Quantum physics and measurement
The modem scientific age began in the sixteenth century when the final text of scientific truth became observation and experiment rather than religions or philosophical dogma. By the end of nineteenth century, many scientists endeavoured to explain many natural phenomena through development of a new approach that completely destroyed the determinism. These new ideas are known as quantum theory that arose out of study of atomic physics. By rejecting concept
of determinism, quantum physics comes to terms with a universe whose present state is not simply the effect of its past or the cause of its future. It says that nothing can be measured or observed without disturbing it, so that the role of the observer is crucial in understanding any physical process.