Good Feed Manufacturing Practices for the Brazilian Aquaculture Industry

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Good Feed Manufacturing Practices for the Brazilian Aquaculture Industry. Talk given at the 50th Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Society of Animal Science in July 26, 2013, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

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Good Feed Manufacturing Practices for the Brazilian Aquaculture Industry

  1. 1. GOOD AQUACULTURE FEED MANUFACTURING PRACTICES FOR THE BRAZILIAN AQUACULTURE INDUSTRY Alberto J.P. Nunes Associate Professor 50th Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Society of Animal Science Royal Palm Plaza Hotel Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil July 26th, 2013 - 02:00 – 02:30 pm
  2. 2. FACTS ON AQUACULTURE IN BRAZIL 1. Bulk of farm-raised fish and shrimp are fed on industrially compounded feeds 2. Prevalent pond aquaculture systems are semi-intensive with FCRs above 1.2, whereas in intensive aquaculture cage farming systems for tilapia dominates with FCRs above 1.5 3. Extruded and pelleted feeds prevails in fish and shrimp production, respectively 4. In fed-based aquaculture systems a. Freshwater: Chitralada tilapia, tambaqui + hybrids and Brazilian tiger catfish + hybrids b. Marine: whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei 5. Feeding still relies in manual practices. Little mechanization 6. Markets, stringent environmental regulations: driving growth in countryside areas; intensification in coastal aquaculture Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  3. 3. MAJOR GROUPS, SYSTEMS AND FEEDS Shrimp Brackish/Marine Earthen ponds 1–2.5 MT/ha/crop 2.5 – 3 1.0 – 1.5 Pelleted/Extruded Sinking 30 – 35% SI 35 – 38% INT Species Environm. System Yield Crops/yr. FCR Feed* Protein Indigenous fish Freshwater Earthen ponds 7–12 MT/ha/crop 1.5 – 2 1.0 – 1.7 Extruded Floating 28 – 32% SI Omn. 40 – 45% SI Carn. Tilapia Freshwater Cages 80-100 kg/m3 1.5 – 2 1.5 – 1.8 Extruded Floating --- 32% INT *Grower Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  4. 4. BRAZIL: MARINE SHRIMP Earthen ponds – brackishwater or marine Photo: State of Pernambuco, Brazil Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  5. 5. BRAZIL: MARINE SHRIMP Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  6. 6. BRAZIL: MARINE SHRIMP FEED Starter (crumbled) Grower (pelleted) Pelleted shrimp feed Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  7. 7. BRAZIL: INDIGENOUS FISH Earthen ponds - freshwater Photo: State of Rondonia, Brazil Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  8. 8. BRAZIL: TILAPIA CHITRALADA Cages- freshwater Photo: State of Pernambuco, Brazil Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  9. 9. BRAZIL: INDIGENOUS FISH OMNIVOROUS Tambaqui - Colossoma macropomum + hybrids Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  10. 10. BRAZIL: INDIGENOUS FISH CARNIVOROUS Pintado - Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum + hybrids Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013 Pintado Amazônico Photo credit: Otavio Serino Castro
  11. 11. BRAZIL: INDIGENOUS FISH CARNIVOROUS Pirarucu - Arapaima gigas Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  12. 12. BRAZIL: TILAPIA CHITRALADA Tilapia – Chitralada strain Oreochromis niloticus Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  13. 13. BRAZIL: FISH FEED Extruded feed for omnivorous freshwater fish Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  14. 14. BRAZIL: FISH FEED Extruded feed for carnivorous freshwater fish Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  15. 15. HOW BIG IS AQUAFEED IN BRAZIL? Poultry Hog Cattle Pet Horse AQUA Others 37.20 36.30 31.10 15.40 15.10 15.50 7.80 7.40 7.60 2.17 2.26 2.37 0.59 0.56 0.57 0.57 0.65 0.74 0.80 0.75 0.77 2011 2012 2013*F Source: SINDIRAÇÔES. Boletim Informativo do Setor. Maio/2013 x MT/year Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  16. 16. MARGINS AND GROWTH ARE ALSO IMPORTANT 110 130 161 160 168 240 300 345 500 575 665 144 120 66 67 57 84 80 84 71 75 75 262 257 243 256 276 352 403 464 611 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Fish feed¶ (MT/yr.) Shrimp feed¶ (MT/yr.) Aquaculture output* (MT/yr.) Sources: ¶SINDIRAÇÕES. Boletim Informativo do Setor. Maio/2013. http://sindiracoes.org.br/produtos-e-servicos/boletim- informativo-do-setor *FAO. Global Aquaculture Production (online query). http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/global-aquaculture- production/query/en 12% ANNUAL GROWTH RATE Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  17. 17. ARE WE PREPARED TO DELIVER AQUAFEEDS? NORTH 41.8 MT (8.7%) NORTHEAST 145.9 MT (30.4%) SOUTHEAST 71.8 MT (15.0%) SOUTH 150.0 MT (31.3%) MIDWEST 69.8 MT (14.6%) 3 feed mills (6%) 14 feed mills (29%) 7 feed mills (14%) 7 feed mills (14%) 18 feed mills (37%) Sources: MPA (2012) and Sindirações FREIGHT IS A MAJOR COST Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  18. 18. GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES (GMP) Set of technical standards and guidelines involving hygienic, sanitary and operational procedures, intended to ensure the quality, compliance and product safety of feeds to aquatic farm-raised animals Comply with Regulatory Instruction # 4, Feb. 23, 2007 of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply Obtain GMP certification with an accredited independent entity IN4-MAPA GMP Certification HOMEWORK 1.adequate manufacturing equipment and facilities 2.well-established settings, parameters and procedures in manufacturing and quality control 3.trained personnel Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  19. 19. WHAT FEED QUALITY INVOLVES? Raw Material Processing Finished Feed PHYLOSOPHY – EXPERTISE - CARE Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  20. 20. FEEDS DELIVER DIFFERENT PERFORMANCE  Feed brands in Brazil deliver different growth performance to tilapia Chitralada  Differences in growth between one feed and the other can be higher than 15% 5.2 5.6 6.0 6.4 6.8 7.2 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 FEED A Final Body Weight (BW, g) FEED B FEED C FEED D Daily Weight Gain (DWG, g/day)* 857 991 968 890 5.86 6.92 6.85 6.17 *calculated starting at > 195 g fish to harvest weight Growth of tilapia Chitralada in 4-m3 cages at 250 fish/m3. Fish were fed different commercial feed brands. Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013 CASE: Castanhão Dam, CE, Brazil 65.2% 20.9% 1.6% 2.0% Break-down of costs to farm tilapia Chitralada at Castanhão Dam, State of Ceará, Brazil in intensive low-volume cages. Data refers to a production of 172.6 MT of fish harvested. FEED+FINGERLING BANK LOAN SALARY DEPRECIATION OTHER EXPENSES 1.34 USD/kg 0.21 USD/kg 0.43 USD/kg 0.03 USD/kg 0.04 USD/kg TOTAL COST 2.06 USD/kg
  21. 21. PHYSICAL FACTORS 1. Excessive fines in the feed 2. Sinking pellets with buoyancy (shrimp) 3. Poor water stability (shrimp) 4. Poor floatability of floating extruded feeds (fish) 5. Irregular pellet length and diameter 6. Rapid loss of physical integrity in water (shrimp feeds) 7. Lumps or foreign bodies in the feed 8. Variable coloration of pellets 9. Feed bags underweight CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL FACTORS 1. Contamination with fungi, insects or other organisms 2. Odor not compatible with fresh feed 3. Poor fish/shrimp performance (feed intake, growth, FCR) 4. Reduced shelf life FINISHED FEEDS: MAJOR QUALITY ISSUES Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  22. 22. CROOKED PELLETS Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  23. 23. FISH FEEDS: FINES IN EXCESS Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  24. 24. FISH FEEDS: FINES IN EXCESS Preferable: <0.5% fines Tolerable: <1% fines Legislation: up to 2% fines Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  25. 25. FISH FEEDS: NO FINES Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  26. 26. SHRIMP FEEDS: POOR GRINDING Cracks and fissures in a shrimp feed = poor water stability Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  27. 27. SHRIMP FEEDS: EFFECTIVE GRINDING AND OIL COATING Shrimp grower feed Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  28. 28. Purchasing Reception Weighing Mixing Conditioning Grinding Extrusion/Pelleting Drying Post-Cooking Storage Handling Warehousing/Shipment GMP IN AQUAFEEDS Packaging Labeling Cooling Oil Coating Sieving Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  29. 29. AQUA FEEDS: PRODUCTION FLOW Raw material intake 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Premix-/micro- weighing and mixing Conditioning, extrusion and drying Coating and cooling Finished feed silo/packing Weighing Grinding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Source: Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  30. 30. WHAT MAKES MANUFACTURING OF AQUATIC FEEDS DIFFERENT? Reduction of particle size Increase in temperature Heat and pressure texture of the raw material↗ uniform distribution of food particles↗ water stability↗ digestibility↗ anti-nutritional factors↙ starch gelatinization↗ pellet density control↗ Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  31. 31. Chemical analysis* with standard methods or with a NIR (Near Infrared Reflectance) QC FORMULATION *Brazilian Compendium of Animal Feed (CBAA) PURCHASING PURCHASING OF RAW MATERIALS Animal proteins require continuous chemical assessments Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  32. 32. YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!! Salmon meal 66.1% CP Swine Plasma 78.4% CP Blood meal 87.2% CP Meat & bone 41.1% CP Feather meal 75.7% CP Meat & bone 47.6% CP Tilapia meal 62.8% CP Poultry & feather 62.4% CP Poultry meal 58.5% CP FML by-catch 50.3% CP USD 777/MTUSD 1,439/MT USD 460/MTUSD 5,000/MT USD 432/MT USD 576/MT USD 1,093/MT USD 806/MT USD 806/MT USD 1,036/MT Source: SANTOS et al. (2013). M.Sc. Thesis. LABOMAR, Brazil. Animal proteins used in aquafeeds in Brazil. FOB prices (June, 2011). Digestibility in pepsin at 0.0002% 76.6% 99.1% 61.7% 45.5% 11.1% 54.6% 79.6% 42.5% 59.3% 51.7% Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  33. 33. Animal by-products are highly variable on their chemical profile and freshness (sources and processing methods). Monitoring of chemical evaluation is required in almost every batch of raw material purchased. VARIABILITY OF RENDERED BYPRODUCTS 66.1% 78.5% 87.2% 41.1% 75.6% 47.6% 62.8% 62.4% 58.5% 50.3% 76.6% 99.1% 61.7% 45.4% 11.1% 54.6% 79.0% 42.5% 59.3% 51.7% Salmon meal, 66% CP Swine plasma, 79% CP Blood meal, 87% CP Meat & bone, 41% CP Feather meal, 76% CP Meat & bone, 48% CP Tilapia meal, 63% CP Poultry & feather, 62% CP Poultry meal, 58% CP Fishmeal by catch, 51% CP % Ash Peroxide (meq O2/kg) 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 % Fat% Digestibility in pepsin % Crude Protein Source: SANTOS et al. (2013). M.Sc. Thesis. LABOMAR, Brazil Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  34. 34. PURCHASING OF RAW MATERIALS 1. Quality standards: physical, chemical and microbiological parameters that fall within an acceptable range 2. Need to consider variations: seasonal, suppliers, batches from the same origin 3. Only acquire RMs from reputable ingredient suppliers who comply with the mill’s and MAPA s quality standards 4. Basic standards: odor, color, moisture, density, particle size, texture, aflatoxin, odd materials Moisture (max.) Crude Protein (min.) Digestibility in pepsin 1:10000 to 0.2% in HCl 0.075N (min.) Total fat (min.) Acidity expressed as meq (NaOH 0.1N/100 (max.) Ash (max.) Calcium (max.) Phosphorus (min.) Total insolubles in HCl 1:1 (max.) Quality standards for fishmeal (Portaria No 7, Nov. 09, 1998 MAPA) 10.00% 55.00% 90.00% 10.00 10.00% 20.00% 6.00% 2.70% 2.00% 1. Chemical analysis with standard methods or with a NIR (Near Infrared Reflectance) 2. Critical ingredients: animal proteins Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  35. 35.  All raw materials entering the plant need to be inspected for: 1. Signs of humidity (mold confirms deterioration) 2. Presence of metals, stones, dirt or other non-biological contaminants 3. Presence of insects 4. Color and odor: rancid and ammonia smell, over toasting  Moisture need to be determined by quick methods  Dry ingredients with moisture content > 13% are highly susceptible to quality problems PRELIMINARY INSPECTION Quick moisture analyzer Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  36. 36. PRELIMINARY INSPECTION: SAMPLING SPEAR SAMPLING 1 2 3 5 7 9 10 1 1 126 84 Bulk cargo 12 sampling points 5% or about 10 bags BAGGED RAW MATERIAL Premix, Vitamins, Amino Acids, Antifungal, Antioxidant Enzymes, Mycotoxin binders 1 bag (200 g) Spear inserted horizontally and diagonally Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  37. 37. Feedstuff Recommended Analysis1 Grains M, R, PC, PI, MC, T, D Rendered animal byproducts M, A, ET, PZ, PC, PI, T, C, O Terrestrial plant byproducts M, PZ, PC, PI, T, C, O, UA2 Oils A, C, O Minerals M, PC, PZ, C Additives and Premix M, PZ, C 1M, moisture; R, rating/classification; A, acidity; PC, presence of contaminants; PI, presence of insects; MC, mycotoxins; T, temperature; D, density; EB, Eber test; PZ, particle size; C, color; O, odor; UA, uretic activity 2For soy products (meal, extruded or deactivated soy) RECCOMENDED ANALYSIS FOR FEEDSTUFFS* *Source: Pastore et al. 2013 Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  38. 38. QUALITY OF FEED RELIES ON THE FRESHNESS OF RAW MATERIALS 1. Degree of Rancidity (Peroxide Index) 2. Acidity 3. Deterioration of the protein fraction 4. Contaminants 5. Moisture 6. Particle size 7. Mycotoxins 8. Microbiology (Salmonella) 9. Protein digestibility in pepsin 10.Uretic activity 11.Color and odor Feed mills need to design: 1. quality standards for each raw material 2. procedures in case RM is not acceptable (agree with suppliers) Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013 For details check Pastore et al., 2013
  39. 39. STORAGE OF RAW MATERIALS 1. Proper identification to avoid cross contamination: product ID, batch number, date of arrival, bag weight; temperature, date of chemical analysis, notes 2. Adopt first-in first-out procedure: properly discard expired raw materials 3. Keep storage area clean, ventilated, free from rodents, insects, birds and from direct sunlight Labels should contain information on moisture content, crude protein, fat, fiber, ash, calcium, phosphorous Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  40. 40. CLIMATE-CONTROLLED STORAGE UNITS STABILITY: Vitamins, premixes, larval diets, probiotics Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  41. 41. Natural Assisted Pressurized Recirculated VENTILATION SYSTEMS TO CONTROL HUMIDITY  Relative air humidity is dependent on temperature  Rising temperatures = moisture in air to cause saturation increases Sources:Carpenter,1988.Goddard,1996. Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  42. 42.  Toxic metabolites produced by various fungal species (e.g., Aspergillus., Penicillium, Fusarium)  Control temperature and moisture  More than 100 different types of mycotoxins: aflatoxin, fumonisin, deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin), trichothecenes  Even in low concentration can affect fish and shrimp performance  Brazil: Maximum total aflatoxin B1+B2+G1+G2) levels: 50 µg/kg in feedstuffs and prepared feeds  Elisa kit for quick quantitative and qualitative analysis Supplementation of mold inhibitors to prepared feeds: 1. Propionic acid 2. Benzoates 3. Formic acid MYCOTOXINS TEMPERATURE > 25oC + MOISTURE >12% Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  43. 43. MYCOTOXINS IN AQUATIC FEEDS MYCOTOXIN MAXIMUM LEVEL (µg/kg ) Aflatoxin Omnivorous fish species < 50 Shrimp < 20 Trichothecenes Omnivorous fish < 150 Carnivorous fish species < 100 Shrimp < 100 Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) Omnivorous fish < 500 Carnivorous fish species < 300 Shrimp < 300 Fumonisin Omnivorous fish < 1,000 Carnivorous fish species < 750 Shrimp < 750 Zearalenone Omnivorous fish < 220 Carnivorous fish species < 200 Shrimp < 200 Ochratoxin Omnivorous fish < 150 Carnivorous fish species < 120 Shrimp < 120 Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  44. 44. GRINDING  Process by which feed ingredients are ground to smaller particles  Accounts for a major cost in feed processing • > 95% = <250 microns • Remainder should not exceed 400 microns  Ingredients with particles > 2.5 mm should be pre- ground  Worn hammers and increased feed rates can result in coarser particle sizes Screens of an industrial grinder Hammers inside a grinder 0.6 a 1.2 mm Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  45. 45. • Increases contact with heat during processing • Help to destroy anti-nutritional factors • Improves mixing of individual feed particles • Promotes digestibility in shrimp and fish steam Poor cooking = poor starch gelatinization LARGER SURFACE AREA enzymes WHY EFFECTIVE GRINDING IS NECESSARY? SMALLER SURFACE AREA Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  46. 46. GRINDING Sorghum, wheat bran, soybean meal, corn require grinding Animal ingredients should be mixed with cereal grains or solvent extracted oil seeds Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  47. 47. MIXING Liquid spray (lecithin, fish oil, fish solubles)  Critical to obtain a uniform mix  Mix uniformity = feed ingredient/nutrient consistency  Particle size, shape, density, static charge, hygroscopicity and adhesiveness lead to ingredient segregation = nutritional imbalance  Addition of vitamins, binders and other additives  Control duration of mixing and loading of ingredients  Vertical = 12 to 15 minutes  Horizontal = 3 to 5 minutes Top view of a horizontal mixer No fish oil in mixing Addition of fish oil in mixing Ribbon/horizontal mixer Clean to be free from build-up of residues Noozle spray INGREDIENT CLUMPING Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  48. 48. CONDITIONING  Aqua feeds contain ingredients with high starch content  Need to gelatinize starch and denature proteins: biding proprieties increased  Gelatinization promoted by heat and water  Type of starch, time, temperature and amount of moisture will determine level of gelatinization Source: WHY CONDITIONING? Extruded – floating – fish Reduces wear costs Increases capacity of extruder Improved control of floating Ingredient flexibility Pelleted – sinking – shrimp Water stability Pellet appearance Greater production capacity Shafts + paddles Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  49. 49. PELLETING – SINKING – SHRIMP > 90oC temperature Steam pressure 60 – 150 PSI > 90-second retention From mixer (13 – 14% moisture) 16 – 18% moisture before die Double conditioning cylinders Press rollers Die Die  The bulk of shrimp feed is produced through pelleting  Shrimp are slow feeders  Conditioning is critical to keep feed stable while immersed in water  80% water stable for 4 hours Cooked mash POST-COOKING Knife Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  50. 50. WET EXTRUSION – FLOATING - FISH Preconditioning: 20-25% moisture 90oC temperature 3 to 5-minute retention Extruder barrel Live bin Die and knife Dried feed mix Preconditioning cylinder Steam Water+heat Extruder drive Dual shaft Colling and drying Extrusion: 120-150oC temperature 215-435 psi steam pressure Retention 25-30 seconds Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  51. 51. FINES IN EXCESSDRYING AND COOLING  Shelf-life: control growth of microorganisms during storage  No need to use heat to dry pelleted shrimp feed; cooling suffices  Extruded fish feeds require drying and cooling  15-20 min. retention. Max. temp. 177oC: 10% final moisture Cooling fan Fan 1 Fan 2 Fan 3 Fan 4 Exhaustion fan Conveyor dryer Conveyor cooler Source: Pastore et al., 2013 Dryer attached to a cooler. Source: Extru-tech Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  52. 52. FINES IN EXCESSOIL COATING  Feeds can be oil-coated through several methods  Critical to be accurate in the amount of oil added = formula  Preferably coat while feed still hot  Vacuum coating systems required when oil >10% feed after oil coating before oil coating Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013 Vacuum coater
  53. 53. FINES IN EXCESSREMOVAL OF FINES AND OVERS* *Oversized pellets or clumps of pellets and debris 1. May remove up to 5% of fines and overs for recycling 2. > 5% may reduce feed water stability Source: Tan and Dominy (1997) Sifting of finished shrimp feed in a screener Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013
  54. 54. FINES IN EXCESSREMOVAL OF FINES AND OVERS* Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013 BAGGING  Feeds are packed in 10 to 25 kg bags (40-kg bags still used in Brazil)  Bags made from polypropylene laminated with or without inner bag  Packaging, labeling and advertising: need to comply with MAPA s Regulatory Instruction # 22, Jun. 2, 2009  Bags should be tagged with code that identifies production run in case quality issues are identified and recalling is required  Preferably adopt automatic weighing of bags and semi- automatic sewing
  55. 55. FINES IN EXCESSREMOVAL OF FINES AND OVERS* Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013 FEED STORAGE Pallet Front view Top view 1.8 m 1.3m 8 bags stacked 8 bags in the base  Use pallets to rest feed bags  Avoid excessive stacking (maximum of 10 bags)  Keep bags away from direct contact with walls, floor, sunlight, humidity  Adopt first-in-first out  Never deliver feeds to the market near expiration date or with the following signs (Jauncey and Ross, 1982; Goddard, 1996):  Mustiness and staleness  Discoloration and lumpiness  An increase in moisture content and temperature with resulting “sweating”
  56. 56. Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013 CONCLUSIONS AND REMARKS  Need to promote greatest awareness of GMP principles across all feed mills in the country  Industry should be proactive in defining higher standards for raw material and feeds: 1. Work with suppliers to raise quality standards of rendered animal byproducts and fishmeal made from fisheries offal and by-catch through certification 2. Improve guarantee levels in labels and bags beyond government regulation: methionine, lysine, protein digestibility, fines, water stability, floatability 3. Formulate towards lowest phosphorus emission feeds possible 4. Maintain traceability records in production (ingredients, medicated feeds and finished products) 5. Extend shelf-life of finished feeds
  57. 57. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 1. CNPq/MCT: Research Productivity fellowship - PQ - 2012 , Protocol #: 305513/2012-5 Alberto Nunes · alberto.nunes@ufc.br 50th Annual Meeting of the BSAS Campinas, SP, Brazil - July 26th, 2013

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