Wolfram data summit 2011.key

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Like many other scientific disciplines, astronomy has witnessed a tremendous growth over the past two decades. As a result, astronomers have become very efficient at creating massive datasets that describe the properties of our nearby universe. Given its primarily visual focus, and its potential to address fundamental questions about humanity, astronomy is in the unique position to be an ideal testbed for algorithms and techniques that address "big data" problems. As a result, the astronomical community, in coordination with all NASA data centers, is trying to cope with "big data" by making use of novel approaches to data mining, data visualization, and data distribution.

Here I will present two applications that showcase how astronomers are tackling the problems associated with the wealth of data at their disposal. First I will describe how GPUs, coupled with clever image processing and Mathematica, are helping the search for extraterrestrial planets. Then I will show how citizen science is changing the social fabric of astronomy and redefining what scientific questions can be addressed by large datasets.

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  • These outstanding results give us hope that as we move into tomorrows’ flood, citizen scientists will be able to play a meaningful role in looking for the new discoveries hiding in a sea of objects computers can’t quite handle. \n\nBut so far, I’ve only asked 1 of my two key questions. While I can say “Yes - they can contribute meaningful data” I haven’t yet answered, can they do it in the need amounts. \n
  • These outstanding results give us hope that as we move into tomorrows’ flood, citizen scientists will be able to play a meaningful role in looking for the new discoveries hiding in a sea of objects computers can’t quite handle. \n\nBut so far, I’ve only asked 1 of my two key questions. While I can say “Yes - they can contribute meaningful data” I haven’t yet answered, can they do it in the need amounts. \n
  • These outstanding results give us hope that as we move into tomorrows’ flood, citizen scientists will be able to play a meaningful role in looking for the new discoveries hiding in a sea of objects computers can’t quite handle. \n\nBut so far, I’ve only asked 1 of my two key questions. While I can say “Yes - they can contribute meaningful data” I haven’t yet answered, can they do it in the need amounts. \n
  • These outstanding results give us hope that as we move into tomorrows’ flood, citizen scientists will be able to play a meaningful role in looking for the new discoveries hiding in a sea of objects computers can’t quite handle. \n\nBut so far, I’ve only asked 1 of my two key questions. While I can say “Yes - they can contribute meaningful data” I haven’t yet answered, can they do it in the need amounts. \n
  • The idea of citizen science isn’t new, but it is having a modern day renaissance. If you’re like me, you may have heard this particular phrase - citizen science - for the first time only in the past couple of years. While you may not have heard this trendy meme before, you probably did know people doing it. You might have known bird watchers participating in the Great Backyard Bird Count or the Christmas Day Bird Count and reporting their results to the Audubon Society or the Cornell Lab of Ornithology. You might have friends who are amateur astronomers who chase novae or track asteroids and report their data to the American Association of Variable Star Astronomers or the Minor Planet Center. All these people who are acquiring data and sharing what they see are citizen scientists. This is what citizen science is: Everyday people making it possible for questions to be answered through their contributions of work, data, and time. \n
  • Solar storm watch builds on the Galaxy Zoo project, which is perhaps the largest citizen science project to date. \n
  • The Galaxy Zoo project is one shining example that yes, the public can make powerful contributions. Launched in 2007, Galaxy Zoo has asked the public to look at images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and to report what they see through a series of easy to understand buttons. In the original galaxy zoo project, users simply reported if what they were seeing was an elliptical galaxy, a spiral that was edge on, or clockwise or counterclockwise, a merger, or a star or image error. \n
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  • The current galaxy zoo project is a bit more complicated, asking users to answer a series of more detailed questions to allow us to better understand the details of the brightest and galaxies in the SDSS. \n\nThe classifications made by people for GZ1 and GZ2 have thus far lead to over 20 submitted and accepted journal articles. In Lintott et al 2008, it was shown that by asking 30 or more people to classify each of our galaxies, we can get an aggregate result that is statistically as good, and sometimes even better, than comes from a single professional classifying a collection of images. Beyond just allowing a better statistical understanding of the distribution of galaxies, this project has also made a series of unexpected discoveries and created statistically significant samples of rare objects.\n
  • We have have found roughly 1000 blue elliptical galaxies\n\nSFR 0.5-50 solar masses / year\n0.02<z <0.05, corresponding to luminosities of approximately L*∗and above\nBlue early-type galaxies tend to live in lower-density environments than ‘normal’ red sequence early-types and makeup 5.7±0.4% of the low-redshift early-type galaxy population.\n\n
  • We have built a collection of 3000 galaxies in various stages of a major merger\n
  • 30\n3000 candidates\n1000 good\n
  • One of our users, Hanny Van Arkel - A dutch elementary school teacher - discovered the first known light echo of a now dormant quasar.\n
  • And a group of users in the forums, bent on being puny, found a novel class of small, star bursting galaxies, affectionately called “peas.”\n\n439\n
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  • 1000 images = area of Manhattan\n
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  • Wolfram data summit 2011.key

    1. 1. Data + Viz = (new) ScienceAlberto ContiSpace Telescope Science Institute
    2. 2. CREDIT: M. TWOMBLY/SCIENCE; SOURCE: SCIENCE ONLINE SURVEY
    3. 3. CREDIT: NASA/Wendy Stenzel
    4. 4. CREDIT: NASA/Wendy Stenzel
    5. 5. CREDIT: NASA/Wendy Stenzel
    6. 6. CREDIT: STScI/Matt Mountain
    7. 7. planet-star separation. The effective sen- energy from the recently formed planets. During Download HR 8799bcd discov- es after the light fromht host star has beend by ADI processing. left) A Keck image in July 2004. (Upper emini discovery ADI cquired in October oth b and c are de-at the two epochs.m) A color image of tary system produced ining the J-, H-, and images obtained at telescope in July (H) tember (J and Ks)he inner part of the image has been ro- 1° to compensate for l motion of d betweenSeptember. The central masked out in the up- es but left unmaskedower to clearly showkle noise level near d.
    8. 8. Target Image Reference Image 20 40 60 80 20 40 60 80 80 80 80 80 60 60 60 60 40 40 40 40 20 20 20 20 20 40 60 80 20 40 60 80Science target with its three Reference star with no planet Planets alone planets (invisible for now) (diffraction pattern) CREDIT: STScI/Remi Soummer
    9. 9. Target ReferenceImage Target Image Reference Image 20 40 60 80 20 40 60 80 20 40 60 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 60 60 60 60 60 60 40 40 40 40 40 40 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 40 60 80 20 40 60 80 20 40 60 80Science target with its three Reference star with no planet PSF subtractions residuals planets (invisible for now) (diffraction pattern) This is why these planets were not found in 1998 CREDIT: STScI/Remi Soummer
    10. 10. MathematicA CREDIT: STScI/Remi Soummer
    11. 11. Lafrenière 2009 Classical subtraction Coronagraphic data 1998 NICMOS orientation 1 1998 NICMOS orientation 2Figure 1: Note: all images (excluding top middle) are on the same scale. Top left: NICMOS coronagraphic data from CREDIT: STScI/RemiHR8799 from program 7226 (cycle 7). Top Middle: Left: (black & white image) Detection of HR8799b in the same data Soummer
    12. 12. CREDIT: STScI/Remi Soummer
    13. 13. Mathematica + GPU? 250x more pixels! CREDIT: STScI/Remi Soummer
    14. 14. understood data all data mysteries Tomorrow’s hope Investing in Human-Computer relations cool mysteries understood dataCREDIT: Zooniverse/Pamela Gay
    15. 15. understood data all data mysteries Tomorrow’s hope Investing in Human-Computer relations cool mysteries understood dataCREDIT: Zooniverse/Pamela Gay
    16. 16. What is Citizen Science? Science Problem + Volunteers from the Public New KnowledgeCREDIT: Zooniverse/Pamela Gay
    17. 17. Galaxy Zoo http://www.galaxyzoo.orgCREDIT: Zooniverse/Pamela Gay
    18. 18. CREDIT: Zooniverse/Pamela Gay
    19. 19. Blue Ellipticals Not Blue, Not DeadCREDIT: Zooniverse/Pamela Gay
    20. 20. Major MergersCREDIT: Zooniverse/Pamela Gay
    21. 21. Overlapping Galaxies Back lighting structureCREDIT: Zooniverse/Pamela Gay
    22. 22. Hanny’s Voorwerp Unique Light EchoCREDIT: Zooniverse/Pamela Gay
    23. 23. Give peas a chance! Green compact galaxiesCREDIT: Zooniverse/Pamela Gay
    24. 24. : Project Overview Tasks: Mark Craters Indicate Boulderiness (None, Some, Many)Mark Spacecraft DebrisMark Crater Features (Bench / Mound / Flat, Dark haloed, Fresh white, elongate pits) Mark Linear Features(Boulder tracks, Crater chain, Sinuous channels, Other linear feature)
    25. 25. : Project Overview Tasks: Mark Craters Indicate Boulderiness (None, Some, Many)Mark Spacecraft DebrisMark Crater Features (Bench / Mound / Flat, Dark haloed, Fresh white, elongate pits) Mark Linear Features(Boulder tracks, Crater chain, Sinuous channels, Other linear feature)
    26. 26. *!!!!")!!!!" More than(!!!!" 60,000 images!!!!" classified by&!!!!" 1022 people between%!!!!"$!!!!"#!!!!" 9/15 and 9/20 !" +&+#!"!,!!" +$&+#!"!,!!" (+#%+#!"!,!!" )+%+#!"!,!!" )+$%+#!"!,!!" *+#$+#!"!,!!" -+#+#!"!,!!" -+$#+#!"!,!!" #!+##+#!"!,!!"
    27. 27. This research was funded funded under NASA ROSES grant NNX09AD34G and NSF DRL 0917608. Additional support provided by the NASA Lunar Science Institute and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.
    28. 28. HUBBLE MISSIONPROJECT AN X-BOX GAME PROTOTYPEDATE CLIENT 2010-08-19 KYLE HARRIS, MATT KAISER & ALBERTO CONTI
    29. 29. www.albertoconti.com @albertoconti

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