. However, suspicion and hostility among the nations killed it. Efforts to reconstruct the prewar global economy also encountered opposition in such forms as demand stagnation, government control of economies and the collapse of the gold standard. The 1929 Wall Street crash and the ensuing Great Depression turned people against globalization and in favor of regionalism.
  • 4. The World Split in Two The two nineteenth-century ideologies of free trade and Marxism developed into the twentieth-century division of the world into the Soviet bloc, essentially a zone of military security; and the Western bloc, which aimed to contain communism and to build a global capitalist economy. This required economic and political coordination. Neither bloc could achieve military supremacy over the other, and ultimately, the Cold War forced the West, at least, to recognize the two blocs’ mutual dependence. About The Authors Jürgen Osterhammel is a professor of modern and contemporary history at the University of Konstanz, where Niels P. Peterson is a lecturer in history.