The effects of soil p h on the growth of tomato plant (2)
1The Effects of Soil pHon the Growth ofTomato Plant1
2AcknowledgementsWe would like to thank the following:First to God for giving us the strength, undying blessing, support and guidance in this undertakingTo Mr.Teodoro Siao without him none of this would happen.To our adviser: Mr. Rene E.Aligonero, for leading us along the way.And finally,To our parents Mr. and Mrs. Aligonero and De Los Santos who supported & believed that wecould accomplish this task.And to all those who helped us which we could not remember, Thank you and accept our mosthumble apology.Heartfelt thanks,--* Airah Delos Santos & Albert Joseph Aligonero
3CHAPTER IThe Problem of its BackgroundIntroductionThe topic is all about the effects of pH level or acidity level of the soil on the tomato plant.The researchers would like to find out what would be its effects and how it would affect theproduction of tomato plant instead of using fertilizers and other alternatives.The researchers will focus on how tomato plants react on varied pH levels of soilparticularly on growth rate.Statement of the ProblemThe study aims to find out the growth rate of tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum) usingpH acids.1) What is the growth rate of lycopersicon esculentum using?a. ascorbic acidb. carbonic acid with phosphoric acidc. hydrochloric acidd. ethanoic acide. water2) Is there a significant difference in the growth rate between lycopersicon esculentum grownusing:a. ascorbic acidb. carbonic acid phosphoric acidc. hydrochloric acidd. ethanoic acid
4e. water (mineral)HypothesisThere is no significant difference in the growth rate of the lycopersicon esculentum usingthe pH acids.Assumptions1) The seedlings studied were in good condition and in normal temperature.2) The seedlings were from the same variant of lycopersicon esculentum.3) It is assumed that water is a factor in the growth of plants.Scope and DelimitationThe study focuses only on the effect of the effects of soil pH on the growth of tomatoplant. Furthermore, water, although not an acid but a universal solvent, is still considered in thegrowth of any plant. Therefore, the inclusion of water is considered a control variable.Significance of the StudyResearchers – The findings help the researcher to conduct similar studies related to acidlevel of soil that could also be studied in relation to other variables aside from growth rare.Scientists – serve as their basis or another experiment if ever they don’t know this yet forthem to improve or develop.Farmers – they will be able to increase their knowledge and for them to be inquisitive.School Officials – add in to their curriculum.Science Teachers – share to their students.DOST Officials – serve as their basis or another experiment if ever they don’t know thisyet.
5CHAPTER IIReview of Related LiteratureConceptual LiteratureTomato (lycopersicon esculentum)Young buds appear near the apical meristem to begin the formation of the flower truss orflower cluster. As the flower buds develop, the core elongates and the new formed petals can beseen between the sepals. The nature flower appears as a bright yellow open core and is ready forpollination.For “beef” tomatoes 3 to 5 flowers should be allowed to develop on a healthy truss.Fertilized flowers are denoted by the appearance of bruises or the other core left by bumble beeswhile clamping unto and pollinating the flower. At fruit set, flower petals and another sensescollie and fail away as a pea sized green fruit appear at each termination of the flower tress.Typically it takes 45-50 more days from this point harvest. As a fruit enlarges, it remains lightgreen in color and very firm high turgor pressure. Fruit closest to the plant stem is them mostmature, and thus largest in size.Ripening occurs as the fruit changes color from light green to off white, pink, red andfinally dark or orange/red. If pollen is not evenly distributed on the stigma, all the ovules are notfertilized, preventing sections of the new fruit from developing, blossoms end rest, a leatherybrown pastel or the blossom end of the fruit, is a common nutrient deficiency disorder affectingtomato plants if results from a lack a calcium reaching the developing fruit. (Giacomelli2002)
6Plant NutritionCalcium Deficiency- youngest leaves looked bleached, especially at tips of the leaves.Leaf tips rolls & appear Scorched. Along the edges of the leaves the veins remain green while leaflooked bleached out. New leaves may be distorted in shape. Old leaves turn brown and die.Growth is started, new buds don’t grow. In vegetables you get blossom end not * black spots inthings like celery, carrots & cabbage. Usually only occurs in every help soil. Calcium is usuallyneeded to build plant cells walls, & to help more nutrients through out the plant. Calcium is inneed not a problem. If your soil PH is between 6-8 too much or too little water can also affectcalcium levels in the plant. Magnesium deficiency or older leaves became yellow, while veinsremain green. Leaves drop of plant. Leaves may curl up at the edges & edges become red-brown-purple in color leaving a green surrounded shape in the center of the leaf. Magnesium is neededfor photosynthesis it is the main element in the chlorophyll molecule. It helps the plant up takeiron & also to more nutrients around the plant.(Hold Epson salt 1 teaspoon per gallon twice a year to fix a magnesium deficiency). Sulfurdeficiency is youngest plants.Organic FarmingOrganic farming can be defined as an approach to agriculture where the aim is to createintegrated, humane, environmentally and economically sustainable agricultural productionsystem. Maximum reliance is placed on locally or farm derived renewable resources and themanagement or self-regulating ecological * biological processes and interjectors in order toprovide acceptable levels of crop, livestock and human nutrition, protection from pests ,diseasesand an appropriate return to the human and other resources employed.
7Reliance all external inputs, whether chemical or organic is reduced as far as possible. Inmany European countries, organic agriculture is known as ecological agriculture, reflecting thisreliance on ecosystem management rather than external inputs. (Jenson2008)Nutrient Compound of SoilThe major nutrients that make up a plant are carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Godspeedexplains. These three are currently free, coming from water and the air. The roots are vital in theup take of oxygen, and if the soil is water logged on simply over watered. It can delete the plantof needed oxygen and cause serve damages or even death. The next nuts in highest demand arenitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. These are the three elements found in a typical bag orfertilizer. The next three elements in demand, calcium, magnesium & sulfur, are not normallyfertilizer. The researchers added that in Northern Utah, namely if ever they here a problem withcalcium and magnesium. It has other benefits, but is seldom deficient enough in our soils torequire an extra application for plant growth.
8CHAPTER IIIMethodologyEXPERIMENT # 1Cloudy WeatherSoil: LOAMThe researcher used egg tray to separate the seedlings.When they grow, the researcher measures each seedling before the researcher separatesthem to small pots.The researchers only use 2ml of water for each seedling.A. Materials used:Tomato seedlings (lycopersicon esculentum)Egg trayLOAM soil08/30/09The researchers separate the plants to small pots.The researchers measure their initial height:Plant Height1 6.5cm2 5.0cm3 6.1cm4 6.2cm5 6.2cmB. Acids mixed in 1.5L of water.Ethanoic acid in 200mlCarbonic acid & phosphoric acid in 300mlAscorbic acid 50gHydrochloric acid 50mg
91.5L of plain waterC. Preparation of plantsThe plants were prepared by moving them from the egg tray then placed inseparated pots. The plants were gently removed from the soil.D. ObservationsThe plants were observed for 21 days. The researchers measured the physicalchanges of the plant for instance the height, and recorded the gross appearance to beable to compute the growth rate.Computation for the growth rateGrowth Rate = Final height – initial height21 Days
10E. Flow chartConceptual FrameworkInput Process OutputTomato plant growing the seedling a comparative studyDifferent kinds of acids on the growth rate ofapplication of variablestomatoes (lycopersiconesculentum) using differentkind of acidsDevelopment of tomatoes data gathering kind of acids
11At exactly 4:31 in the afternoon the researcher watered the plants.Morning 9:35 08/31/09Afternoon 4:30(After 2 days) 09/01/09Morning 7:32Afternoon 6:28Morning 7:050 9/02/09Afternoon09/03/09Date Morning Afternoon9/04 7:15 6:459/05 6:25 5:429/06 7:35 4:309/07 7:22 5:459/08 6:32 6:559/09 7:48 6:459/10 7:28 6:239/11 7:20 6:489/12 7:21 5:219/13 7:15 4:389/14 7:05 5:429/15 7:32 4:309/02-03 (c. hydrochloric acid)Plant (3)The plant starts to wilt and leaves starting to get dry.The stem is thin.9/02-03 The researcher noticed the plant (1) (ascorbic acid) leaves became thicker.Compare with the other plants, its leaves are lesser than the others.
129/02-03 The researcher noticed that the plant (2) (carbonic and phosphoric acid)It leaves has a pleasant smell compare to the other.9/02-03 Plant (4) (ethanoic acid) the researcher noticed its slow growth and development.9/02-03 Plant (5) (water) no changes.September 21, Monday morning9:39amThe first experiment was successfully done and the results were acceptable. Theresearcher continuously watered the plant and observed until the tomato produced fruits.Over the past few days when the plants bloomed, the researchers observed changes fromleaves, stem, color, and even the smell of the plants as they react in the acids.(See results in chapter 4)
13EXPERIMENT # 2November 15, 2009The researchers consulted Mr. Rene E. Aligonero and he advised the team how to start andconduct the second trial on the effects of soil pH on the growth of tomato plant.October 10, 2009The researcher planted seeds from tomato fruit using same variants.(Same size of pot in each plant, same type of plant in each pot, same type and amount of soil ineach pot)November 3, 2009 ----- First dayThe researcher decided that it was the right time to choose which of the plants can be usefor our experiment.For plant A it measure : 5.4 cmPlant B it measure : 3.5 cmPlant C it measure : 4.9 cmPlant D it measure : 5.0 cmPlant E. it measure : 4.5 cm(According to its initial height)At exactly in the morning the researcher transferred the plants into their pots and wateredeach plant according to its assigned acid.
14The researcher used the same acids as the first trial here been used, as well as the soil werewe planted the plants. After the transferring the researcher assured that the plants received /receiving enough sunlight…Plant A waterPlant B carbonic acid with phosphoric acidPlant C ethanoic acidPlant D ascorbic acidPlant E hydrochloric acid1stDayBefore the day ends the researcher noticed & observed that the leaves of plant A, D & Eget bigger &healthier, while the stems of plant B & D gets thicker & the leaves & stems of plant C gets thinner& looks like it will get will.2ndDayPlant CGetting wilt3rdDayGetting wilt4thDayPlant ATallestPlant CGetting Withered
15Plant DGetting taller stemsPlant EIt looks like that its stems and leaves are getting wilt5thDayPlant A & ENo changesPlant B & DGetting HealthierPlant CWithered6thDayPlant ATallestPlant BNext in Plant A’s heightPlant CDecomposingPlant DIncreased in number of leaves but some of its leaves are getting wiltPlant ESmallest plant according on its height
167thDayPlant ANo changes*consistent in heightPlant BNo changesPlant CDecomposingPlant DGetting WiltPlant ESmallest and slowest growth rate8thDayPlant AHighest and has the fastest growth developmentPlant BNo changesPlant CDecomposingPlant DWithered
17Plant ESome of its leaves were getting dry9thDayPlant C & DDecomposingPlant ELeaves of it were getting Dry even more10thDayPlant C & DDecomposingPlant B & EIts stems were getting thin11thDayPlant CNothing’s leftPlant DDecomposingPlant B & EIts stems were getting thinAnother leaf is withered12thDayPlant CDecomposed
18Plant DDecomposingPlant B & EWithering; its stems and leaves were becoming dry13thDayPlant AHealthiestPlant BSurvivingPlant C and DDecomposedPlant EWithered14thDayPlant ANo changesPlant BSurviving, It stems were getting thinner and almost all of its leaves were dry, it won’t stay andlive longerPlant C and DDecomposed
19Plant EDecomposing15thDayPlant AHealthiestPlant BUnfortunately, the plant died.WitheredPlant C and DDecomposedPlant EDecomposing16thDayPlant ANo changesPlant BDecomposingPlant C and DDecomposedPlant EDecomposingThe researcher can conclude now but then as it stated that we must wait until on its 21stDay.17thDayPlant ANo changesPlant B and EDecomposing
20Plant C and DDecomposed18thDayPlant AConsistentPlant BDecomposingPlant C, D and EDecomposed19thDayPlant AConsistentPlant BDecomposingPlants C, D and EDecomposed20thDayPlant AConsistentPlant BDecomposedPlant C, D and EDecomposed21stDayPlant ASURVIVORPlant B, C, D and EDecomposedThe Researchers can therefore conclude now.
21November 23, 20097:30AMThe researcher 2ndtrial of experimenting was successfully done. The results areacceptable. Even though it does not tally on our first experiment and does not shows the sameresults as the first trial show.As the first trial goes still the plant A, water survived, most even though on the 2ndtrialonly Plant A, water survived and still alive, continuously growing.The researchers think that this maybe the possible causes:1) Unripe seeds2) Burrowing placement of the seeds, might be too deep that’s roots aren’t able toexpand3) Changing in weather4) Infection /unhealthy because of weather condition5) Soil composition, maybe not the same with the other soila) sandy soil and rocky soil6) Soil maybe lack of nitrogen fixing bacteria or over nitrogen fixing bacteria.7) External forces around8) Parasites9) Harmful insects10) Not enough leaves to produce food for the plan.
22Experiment # 3:December 21, 2009The researchers planted new seeds from tomato fruit using same variant.- Tomato Fruits (seeds)- SoilFair WeatherDecember 28, 2009Researchers noticed that 6 seeds sprouted.December 29, 2009Researchers saw the possible new set of plants that can use for our 3rdtrial.(Same size of pot in each plant, same type of plant in each pot, same type and amount of soil ineach pot)
23First dayJanuary 13The researchers decided that it was the right time to choose which of the plants can weUse for our experiment.Plant A it measure : 5.1 cmPlant B it measure : 5.7 cmPlant C it measure : 4.3 cmPlant D it measure : 5.2 cmPlant E. it measure : 4.7 cm(According to its initial height)At exactly in the morning the researcher transferred the plants into their pots and wateredeach plant according to its assigned acid.The researcher used the same acids as the first trial here been used, as well as the soil werewe planted the plants. After the transferring the researcher assured that the plants received /receiving enough sunlight…Plant A waterPlant B carbonic acid with phosphoric acidPlant C ethanoic acidPlant D ascorbic acidPlant E hydrochloric acid
24Experiment # 4:We planted 12 tomato seedlings but we only use 5 of them, to know more about ourexperiment, we decided to use the other plants so that we can start two experiments at the sametime and day. By doing this we can compare our experiments.Plant A it measure : 5.4 cmPlant B it measure : 5.5 cmPlant C it measure : 4.9 cmPlant D it measure : 5.3 cmPlant E. it measure : 4.2 cmOur 3rdand 4thexperiment was prepared at the same day and time but we observed it inseparate place, by doing this, we can compare our experiments.(See results in chapter 4)
25CHAPTER IVPresentation, Analysis and Interpretation of DataThis chapter represents data gathered and tabulated by the researchers from theexperiments to determine the growth rate of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) using differentkinds of acids.Table 1: EXPERIMENT # 1plant Initial height Final height growth rate (cm/day)a water 6.5cm 18.1cm 0.552380952b carbonic and phosphoricacid5.0cm 18.6cm 0.647619047c ethanoic acid 6.1cm the plant diedd ascorbic acid 6.2cm 18.9cm 0.604761904e hydrochloric acid 6.2cm 12.0cm 0.276190476Table 1 presents that plant A grew using water has the average daily growth rate of0.55 cm, while plant B grew using carbonic and phosphoric acid has the average daily growth rateof 0.648 cm. Plant C grew using ethanoic acid died after three (3) days, while plant D grew usingascorbic acid has the average daily growth rate of 0.605 cm and plant E grew using hydrochloricacid has the average daily growth of 0.276 cm.Table 2: EXPERIMENT # 2Plant Initial height Final height growth rate (cm/day)a water 5.4cm 10.5cm 0.242857143b carbonic and phosphoricacid3.5cm the plant diedc ethanoic acid 4.9cm the plant diedd ascorbic acid 5.0cm the plant diede hydrochloric acid 45cm the plant died
26Table 2 presents that plant A grew using water has the average daily growth rate of0.24cm, while the plant B, C, D & E died.Table 3: EXPERIMENT # 3PlantInitialheightFinal heightGrowth rate(cm/day)a water 5.1cm 11.5cm 0.257142857b carbonic and phosphoric acid 5.7cm 11.9cm 0.247619048c ethanoic acid 4.3cm the plant diedd ascorbic acid 5.2cm 12.7cm 0.30952381e hydrochloric acid 4.7cm 7.6cm 0.138095238Table 3: presents that plant A grew using water has the average daily growth rate of0.25 cm, while plant B grew using carbonic and phosphoric acid has the average daily growthrate of 0.24 cm. Plant C grew using ethanoic acid died after three (3) days, while plant D grewusing ascorbic acid has the average daily growth rate of 0.30 cm and plant E grew usinghydrochloric acid has the average daily growth of 0.13 cm.Table 4: EXPERIMENT # 4plantinitialheightfinal height Growth rate (cm/day)a water 5.4cm 11.2cm 0.276190476bcarbonic and phosphoricacid5.5cm 11.6cm 0.29047619c ethanoic acid 4.9cm the plant diedd ascorbic acid 5.3cm 12.9cm 0.314285714e hydrochloric acid 4.2cm 7.9cm 0.176190476
27Table 4: presents that plant A grew using water has the average daily growth rate of0.27 cm, while plant B grew using carbonic and phosphoric acid has the average daily growth rateof 0.29 cm. Plant C grew using ethanoic acid died after three (3) days, while plant D grew usingascorbic acid has the average daily growth rate of 0.31 cm and plant E grew using hydrochloricacid has the average daily growth of 0.17 cm.Findings:1. Tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum) died immediately after transfer using ethanoicacid.2. Tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum) using ascorbic acid grew faster than carbonic andphosphoric acid.3. Tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum) using hydrochloric acid has the slowest growthdevelopment & has the least growth rate.
28CHAPTER VSummary, Conclusion, and RecommendationsSummaryPlants were grown by watering different kinds of acids, ascorbic acid, carbonic andphosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid and ethanoic acid. The plants were place in separated pots.The plants were observed for 21 days and compared the growth rate. To calculate the growth ratewe use this formula.Growth Rate = Final height – initial heightNumber of days (21 days)Major findings (5)Based on the study, the following are the results:1. The plant watered by water has the most number of leaves and its stem is thicker than theother plants.2. The plant watered by carbonic and phosphoric acids has a pleasant odor.3. The plant watered by ethanoic acid produce molds in its soil and because of this acidity it canalso kill plants.4. The plant watered by ascorbic acid has the most healthy stem and leaves and fastest growthrate.5. The plant watered by hydrochloric acid has the slowest growth rate and unpleasant odor.
29ConclusionBased in the findings of the study, the researchers hereby conclude that:1. There is a significant difference in the growth rate of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum)using different kind of acids namely:a. ascorbic acidb. carbonic acid with phosphoric acidc. hydrochloric acidd. ethanoic acide. water (mineral)2) There is a significant difference in the growth rate between lycopersicon esculentum grownUsing:a. ascorbic acidb. carbonic acid phosphoric acidc. hydrochloric acidd. ethanoic acide. water (mineral)RecommendationsBased on the study, the researcher recommends the following:1. A comparative study shall be conducted using tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) andkangkong.2. A similar study that includes the other variables of the physical development of plants likecolor of leaves, the number of leaves, maturity.
303. A similar study using different kinds of backyard plants using different acids to determinethe same variable used in the previous study.4. A study to conduct a soil analysis to determine the initial amount of pH level prior toadding different acids.5. A similar study using different legumes.6. A similar study conducted among hydroponic plants.7. Recommend different criteria in evaluating variables aside from growth rate.8. A comparative study between legumes, hydroponic plants, and soil-grown plants.
54Chart: 3 Experiment # 3Chart: 4 Experiment # 40.257142857 0.2476190480.309523810.13809523800.050.10.150.18.104.22.168A B C D EGROWTH RATE0.2761904760.290476190.3142857140.17619047600.050.10.150.22.214.171.124A B C D EGROWTH RATE
55AppendixComponentH2OWaterH2CO3Carbonic Acid ;H3PO4Phosphoric AcidCH3COOHEthanoic Acid[< a-2+ scorbutic]Ascorbic AcidHClHydrochloric AcidBibliographyBooks:Addison Wesley, biology second edition Essenfeld Gontang Moore.Vibal - Science and Technology series, Conceptual and functional chemistry modular approach.Microsoft, Encarta premium encyclopedia and dictionaries,Phoenix, science and technology integrated science I, Religioso Vengo