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The Practice of Cyber Crime Investigations

A beginner's introduction to Case Theory approach for Cyber Crime Investigations.

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The Practice of Cyber Crime Investigations

  1. 1. The Practice of Cyber Crime Investigations Albert Hui GREM, GCFA, GCFE, GNFA, GCIA, GCIH, GXPN, GPEN, GAWN, GSNA, GSEC, CISA, CISM, CRISC S ec urI ty Ro ni n November 19th 2016 @ HKUST Cybersecurity Lab Security Day
  2. 2. Who am I? Copyright © 2016 Albert Hui 2  Co-designed the first Cyber Forensics curriculum for Hong Kong Police, trained cops  CSIRT Manager at an Investment Bank  ACFE (Association of Certified Fraud Examiner) Asia Pacific Fraud Conference keynote speaker  HTCIA (High Tech Crime Investigation Association) Asia Pacific Forensics Conference speaker  Technology Risk Manager at Multinational Banks  Risk Consultant for Government and Critical Infrastructures  Black Hat speaker Albert Hui GREM, GCFA, GCFE, GNFA, GCIA, GCIH, GXPN, GPEN, GAWN, GSNA, GSEC, CISA, CISM, CRISC Security RonI n IncidentResponse& Investigations Technology RiskManagement
  3. 3. Main Types of Cyber Crimes Copyright © 2016 Albert Hui 3 Theft SabotageExtortion
  4. 4. The “Whys” of Cyber Crime Copyright © 2016 Albert Hui 4 Secular Sacred egomoney ideology (e.g. hacktivists) revenge (e.g. former employees) curiosity industrial espionage war & terrorism (e.g. state-sponsored hackers) political (e.g. foreign government policies) Hui’s Cyber Threat Intent Taxonomy
  5. 5. Objectives of Private Investigations  Find bad actors, for legal action and/or settlement  Gather concrete evidences for suspect wrongdoings, for legal action and/or settlement  Recover lost assets  Independent assessment of incident for insurance claims  Determine control weaknesses for risk mitigation (…and many others) Copyright © 2016 Albert Hui 5
  6. 6. Common Practice Areas Cyber Crime Investigation Cyber Forensics Evidence Collection Forensic Analysis Incident Response Intrusion Analysis Malware Reverse Engineering E-Discovery Forensic Accounting Intelligence Cyber Intelligence (CYBINT) Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) Human Intelligence (HUMINT) Copyright © 2016 Albert Hui 6
  7. 7. Copyright © 2016 Albert Hui 7 Investigation Methodology
  8. 8. Methodology Copyright © 2016 Albert Hui 8 You know my method. It is founded upon the observation of trifles.” Sherlock Holmes “
  9. 9. Locard’s Exchange Principle Copyright © 2016 Albert Hui 9 Every contact leaves a trace.” Edmond Locard “
  10. 10. Red Flags Lead to Smoking Gun Copyright © 2016 Albert Hui 10
  11. 11. Case Theory Approach Gather & Analyze all relevant facts Construct Hypotheses based on knowledge of Hacking Operations, Crime Modus Operandi, Fraud Scheme Mechanics, etc. Test Hypotheses via Forensic Examination, Data Analysis, Document Review, etc. Copyright © 2016 Albert Hui 11 Revise & Refine
  12. 12. Copyright © 2016 Albert Hui 12 Example Model 1: Occupational Fraud Schemes  Vendor profiles  Incomplete profile  Non-business address  Payments  Duplicate payments  To unauthorized vendors  Without matching POs or invoices  Small amount below approval limit  Unusual short turn-around time  Excessive purchase of particular items  Excessive purchase from particular vendors  Received goods or services  Inventory missing purchased goods  Unusual non-goods purchases  Unusual shipment destinations (...and many many more) Billing Scheme red flags to test for:
  13. 13. Example Model 2: Cyber Kill Chain Copyright © 2016 Albert Hui 13 Recon Weaponize Deliver Exploit Install C2 Action
  14. 14.  Check IDS / SIEM for intrusion attempts Data Theft via Web Intrusion Scenario Copyright © 2016 Albert Hui 14 Recon Weaponize Deliver Exploit Install C2 Action Intrusion Artifacts to Check for:  Check web server log for malicious requests  Check file access timeline for post-breach exploitation and malware installation  Check DNS resolution for data exfiltration attempts  Reverse engineer malware  Check web proxy log for data exfiltration  Check IDS / SIEM for scans (…and many many more)
  15. 15. Summary  Case Theory Approach  Forensics is but one method out of many (use the right method and right tool for the job!)  In-Depth Domain Knowledge required Copyright © 2016 Albert Hui 15
  16. 16. Thank You! 16 Security Roni n