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BLOODSPECIMEN COLLECTION
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS “No Laboratory test can be better than its manner of specimen collection” PATIENT  IDENTIFICATION PATIENT PREPARATION SPECIMEN  IDENTIFICATION COLLECTION TECHNIQUE SPECIMEN CONTAINER ADDITIVES
BloodSpecimen Collection  PHLEBOTOMIST With good interpersonal skills Professional attitude Ensure Patient confidentiality
MACROSAMPLE MACROSAMPLE (Venipuncture) Syringe Method Vacutainer Method Arterial Puncture Radial Brachial Femoral
MACROSAMPLE Equipment Needed Tourniquet Antiseptic solution Syringe and needle Vacutainer set Butterfly Infusion Set
Blood CollectionMacrosample Collection
Blood CollectionOpen System
Blood CollectionClosed System
Blood CollectionClosed System
ADVANTAGES OF VENIPUNCTURE allows repetition of tests/follow up  avoids tissue juices can be mailed Fastest method from a large number of patients DISADVANTAGES OF VENIPUNCTURE ,[object Object]
Hard to do on some patients,[object Object]
Blood CollectionMacrosample Collection SITES OF COLLECTION Older than 18 months – 3 y/o Femoral vein Long Saphenous vein Ankle vein Popliteal vein External Jugular vein Temporal vein
Blood CollectionMacrosample Collection SITES OF COLLECTION Older than 3 y/o Veins on the antecubitalfossa Wrist vein Veins of the dorsal hand Veins of the Foot
Blood CollectionMacrosample Collection
Blood CollectionMacrosample Collection
Blood CollectionMacrosample Collection
Specimen Collection by Venipucture Patient Identification Note Isolation Restrictions Note Dietary Restrictions Reassure patient Position the patient Select venipuncturelocation Assemble Supplies
Apply the tourniquet Cleanse the site Inspect needle Perform venipuncture Release tourniquet Withdraw needle & apply pressure Post Phlebotomy Procedures Proper disposal  Label specimen Check patient
 Needle Insertion
Needle Insertion
Complications of Venipucture 1. Immediate Local complication Hematoma Hemoconcentration Circulatory failure Syncope Failure of blood to enter the syringe
Complications of Venipucture 2. Late Local Complications Thrombosis Thrombophlebitis 3. Delayed General Complications HIV Hepatitis
24 Situations in Phlebotomy
25 Situations in Phlebotomy
26 Situations in Phlebotomy
27 Situations in Phlebotomy
Reasons for Specimen Rejection Hemolysis/Lipemia Clots in an anticoagulated specimen Nonfasting specimen when test requires fasting Wrong volume Improper transport conditions Discrepancies bet requisition & specimen label Unlabeled or mislabeled specimen Contaminated specimen/Leaking container
Anticoagulants Anticoagulants inhibit clot formation.  As soon as blood is removed from a vessel, activation of coagulation begins.  Although blood drawn directly into an evacuated tube contacts the anticoagulant, it is necessary to immediately and gently invert the tube, mixing the content to prevent micro-formation.  DEFIBRINATION
Serum Preparation Tube Stoppers:
EDTA:  (Na or K) ,[object Object],Tube stoppers: Commonly Used Anticoagulants
Sodium Citrate:  Tube Stoppers: Commonly Used Anticoagulants
Commonly Used Anticoagulants HeparinTube Stoppers:
Commonly Used Anticoagulants Other Tube Stoppers:
Order of Draw
44 Specimen Processing ,[object Object]
Allow red top tubes to clot sufficiently (20-30 minutes) before centrifugation to avoid fibrin strands.,[object Object]
Keep tubes capped during centrifugation to avoid loss of CO2, change of pH, evaporation, or aerosol formation.
Lipemicspecimens can be ultracentrifugedto remove chylomicrons.,[object Object]
Specimens for lactate dehydrogenase (LD) should be kept at room temperature.,[object Object]
Glucose is stable in serum separator tubes for 24 hours and in sodium fluoride tubes for 24 hours at room temperature or 28 hrs at 4°C.,[object Object]
Specimens Requiring Special Handling
Specimens Requiring Special Handling
Specimens Requiring Special Handling
Open System Components needed : Blood taken transfer into ... Containers of different sizes Syringes of different sizes
Closed System LabOPN1 3 Basic Components : Blood flows straight into tubes ... BD Vacutainer® Standard Holder BD Vacutainer®  Multi Sampling Needle 21G (Green), 22G (Black) BD Vacutainer® Evacuated Tubes
Collection System - Implication to Collectors LabOPN1 N&S Vacutainer® System Open System Manual manipulation of plunger Manualtransfer        of specimen Closed System Quick & easy fill, no manipulation needed Auto & direct transfer of specimen
Material Used - Collection N&S Vacutainer® System Disposable needle Evacuated specimen tube Reusable holder Disposable needle Non-evacuated specimen tube Disposable syringe
Collection System - Implication to Collectors LabOPN1 N&S Vacutainer® System Possible spillage Exposure to blood, contamination Inaccurate fill causing inaccurate blood:additive ratio Safety to patient and collector for good infection control Reduce redraw from patient - Precise vacuum preserves precise ratio
Manual Steps LabOPN1 N&S Vacutainer® System Remove needle from vein Remove cap from container Remove needle from syringe Transfer blood into container(s) Recap container(s) Remove tube from needle holder Remove needle from vein Additional time saving during collection is approximately 20% Risk of incomplete closure seal
Collection System- Implication to Laboratory LabOPN1 N&S Vacutainer® System  Hemolysis         redraw Microclots (delay in contact with additive & this is a variable factor) QNS        redraw No specific color code Less hemolysis with full system usage Specimen integrity is preserved - no microclots Sufficient quantity   Int’l color code - easy ID
LabOPN1 Evacuated System Assembly Screw on Needle Twistthe seal of the needle and remove the clear shield (cap) that covers the center-threaded section and back end of the needle. Insert the back end of the needle into the holder, and twist the needle tightly into the holder. CAUTION: If the seal on a needle has already been broken, the needles no longer sterile. Discard the needle in a sharps container.
Insert Tube Place the first tube into the holder and partially advance it onto the needle.  Do not fully push tube onto needle at this point, because this will break the tube's vacuum. Needle sheath on the front end is removed just prior to needle insertion. Once needle is in the vein, advance tube to the end of the holder. When needle fully punctures stopper, blood should begin to flow freely into tube. Lack of blood flow at this point suggest lack of tube vacuum or error in venipuncture technique. Pay particular attention to enlarged graphic demonstrating both partial and fully inserted needle positions.
Butterfly The illustration shows a winged infusion set (butterfly) with an attached adapter for evacuated tubes. Inserting the needle into the vein is facilitated by pressing and holding the wings together between the thumb and forefinger. A Butterfly needle is useful when drawing from small, fragile, and hard-to-locate veins. The phlebotomist should exercise caution when using the apparatus. Because the needle is separated from the holder by the tubing, needle-stick injuries occur more easily to both patient and phlebotomist during disposal of the apparatus.
Tourniquet A variety of tourniquet types are available and illustrated here. Each has advantages and disadvantages. Latex is commonly used because it is stretchable, does not support bacterial growth, and can be cleaned with disinfectant. CAUTION: Alternatives to latex must be used when patient has developed an allergy to latex. Anaphylactic shock occurs if a latex tourniquet is used.
Gloves The Occupational Safety and Health Administration mandates that gloves must be worn as protection whenever blood, body fluids, or other possibly contaminated items are handled. The gloves should be cleaned but need not be sterile.  Gloves protect the phlebotomist and the patient.  Fresh gloves should be worn for each patient.
Cart and Tray Carts and trays are examples of devices used to store / carry equipment. They should contain all the equipment required to properly perform phlebotomy.           Cart Tray
Antiseptics The venipuncture site must be thoroughly cleansed prior to puncture. Isopropylalcohol (70%) is commonly used. Alcohol wipes usually come in individually wrapped prep pads. When opened, the pad should be fully saturated with alcohol; if it is not, discard the pad and open another. Isopropylalcohol is not a disinfectant, e.g., iodine. If tubes are being drawn for blood culture, cleansing of the site must be done using a disinfectant. Follow the laboratory's standard operating procedure for blood culture draws.
Gauze Clean 2" x 2" gauze pads are used to place pressure over the venipuncture site once the needle is removed. Do not use cotton. It tends to stick to the wound site. Do not remove gauze too soon. The clot that is forming may be disturbed and bleeding may restart. 
Bandages Use an adhesive bandage to cover the site once bleeding has ceased. Use paper, cloth, or knitted tape over a folded gauze square for patients who are sensitive to adhesive bandages.  To prepare a gauze pad, fold the gauze in half, and then in half again to form a square. Place this over the puncture site and secure in place with tape.
Disposals Discard contaminated needles in a designated container referred to as a "sharp container“ A variety of containers are manufactured. They provide for safe removal of the needle from the holder whether an evacuated tube system or syringe is used. They must be rigid, puncture-resistant, leak-proof, disposable, and easily sealed when full.They should have a locking lid which does not permit entry into the container.  They are usually red, bright orange, or yellow, and must be labeled "BIOHAZARD".
Site selection in Arm The highlighted area shows the antecubitalfossa where the major veins used for venipuncture are located.  ,[object Object]
Median cubital vein is the first choice because it is large, well-anchored, least painful, and least likely to bruise.,[object Object]
Avoiding the Median Nerve Avoid major nerves.  Hitting a patient's nerve with a needle can cause sharp and immediate pain.  The patient may also experience an involuntary reflex action, pulling the arm away from the needle.  Arteries, which can be detected by a pulse, should not be used for routine blood collection.  To avoid inadvertently puncturing an artery, do not select a vein that overlies or is close to an artery.  As seen in the diagram, both the median nerve and the brachial artery lie close to the basilic vein.  Excessive or blind probing while performing a venipuncture can lead to permanent injury of the nerve or artery that may result in legal action.
Site selection in Hand Hand or wrist veins may be used when antecubitalfossa veins are unsuitable or unavailable. Phlebotomist must use extra care to anchor them.  These veins have a narrow diameter, it may be necessary to use a small gauge needle and small volume evacuated tubes. Use of a butterfly apparatus may enhance success and make the procedure less painful.
Site selection in Foot The last resort for blood collection is from the foot veins after the arm veins have been determine unsuitable.  Always check with the hospital policy before this type of sampling is carried out.
Inappropriate Sites for Venipuncture Arms on side of Mastectomy Edematous areas Hematomas Arm in which blood is being transfused Scarred areas Arms with cannulas, fistulas or vascular grafts Arm above IV lines
Assemble Equipment Prior to initiating venipuncture, gather all equipment needed.  Place the necessary evacuated tubes in the proper sequence for specimen collection.  A sharps container should be easily accessible for immediate needle disposal following completion of the venipuncture.
Wash Hands 	The most important means of preventing and controlling the spread of infection is proper hand washing: Remove watch and rings Without touching the sink, wet hands under warm, running water. Apply soap and work up a lather, rubbing hands together to create friction for at least 15 seconds. Rinse hands in a downward motion from wrists to fingertips. Repeat steps 2 and 3. Dry hands with a clean paper towel Turn the faucet off with another clean paper towel.
Apply Gloves OSHA regulations require the wearing of gloves during phlebotomy procedures.  A new pair of gloves must be worn for each patient. When donning gloves, pull them over the cuff of protective clothing.
Position Patient A patient should be either seated or lying down while having blood drawn. The patient's arm should be firmly supported and extended downward in a straight line from the shoulder to the wrist.  Ensure patient's hand is closed, which makes the veins more prominent.  Do not ask the patient to pump his / her hand.
Correct arm positioning: Allows gravity to help veins enlarge. Helps assure the specimen collection tubes fill from the bottom up to prevent reflux and additive carryover between sample tubes.
Tie Tourniquet Position tourniquet under the arm 3-4 inches above the intended venipuncture site, with each hand grasping one side of the tourniquet. Apply and maintain tension. Without rolling or twisting the tourniquet, bring the two sides together. Cross one side over the other and securely tuck a portion of the upper side under the lower side. Note that the loop is below the tourniquet band and the free ends (flaps) of the tourniquet are pointing away from the venipuncture site. This prevents it from the interfering with the site of needle entry. The flaps should be positioned so they can easily be grasped with one hand. Gently pulling on the flaps releases the tourniquet.
Apply Tourniquet Apply tourniquet to increase pressure in the veins and aid in vein selection.  When correctly placed on the patient's arm, it should be tight enough to slow venous flow without affecting arterial flow. It should feel slightly tight to the patient, allowing more blood to flow into than out of the area.  The veins enlarge, making them easier to palpate and penetrate with a needle. Ideally, never leave a tourniquet on the patient longer than one minute. Tourniquets left on longer may alter test results. Do not apply a tourniquet over an open sore. Do not apply a tourniquet to the arm on the side of a recent mastectomy.
Select Site Venipuncture is most commonly performed in the anticubitalfossa area of the arm where the median cubital, cephalic, and basilic veins lie fairly close to the surface. Use the tip of the index finger to palpate (examine by feel) the vein. This helps determine the size, depth, and direction of the vein.  Select vein that is easily palpated, large enough to support good blood flow, and well-anchored or fixed by surrounding tissue.
Cleanse site Clean venipuncture site with antiseptic to help prevent microbial contamination to the specimen and patient.  Start at the center of the site and move outward in ever widening, concentric circles. Failure to follow this procedure may re-introduce dirt and bacteria.Use sufficient pressure to remove surface dirt and debris.  Repeat the process with a fresh alcohol prep pad if the site's is still dirty. Let the site air dry (30 - 60 seconds) prior to beginning the venipuncture.  Do not wipe, blow on, or fan the site, as these actions may re-introduce contaminations.  For blood culture draws, refer to the laboratory's standard operating procedure for instructions.
Insertion Angle Insert the needle at a 15-30 degree angle when penetrating the skin and the vein.
Insertion Angle Above picture: Bevel of the needle is fully inserted within the lumen of the vein within 15-30 degree angle. Middle picture: Needle angle is too steep. If needle advances further into the vein, it may penetrate completely through the vein to tissue. Lower picture: Needle angle is too shallow, causing bevel to rest on the wall of the vein. Needle may be partially in the lumen and partially in tissue, resulting in hematoma formation. Insert needle at a 15-30 degree angle when penetrating the skin and the vein.
Insert Needle Grasp patient's arm with thumb on top and fingers wrapped to the back.  Pull skin taut below the intended venipuncture site with thumb, anchoring vein to keep it from moving or rolling. Using a smooth motion, quickly insert the needle, bevel up.  Stop needle advancement when a slight decrease in resistance is felt, signaling entry into the vein.  Advance tube onto needle to the end of holder  Use thumb to push tube while index and middle fingers grasp flanges of tube holder. Blood should begin to flow into tube. Release tourniquet as soon as possible, depending upon blood flow. Ideally, do not leave tourniquet on for more than one minute.
Fill Tube Maintaintube in a downward position so that blood and any tube additive it contains does not touch the needle. Fill tube until vacuum is exhausted and blood flow stops.  Remove tubes from holder by applying pressure against flanges of tube holder with thumb and index finger while using a slight twist to remove the tube.  Hold needle steady as tubes are removed and inserted. If tube contains an additive, invert it gently several times after removal to mix the blood and additive. Additional mixing can be performed while other tubes are filling.
Remove Needle Release tourniquet prior to removing needle. Ensure patient's hand is open After the last tube is removed from holder, hold a clean gauze pad in position over the entry site. Gently and quickly remove needle from the arm. It is necessary to apply pressure to the site to prevent leakage of blood and possible hematoma formation. As soon as needle is fully withdrawn, but not before, apply pressure firmly to the puncture site using a gauze pad.  If the patient is alert, ask him / her to continue to apply pressure until bleeding has stopped. Keep arm extended and preferably raised; arm should not be bent as this increases the risk of hematoma formation.
Dispose Needle Discard contaminated needles in a container referred to as a "sharp container" Never cut, bend, break, or recap needles. A variety of containers are manufactured. They provide safe removal of the needle from holder when using an evacuated tube system.  Place needle in the proper slot in the lid, and turn it clockwise until it unscrews from the holder. Do not attempt to remove needle with your fingers. If needle doe not separate from the holder, throw the entire unit away in a sharps container. Proper Needle Disposal Improper Needle Disposal
Label Tube Always verify information on tube labels. All identifiers on the labels must be accurate. Label tubes after they are drawn, while the patient is still present, to reduce the risk of specimen misidentification.  If additional information must be added to the label (e.g., fasting, time to draw), write with ink, never pencil. Never: Label tubes prior to venipuncture Leave an inpatient room before labeling the tubes Dismiss an outpatient before labeling is completed.
Transport Tube When transporting tubes through public hallways, place them in a secondary container to minimize the risk of leakage and spillage. The secondary container must be clearly labeled "BIOHAZARD.“ Once the tubes are in the container, seal it before transport.Securely attach paper requisition(s) to the secondary transport container.
Blood taken and transferred to Syringes of different sizes Containers of different sizes Blood collection: Open System
Holder Evacuated tube Needle Blood collection: Closed System
Blood collection: Closed System How it works
Transparent Needle Hub BD Vacutainer FLASHBACK NEEDLE
Black- G22x1” Green- G21x1” BD Vacutainer FLASHBACK NEEDLE
BD Vacutainer FLASHBACK NEEDLE
Do not eat or drink in the area of blood collection,transportation or specimen processing and analysis Do not apply cosmetics anytime during blood collection,transportation or processing and analysis Wash hands before and after eating, drinking and before and after using the restrooms
No long necklaces, large and or dangling earrings or loose bracelets during any type of blood collection, transportation or processing and analysis  Remove laboratory coat or smock used during blood collection or other patient care activities before going to an area where coffee breaks or meals are taken
Wear gloves for all blood collection and every skin puncture Wash hands before and after putting on gloves Use a new, clean pair of gloves for each procedure –  use non-latex gloves Wear a laboratory coat, a gown or a smock during blood collection. Remove garment and leave it at the facility for appropriate cleaning and disinfecting
Wear eye and face protectors if blood and body fluid splashing is anticipated Follow procedure for disposing of blood collection items Decontamination of tourniquets and trays after use is highly recommended
Never recap a needle by hand Use safety lancets with self –retracting blade Disposed of sharps, needles, blades and others in a puncture resistant container
for safer blood collection and reliable test results.
Blood CollectionMacrosample Collection PROCEDURAL STEPS
Introduction to Patient Greet Patient Introducing yourself by name Describe the procedure to be performed, providing reassurance to the patient.
Patient Identification Ask an outpatient to state his/her full name, spell the last name, and state his/her date of birth.  Verify the requisition (order) and samples labels, if applicable, have the same identifiers.
Patient Identification Check inpatient's identification band to verify the name and hospital identification number match the order.  If the patient is not wearing an identification band, DO NOT perform the venipuncture. Correct identification of patient is critical. Blood test results collected from a mis-identified patient will be linked to the wrong patient, and may put the health of two patients at risk.
Assemble Equipment Prior to initiating venipuncture, gather all equipment needed.  Place the necessary evacuated tubes in the proper sequence for specimen collection.  A sharps container should be easily accessible for immediate needle disposal following completion of the venipuncture.
Position Patient Seated or lying  The patient's arm should be firmly supported and extended downward in a straight line from the shoulder to the wrist.  Ensure patient's hand is closed, which makes the veins more prominent.
Tie Tourniquet 3-4 inches above the intended venipuncture site,  Apply and maintain tension. Without rolling or twisting the tourniquet, bring the two sides together. Cross one side over the other and securely tuck a portion of the upper side under the lower side. The loop should be  below the tourniquet band and the free ends (flaps) of the tourniquet are pointing away from the venipuncture site.  The flaps should be positioned so they can easily be grasped with one hand.
Site Selection  Cubital vein Cephalic vein Basilic vein Avoid major nerves  (can cause sharp and immediate pain;  involuntary reflex action)  Avoid arteries which can be detected by a pulse. Do not select a vein that overlies or is close to an artery.  Avoid excessive or blind probing while performing a venipuncture
Cleanse site Clean venipuncture site with antiseptic  Let the site air dry (30 - 60 seconds) prior to beginning the venipuncture.  Do not wipe, blow on, or fan
 Needle Insertion
Fill Tube
Remove Needle
Dispose Needle Proper Needle Disposal Improper Needle Disposal
Label Tube
Transport Tube When transporting tubes through public hallways, place them in a secondary container to minimize the risk of leakage and spillage. The secondary container must be clearly labeled "BIOHAZARD.“ Once the tubes are in the container, seal it before transport.Securely attach paper requisition(s) to the secondary transport container.
Tube Guide
LabOPN1
LabOPN1
LabOPN1
LabOPN1

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Specimen collection cc

  • 2. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS “No Laboratory test can be better than its manner of specimen collection” PATIENT IDENTIFICATION PATIENT PREPARATION SPECIMEN IDENTIFICATION COLLECTION TECHNIQUE SPECIMEN CONTAINER ADDITIVES
  • 3. BloodSpecimen Collection PHLEBOTOMIST With good interpersonal skills Professional attitude Ensure Patient confidentiality
  • 4. MACROSAMPLE MACROSAMPLE (Venipuncture) Syringe Method Vacutainer Method Arterial Puncture Radial Brachial Femoral
  • 5. MACROSAMPLE Equipment Needed Tourniquet Antiseptic solution Syringe and needle Vacutainer set Butterfly Infusion Set
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12. Blood CollectionMacrosample Collection SITES OF COLLECTION Older than 18 months – 3 y/o Femoral vein Long Saphenous vein Ankle vein Popliteal vein External Jugular vein Temporal vein
  • 13. Blood CollectionMacrosample Collection SITES OF COLLECTION Older than 3 y/o Veins on the antecubitalfossa Wrist vein Veins of the dorsal hand Veins of the Foot
  • 17. Specimen Collection by Venipucture Patient Identification Note Isolation Restrictions Note Dietary Restrictions Reassure patient Position the patient Select venipuncturelocation Assemble Supplies
  • 18. Apply the tourniquet Cleanse the site Inspect needle Perform venipuncture Release tourniquet Withdraw needle & apply pressure Post Phlebotomy Procedures Proper disposal Label specimen Check patient
  • 19.
  • 22. Complications of Venipucture 1. Immediate Local complication Hematoma Hemoconcentration Circulatory failure Syncope Failure of blood to enter the syringe
  • 23. Complications of Venipucture 2. Late Local Complications Thrombosis Thrombophlebitis 3. Delayed General Complications HIV Hepatitis
  • 24. 24 Situations in Phlebotomy
  • 25. 25 Situations in Phlebotomy
  • 26. 26 Situations in Phlebotomy
  • 27. 27 Situations in Phlebotomy
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 36. Reasons for Specimen Rejection Hemolysis/Lipemia Clots in an anticoagulated specimen Nonfasting specimen when test requires fasting Wrong volume Improper transport conditions Discrepancies bet requisition & specimen label Unlabeled or mislabeled specimen Contaminated specimen/Leaking container
  • 37. Anticoagulants Anticoagulants inhibit clot formation. As soon as blood is removed from a vessel, activation of coagulation begins. Although blood drawn directly into an evacuated tube contacts the anticoagulant, it is necessary to immediately and gently invert the tube, mixing the content to prevent micro-formation. DEFIBRINATION
  • 39.
  • 40. Sodium Citrate: Tube Stoppers: Commonly Used Anticoagulants
  • 41. Commonly Used Anticoagulants HeparinTube Stoppers:
  • 42. Commonly Used Anticoagulants Other Tube Stoppers:
  • 44.
  • 45.
  • 46. Keep tubes capped during centrifugation to avoid loss of CO2, change of pH, evaporation, or aerosol formation.
  • 47.
  • 48.
  • 49.
  • 53. Open System Components needed : Blood taken transfer into ... Containers of different sizes Syringes of different sizes
  • 54. Closed System LabOPN1 3 Basic Components : Blood flows straight into tubes ... BD Vacutainer® Standard Holder BD Vacutainer® Multi Sampling Needle 21G (Green), 22G (Black) BD Vacutainer® Evacuated Tubes
  • 55.
  • 56. Collection System - Implication to Collectors LabOPN1 N&S Vacutainer® System Open System Manual manipulation of plunger Manualtransfer of specimen Closed System Quick & easy fill, no manipulation needed Auto & direct transfer of specimen
  • 57. Material Used - Collection N&S Vacutainer® System Disposable needle Evacuated specimen tube Reusable holder Disposable needle Non-evacuated specimen tube Disposable syringe
  • 58. Collection System - Implication to Collectors LabOPN1 N&S Vacutainer® System Possible spillage Exposure to blood, contamination Inaccurate fill causing inaccurate blood:additive ratio Safety to patient and collector for good infection control Reduce redraw from patient - Precise vacuum preserves precise ratio
  • 59. Manual Steps LabOPN1 N&S Vacutainer® System Remove needle from vein Remove cap from container Remove needle from syringe Transfer blood into container(s) Recap container(s) Remove tube from needle holder Remove needle from vein Additional time saving during collection is approximately 20% Risk of incomplete closure seal
  • 60. Collection System- Implication to Laboratory LabOPN1 N&S Vacutainer® System  Hemolysis redraw Microclots (delay in contact with additive & this is a variable factor) QNS redraw No specific color code Less hemolysis with full system usage Specimen integrity is preserved - no microclots Sufficient quantity Int’l color code - easy ID
  • 61. LabOPN1 Evacuated System Assembly Screw on Needle Twistthe seal of the needle and remove the clear shield (cap) that covers the center-threaded section and back end of the needle. Insert the back end of the needle into the holder, and twist the needle tightly into the holder. CAUTION: If the seal on a needle has already been broken, the needles no longer sterile. Discard the needle in a sharps container.
  • 62. Insert Tube Place the first tube into the holder and partially advance it onto the needle. Do not fully push tube onto needle at this point, because this will break the tube's vacuum. Needle sheath on the front end is removed just prior to needle insertion. Once needle is in the vein, advance tube to the end of the holder. When needle fully punctures stopper, blood should begin to flow freely into tube. Lack of blood flow at this point suggest lack of tube vacuum or error in venipuncture technique. Pay particular attention to enlarged graphic demonstrating both partial and fully inserted needle positions.
  • 63. Butterfly The illustration shows a winged infusion set (butterfly) with an attached adapter for evacuated tubes. Inserting the needle into the vein is facilitated by pressing and holding the wings together between the thumb and forefinger. A Butterfly needle is useful when drawing from small, fragile, and hard-to-locate veins. The phlebotomist should exercise caution when using the apparatus. Because the needle is separated from the holder by the tubing, needle-stick injuries occur more easily to both patient and phlebotomist during disposal of the apparatus.
  • 64. Tourniquet A variety of tourniquet types are available and illustrated here. Each has advantages and disadvantages. Latex is commonly used because it is stretchable, does not support bacterial growth, and can be cleaned with disinfectant. CAUTION: Alternatives to latex must be used when patient has developed an allergy to latex. Anaphylactic shock occurs if a latex tourniquet is used.
  • 65. Gloves The Occupational Safety and Health Administration mandates that gloves must be worn as protection whenever blood, body fluids, or other possibly contaminated items are handled. The gloves should be cleaned but need not be sterile. Gloves protect the phlebotomist and the patient. Fresh gloves should be worn for each patient.
  • 66. Cart and Tray Carts and trays are examples of devices used to store / carry equipment. They should contain all the equipment required to properly perform phlebotomy.        Cart Tray
  • 67. Antiseptics The venipuncture site must be thoroughly cleansed prior to puncture. Isopropylalcohol (70%) is commonly used. Alcohol wipes usually come in individually wrapped prep pads. When opened, the pad should be fully saturated with alcohol; if it is not, discard the pad and open another. Isopropylalcohol is not a disinfectant, e.g., iodine. If tubes are being drawn for blood culture, cleansing of the site must be done using a disinfectant. Follow the laboratory's standard operating procedure for blood culture draws.
  • 68. Gauze Clean 2" x 2" gauze pads are used to place pressure over the venipuncture site once the needle is removed. Do not use cotton. It tends to stick to the wound site. Do not remove gauze too soon. The clot that is forming may be disturbed and bleeding may restart. 
  • 69. Bandages Use an adhesive bandage to cover the site once bleeding has ceased. Use paper, cloth, or knitted tape over a folded gauze square for patients who are sensitive to adhesive bandages. To prepare a gauze pad, fold the gauze in half, and then in half again to form a square. Place this over the puncture site and secure in place with tape.
  • 70. Disposals Discard contaminated needles in a designated container referred to as a "sharp container“ A variety of containers are manufactured. They provide for safe removal of the needle from the holder whether an evacuated tube system or syringe is used. They must be rigid, puncture-resistant, leak-proof, disposable, and easily sealed when full.They should have a locking lid which does not permit entry into the container. They are usually red, bright orange, or yellow, and must be labeled "BIOHAZARD".
  • 71.
  • 72.
  • 73. Avoiding the Median Nerve Avoid major nerves. Hitting a patient's nerve with a needle can cause sharp and immediate pain. The patient may also experience an involuntary reflex action, pulling the arm away from the needle. Arteries, which can be detected by a pulse, should not be used for routine blood collection. To avoid inadvertently puncturing an artery, do not select a vein that overlies or is close to an artery. As seen in the diagram, both the median nerve and the brachial artery lie close to the basilic vein. Excessive or blind probing while performing a venipuncture can lead to permanent injury of the nerve or artery that may result in legal action.
  • 74.
  • 75. Site selection in Hand Hand or wrist veins may be used when antecubitalfossa veins are unsuitable or unavailable. Phlebotomist must use extra care to anchor them. These veins have a narrow diameter, it may be necessary to use a small gauge needle and small volume evacuated tubes. Use of a butterfly apparatus may enhance success and make the procedure less painful.
  • 76. Site selection in Foot The last resort for blood collection is from the foot veins after the arm veins have been determine unsuitable. Always check with the hospital policy before this type of sampling is carried out.
  • 77. Inappropriate Sites for Venipuncture Arms on side of Mastectomy Edematous areas Hematomas Arm in which blood is being transfused Scarred areas Arms with cannulas, fistulas or vascular grafts Arm above IV lines
  • 78. Assemble Equipment Prior to initiating venipuncture, gather all equipment needed. Place the necessary evacuated tubes in the proper sequence for specimen collection. A sharps container should be easily accessible for immediate needle disposal following completion of the venipuncture.
  • 79. Wash Hands The most important means of preventing and controlling the spread of infection is proper hand washing: Remove watch and rings Without touching the sink, wet hands under warm, running water. Apply soap and work up a lather, rubbing hands together to create friction for at least 15 seconds. Rinse hands in a downward motion from wrists to fingertips. Repeat steps 2 and 3. Dry hands with a clean paper towel Turn the faucet off with another clean paper towel.
  • 80. Apply Gloves OSHA regulations require the wearing of gloves during phlebotomy procedures. A new pair of gloves must be worn for each patient. When donning gloves, pull them over the cuff of protective clothing.
  • 81. Position Patient A patient should be either seated or lying down while having blood drawn. The patient's arm should be firmly supported and extended downward in a straight line from the shoulder to the wrist. Ensure patient's hand is closed, which makes the veins more prominent. Do not ask the patient to pump his / her hand.
  • 82. Correct arm positioning: Allows gravity to help veins enlarge. Helps assure the specimen collection tubes fill from the bottom up to prevent reflux and additive carryover between sample tubes.
  • 83. Tie Tourniquet Position tourniquet under the arm 3-4 inches above the intended venipuncture site, with each hand grasping one side of the tourniquet. Apply and maintain tension. Without rolling or twisting the tourniquet, bring the two sides together. Cross one side over the other and securely tuck a portion of the upper side under the lower side. Note that the loop is below the tourniquet band and the free ends (flaps) of the tourniquet are pointing away from the venipuncture site. This prevents it from the interfering with the site of needle entry. The flaps should be positioned so they can easily be grasped with one hand. Gently pulling on the flaps releases the tourniquet.
  • 84. Apply Tourniquet Apply tourniquet to increase pressure in the veins and aid in vein selection. When correctly placed on the patient's arm, it should be tight enough to slow venous flow without affecting arterial flow. It should feel slightly tight to the patient, allowing more blood to flow into than out of the area. The veins enlarge, making them easier to palpate and penetrate with a needle. Ideally, never leave a tourniquet on the patient longer than one minute. Tourniquets left on longer may alter test results. Do not apply a tourniquet over an open sore. Do not apply a tourniquet to the arm on the side of a recent mastectomy.
  • 85. Select Site Venipuncture is most commonly performed in the anticubitalfossa area of the arm where the median cubital, cephalic, and basilic veins lie fairly close to the surface. Use the tip of the index finger to palpate (examine by feel) the vein. This helps determine the size, depth, and direction of the vein. Select vein that is easily palpated, large enough to support good blood flow, and well-anchored or fixed by surrounding tissue.
  • 86. Cleanse site Clean venipuncture site with antiseptic to help prevent microbial contamination to the specimen and patient. Start at the center of the site and move outward in ever widening, concentric circles. Failure to follow this procedure may re-introduce dirt and bacteria.Use sufficient pressure to remove surface dirt and debris. Repeat the process with a fresh alcohol prep pad if the site's is still dirty. Let the site air dry (30 - 60 seconds) prior to beginning the venipuncture. Do not wipe, blow on, or fan the site, as these actions may re-introduce contaminations. For blood culture draws, refer to the laboratory's standard operating procedure for instructions.
  • 87. Insertion Angle Insert the needle at a 15-30 degree angle when penetrating the skin and the vein.
  • 88. Insertion Angle Above picture: Bevel of the needle is fully inserted within the lumen of the vein within 15-30 degree angle. Middle picture: Needle angle is too steep. If needle advances further into the vein, it may penetrate completely through the vein to tissue. Lower picture: Needle angle is too shallow, causing bevel to rest on the wall of the vein. Needle may be partially in the lumen and partially in tissue, resulting in hematoma formation. Insert needle at a 15-30 degree angle when penetrating the skin and the vein.
  • 89. Insert Needle Grasp patient's arm with thumb on top and fingers wrapped to the back. Pull skin taut below the intended venipuncture site with thumb, anchoring vein to keep it from moving or rolling. Using a smooth motion, quickly insert the needle, bevel up. Stop needle advancement when a slight decrease in resistance is felt, signaling entry into the vein. Advance tube onto needle to the end of holder Use thumb to push tube while index and middle fingers grasp flanges of tube holder. Blood should begin to flow into tube. Release tourniquet as soon as possible, depending upon blood flow. Ideally, do not leave tourniquet on for more than one minute.
  • 90. Fill Tube Maintaintube in a downward position so that blood and any tube additive it contains does not touch the needle. Fill tube until vacuum is exhausted and blood flow stops. Remove tubes from holder by applying pressure against flanges of tube holder with thumb and index finger while using a slight twist to remove the tube. Hold needle steady as tubes are removed and inserted. If tube contains an additive, invert it gently several times after removal to mix the blood and additive. Additional mixing can be performed while other tubes are filling.
  • 91. Remove Needle Release tourniquet prior to removing needle. Ensure patient's hand is open After the last tube is removed from holder, hold a clean gauze pad in position over the entry site. Gently and quickly remove needle from the arm. It is necessary to apply pressure to the site to prevent leakage of blood and possible hematoma formation. As soon as needle is fully withdrawn, but not before, apply pressure firmly to the puncture site using a gauze pad. If the patient is alert, ask him / her to continue to apply pressure until bleeding has stopped. Keep arm extended and preferably raised; arm should not be bent as this increases the risk of hematoma formation.
  • 92. Dispose Needle Discard contaminated needles in a container referred to as a "sharp container" Never cut, bend, break, or recap needles. A variety of containers are manufactured. They provide safe removal of the needle from holder when using an evacuated tube system. Place needle in the proper slot in the lid, and turn it clockwise until it unscrews from the holder. Do not attempt to remove needle with your fingers. If needle doe not separate from the holder, throw the entire unit away in a sharps container. Proper Needle Disposal Improper Needle Disposal
  • 93. Label Tube Always verify information on tube labels. All identifiers on the labels must be accurate. Label tubes after they are drawn, while the patient is still present, to reduce the risk of specimen misidentification. If additional information must be added to the label (e.g., fasting, time to draw), write with ink, never pencil. Never: Label tubes prior to venipuncture Leave an inpatient room before labeling the tubes Dismiss an outpatient before labeling is completed.
  • 94. Transport Tube When transporting tubes through public hallways, place them in a secondary container to minimize the risk of leakage and spillage. The secondary container must be clearly labeled "BIOHAZARD.“ Once the tubes are in the container, seal it before transport.Securely attach paper requisition(s) to the secondary transport container.
  • 95. Blood taken and transferred to Syringes of different sizes Containers of different sizes Blood collection: Open System
  • 96. Holder Evacuated tube Needle Blood collection: Closed System
  • 97. Blood collection: Closed System How it works
  • 98. Transparent Needle Hub BD Vacutainer FLASHBACK NEEDLE
  • 99. Black- G22x1” Green- G21x1” BD Vacutainer FLASHBACK NEEDLE
  • 101. Do not eat or drink in the area of blood collection,transportation or specimen processing and analysis Do not apply cosmetics anytime during blood collection,transportation or processing and analysis Wash hands before and after eating, drinking and before and after using the restrooms
  • 102. No long necklaces, large and or dangling earrings or loose bracelets during any type of blood collection, transportation or processing and analysis Remove laboratory coat or smock used during blood collection or other patient care activities before going to an area where coffee breaks or meals are taken
  • 103. Wear gloves for all blood collection and every skin puncture Wash hands before and after putting on gloves Use a new, clean pair of gloves for each procedure – use non-latex gloves Wear a laboratory coat, a gown or a smock during blood collection. Remove garment and leave it at the facility for appropriate cleaning and disinfecting
  • 104. Wear eye and face protectors if blood and body fluid splashing is anticipated Follow procedure for disposing of blood collection items Decontamination of tourniquets and trays after use is highly recommended
  • 105. Never recap a needle by hand Use safety lancets with self –retracting blade Disposed of sharps, needles, blades and others in a puncture resistant container
  • 106. for safer blood collection and reliable test results.
  • 108. Introduction to Patient Greet Patient Introducing yourself by name Describe the procedure to be performed, providing reassurance to the patient.
  • 109. Patient Identification Ask an outpatient to state his/her full name, spell the last name, and state his/her date of birth. Verify the requisition (order) and samples labels, if applicable, have the same identifiers.
  • 110. Patient Identification Check inpatient's identification band to verify the name and hospital identification number match the order. If the patient is not wearing an identification band, DO NOT perform the venipuncture. Correct identification of patient is critical. Blood test results collected from a mis-identified patient will be linked to the wrong patient, and may put the health of two patients at risk.
  • 111. Assemble Equipment Prior to initiating venipuncture, gather all equipment needed. Place the necessary evacuated tubes in the proper sequence for specimen collection. A sharps container should be easily accessible for immediate needle disposal following completion of the venipuncture.
  • 112. Position Patient Seated or lying The patient's arm should be firmly supported and extended downward in a straight line from the shoulder to the wrist. Ensure patient's hand is closed, which makes the veins more prominent.
  • 113. Tie Tourniquet 3-4 inches above the intended venipuncture site, Apply and maintain tension. Without rolling or twisting the tourniquet, bring the two sides together. Cross one side over the other and securely tuck a portion of the upper side under the lower side. The loop should be below the tourniquet band and the free ends (flaps) of the tourniquet are pointing away from the venipuncture site. The flaps should be positioned so they can easily be grasped with one hand.
  • 114. Site Selection Cubital vein Cephalic vein Basilic vein Avoid major nerves (can cause sharp and immediate pain; involuntary reflex action) Avoid arteries which can be detected by a pulse. Do not select a vein that overlies or is close to an artery. Avoid excessive or blind probing while performing a venipuncture
  • 115. Cleanse site Clean venipuncture site with antiseptic Let the site air dry (30 - 60 seconds) prior to beginning the venipuncture. Do not wipe, blow on, or fan
  • 119. Dispose Needle Proper Needle Disposal Improper Needle Disposal
  • 121. Transport Tube When transporting tubes through public hallways, place them in a secondary container to minimize the risk of leakage and spillage. The secondary container must be clearly labeled "BIOHAZARD.“ Once the tubes are in the container, seal it before transport.Securely attach paper requisition(s) to the secondary transport container.
  • 122.
  • 128.

Editor's Notes

  1. Syringe Method: (Open Collection System) Vacutainer Method: (Closed Collection System)Radial: (45 – 60O) G 23 – 25 Brachial: (45 – 60O) G 18 – 20 Femoral: (90O)For pediatric collection: 3 ml syringe or tuberculin syringe with a 21 or 23-gauge needle; 23-gauge butterfly set is also suitable
  2. Butterfly Infusion Set: Consist of a stainless steel beveled needle attached with plastic wings for the phlebotomist to grasp during the needle insertion
  3. Needle Gauge: 16=Transparent 18 =Yellow 19=Brown 20=Violet 21=Green 22=Black 23=Sky blue 24=Red 25=Dark Blue 26=Orange
  4. apply tourniquet below IV site
  5. Never draw without consent. Charges of assault and battery could result.
  6. K3EDTA: liquid form in glass tubesK2EDTA: spray-dried in plastic tubesPink: spray-dried K2EDTA
  7. 3.2% = 0.105M 3.8%=0.129M
  8. 3.2% = 0.105M 3.8%=0.129M
  9. SPS: aids in bacterial recovery by inhibiting complement, phagocytes and certain antibioticsACD: RBC preservative
  10. NCCLS Guidelines: use of plastic evacuated tubes
  11. (Do not freeze whole blood.)
  12. (Do not freeze whole blood.)
  13. . Do not use ice cubes alone because RBCs may lyse.