Bullying Prevention: Research Highlights and Vision for the Alberti Center

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A Western New York Educational Service Council event.
October 6, 2011

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  • physical.Talk to your child, explaining that whatever form it takes, they must always tell you or another trusted adult if they are being mistreated by their peers. So encourage your child to never suffer in silence, even if the bully warns them not to tell. As a way of helping everyone especially the parents, who find it quite hard to manage time, I found this great application which featured a safety app which gets me connected to a Safety Network or escalate my call to the nearest 911 when needed, it has other cool features that are helpful for your kids with just a press of a Panic Button. Check it here: http://www.SafeKidZone.com/
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  • Research from the Secret Service and the U.S. Department of Education on 37 school shootings, including Columbine, found that almost three-quarters of student shooters felt bullied, threatened, attacked or injured by others. In fact, several shooters reported experiencing long-term and severe bullying and harassment from their peers
  • Bullying Prevention: Research Highlights and Vision for the Alberti Center

    1. 1. Amanda Nickerson, PhD Associate Professor and Director Dr. Jean Alberti Center for the Prevention of Bullying Abuse and School Violence University at Buffalo [email_address] gse.buffalo.edu / alberticenter WNYESC October 6, 2011
    2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction and needs assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Facts and figures about bullying </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention and intervention: The best of our knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Issues, challenges, and opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Vision for Alberti Center </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>My Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School crisis prevention and intervention (focus on violence and bullying) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NASP’s PREPaRE Crisis Prevention and Intervention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of parents, peers, and schools in prevention and promotion of well-being </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment and intervention with children with emotional and behavioral problems (focus on strengths) </li></ul></ul>
    4. 5. Intentional, usually repeated acts of verbal, physical, or written aggression by a peer (or group of peers) operating from a position of strength or power with the goal of hurting the victim physically or damaging status and/or social reputation Olweus (1978); United States Department of Education (1998)
    5. 6. <ul><li>Physical bullying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>punching, shoving, acts that hurt people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verbal bullying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>name calling, making offensive remarks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indirect bullying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spreading rumors, excluding, ganging up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cyber bullying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>willful and repeated harm inflicted through the use of computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinduja & Patchin (2009) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 7. Teasing : Fun, good-natured, “give-and-take” between friends designed to get both parties to laugh Bullying : Based on a power imbalance; taunting another with the intent of harming; continues when the other is distressed Conflict : A struggle, dispute, and/or misunderstanding between two opposing forces
    7. 8. <ul><li>Estimates vary WIDELY, but according to student self-report... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20-25% have bullied at least once </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5-20% bully consistently </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15-40% are targets of bullying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20-25% are bullied regularly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>~ 18-20% are cyber-bullied </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1-2% are extreme victims who experience severe traumatization or distress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Carylyle & Steinman (2007); Cowie (2000); Nansel et al. (2001); </li></ul><ul><li>Perry, Kusel, & Perry (1988); Skiba & Fontanini (2000) </li></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>Pre-K through late high school (and beyond); peaks in middle school </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical bullying declines as children get older </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social, verbal, and cyberbullying continue through high school </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anywhere; most likely in less closely supervised areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus, locker room, playground, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lunch, hallways, and everywhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(for cyberbullying) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>Boys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More direct, physical bullying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bully more frequently than girls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bully both boys and girls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Girls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More indirect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More subtle, hard to detect, and often occurs in groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to target other girls of the same age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyberbullying slightly more common than for males </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Banks (2000); Cook, Williams, Guerra, Kim, & Sadek, (2010); Crick & Grotpeter, (1995); Hinduja & Patchin, (2009); Hoover & Oliver, (1996); Nansel et al., (2001); Olweus, (2002); Underwood, (2003) </li></ul>
    10. 11. <ul><li>Desire for power and control </li></ul><ul><li>Get satisfaction from others’ suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Justify their behavior (“he deserved it”) </li></ul><ul><li>More exposed to physical punishment </li></ul><ul><li>More likely to be depressed </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in other risky and delinquent behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol and drug use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fighting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Batsche & Knoff (1994); Beaver, Perron, & Howard, (2010); Olweus (1993); </li></ul><ul><li>Swearer et al. (in press); Vaughn, Bender, DeLisi, (in press) </li></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>Often popular, high social status </li></ul><ul><li>Report average self-esteem and believe they are superior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most do NOT lack self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, also report being less engaged in school, less supported by others, more depressed </li></ul>
    12. 13. <ul><li>Have a position of relative weakness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age, ethnic background, financial status, disability, sexual orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most are passive and lack assertiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do nothing to invite aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not fight back when attacked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May relate better to adults than peers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fewer provoke others (provocative victims or bully-victims) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offend, irritate, tease others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactive; fight back when attacked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boivin, Poulin, & Vitaro (1994); Hodges & Perry (1999); Olweus (1978, 1993, 2001); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schwartz (2000); Snyder et al. (2003) </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. <ul><li>More likely to experience legal or criminal troubles as adults (even after controlling for other risk factors) </li></ul><ul><li>Poor ability to develop and maintain positive relationships in </li></ul><ul><li>later life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Andershed, Kerr, & Stattin (2001); Farrington (2009); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farrington, & Ttofi (2009, 2011); Oliver, Hoover, & Hazler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1994); Olweus (1993); Ttofi & Farrington (2008) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>Emotional distress </li></ul><ul><li>Loneliness, peer rejection </li></ul><ul><li>Desire to avoid school </li></ul><ul><li>Increased anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation; low self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases, may respond with extreme violence (two-thirds of school shooters were victims of bullying) </li></ul><ul><li>Boivin, Hymel, & Bukowski (1995); </li></ul><ul><li>Boulton & Underwood (1992); </li></ul><ul><li>Crick & Bigbee (1998); </li></ul><ul><li>Egan & Perry (1998); </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduja, & Patchin, (2009); </li></ul><ul><li>Kochenderfer & Ladd (1996); </li></ul><ul><li>Nickerson & Sltater (2009); </li></ul><ul><li>Olweus (1993); Perry et al. (1988) </li></ul>
    15. 16. Culture & Community School (Staff/Peers ) Family Bully, Target, and Bystander Adapted from Swearer & Espelage (2004)
    16. 17. <ul><li>Peers see 85% of bullying ( most join in, some ignore, small number intervene) </li></ul><ul><li>Peers are influential in early adolescence, when they are more supportive of bullying and less likely to intervene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bullying = higher social status in a group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescents seek out peers who display more independent, aggressive as opposed to more adult-like, conforming behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Culture of silence” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charach et al. (1995); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hawkins, Pepler, & Craig </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>Bullying is more likely to thrive in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsupportive or unhealthy school climates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environments lacking in sense of belonging for students and strong relationships among and between students, teachers, and families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools where adults ignore or dismiss bullying behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools who serve students who are not academically engaged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LEADERSHIP IS CRITICAL!!! </li></ul></ul>Doll, Song, Champion, & Jones, (2011); Holt, Keyes, & Koenig, (2011); Kasen, Johnson, Chen, Crawford, & Cohen, (2011); Swearer (in press)
    18. 19. <ul><li>For children who bully, there may be… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less warmth, involvement, supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of clear, consistent rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harsh/corporal punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parental discord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic violence/child abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For children who are bullied, there may be… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More intense, positive, and overprotective parenting (for boys) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More threats of rejection and lack of assertion (for girls) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inconsistent discipline practices (overprotective and neglectful) without warmth for bully-victims </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For children who intervene, there may be… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More open, trusting relationships with mothers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bowers et al. (1994); Finnegan et al. (1998); Ladd & Ladd (1998); </li></ul><ul><li>Nickerson, Mele, & Princiotta (2008); Olweus, Limber, & Mihalic (1999) </li></ul>
    19. 20. <ul><li>Often not involved in bullying problem or resolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervene less than 10% of the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not told about problem (victims fear reprisal) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Powerful influence on peer acceptance of others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warmth, positive feedback leads to greater peer acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Banks (1997); Chang (2003); Cohn & Canter (2002); Hughes, Cavell, & Willson (2001); Limber (2002); </li></ul><ul><li>Mullin-Rindler (2003); Skiba & Fonanini (2000); White, Sherman, & Jones (1996) </li></ul>
    20. 21. <ul><li>Exposure to violent TV/video games predicts greater risk of bullying actions </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of neighborhoods have significant effects on bullying behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsafe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorganized </li></ul></ul>Increased risk of bullying behaviors Cook et al, (2010); Gentile (2003); Olson et al. (2009); Swearer et al. (in press)
    21. 23. <ul><li>STRUCURE AND SUPPORT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear, consistently enforced expectations and policies for behavior, including prohibition of bullying and harassment, and effective classroom management – means of reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warmth, positive interest, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adult involvement and supervision, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and appreciation of differences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farrington & Ttofi, (2009); Gregory, Cornell, Fan, Sheras, & Shih (2010); Koth, Bradshaw, & Leaf, (2008); Olweus (1993); Olweus, Limber, & Mihalic (1999) </li></ul>
    22. 24. <ul><li>Meet individually with child bullying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove from situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expect denial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the behavior (not on the person) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform bully about consequences (not only punishment but intervention) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meet individually with target </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen and empathize – allow to tell story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask how you can work together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to support and stop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assure that action will be taken </li></ul></ul>
    23. 25. <ul><li>Identify qualities that may make them vulnerable and intervene accordingly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach assertiveness skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enhance social support from peers and significant adults </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage involvement in an activity in which he or she can experience success </li></ul>
    24. 26. <ul><li>“ Check in” regularly about bullying </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor for signs of depression, suicide, or violence and refer to mental health professional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1-800-273-TALK (Suicide Lifeline) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1-866-4-U-Trevor (LGBTQ Youth Suicide Hotline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.crisischat.org (text) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1-800-KIDS-400 (Buffalo Crisis Services Hotline) </li></ul></ul>
    25. 27. <ul><ul><ul><li>Increase empathy and perspective taking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teach problem-solving to manage emotions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive restructuring for problematic attributions (e.g., “He deserved it;” “Now they know who is in charge”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assess for other problems (e.g., drugs, suicidality) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 28. <ul><li>Some evidence to support effectiveness of school bullying interventions in enhancing… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficacy in intervention skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior in responding to incidences of bullying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To a lesser extent, reduction of participation of students in bully and victim roles </li></ul></ul>
    27. 29. <ul><li>On average, bullying decreased by 20-30% and victimization 17-20% through the use of school-based interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Best results for programs that are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intensive and long-lasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carefully monitored for fidelity of implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assessed regularly (2x monthly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evidence-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inclusive of parent training activities </li></ul></ul>
    28. 30. <ul><li>Brief assemblies or one-day awareness raising events </li></ul><ul><li>Zero-tolerance policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May result in under-reporting bullying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited evidence in curbing bullying behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peer mediation, peer-led conflict resolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many programs that used this approach actually saw an increase in victimization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grouping children who bully together may actually reinforce this behavior </li></ul></ul>Dodge, Dishion, & Lansford, (2006); Farrington & Ttofi, (2009); Nansel et al., (2001)
    29. 32. <ul><li>Measurement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definitional issues; lack of correspondence among reporters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of attention toward areas of bullying in regards to homophobia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High victimization rates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research and practice link </li></ul><ul><li>Role of Character Education programs, PBIS, and SEL with bullying efforts </li></ul>Bradshaw, & Waasdorp (in press); Espelage, Aragon, & Birkett (2008); Farrington & Ttofi, (2009); Merrell et al., (2008)
    30. 33. <ul><li>Lack of experimental research </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of state-level bullying policies has not been measured </li></ul><ul><li>Need more research in urban schools, with ethnic minorities, and with high school students </li></ul>
    31. 34. <ul><li>Time to EVALUATE efforts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dovetail with Dignity for All Students Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibits harassment of students with respect to race, weight, religion, sexual preference, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unlawful to not remedy harassment or bullying on school grounds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Policies and guidelines </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum changes in civility, citizenship, and character education </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training (for staff and point person) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Record keeping </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 36. <ul><li>Mission: </li></ul><ul><li>To research, identify, and disseminate resources to practitioners on the topics of bullying abuse prevention and intervention. </li></ul>Dr. Jean M. Alberti
    33. 37. <ul><li>Identification of high quality resources and links for website </li></ul><ul><li>Needs assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource availability and utilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current practices and needs (interviews, surveys) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research and evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender, empathy, group norms, and prosocial affiliations on bullying roles (middle school) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bullying, anxiety, and self-care (middle school) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group intervention for students at-risk for depression (middle and high school) </li></ul></ul>
    34. 38. <ul><li>Protective factors (focus on family) for bullying, victimization and sexual harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment and ongoing monitoring of school climate and bullying/victimization (in conjunction with examination of strategies implemented) </li></ul>
    35. 39. <ul><li>If you and your school are… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interested in partnering on any of the aforementioned projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committed to engaging in a partnership where bullying prevention and intervention efforts can be carefully evaluated and researched </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… contact me! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have connection with center dedicated to this issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receive free consultation and training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receive data about bullying, victimization, and school engagement to inform programs and evaluate them </li></ul></ul>
    36. 40. <ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Share (and learn from others) what you are doing, perceived effectiveness, and identified needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilitators (and faculty affiliated with the center): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Janice DeLucia-Waack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laura Anderson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jennifer Livingston </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amy Reynolds </li></ul></ul>

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