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- 1. Outline 1-1 Pseudocode Chapter 1. 1-2 The Abstract Data Type Introduction 1-3 A Model for an Abstract Data Type Instructor: Kuen-Liang Sue 1-4 Algorithm Efficiency IM/NCU 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 2 1-1 Pseudocode Pseudocode Pseudocode Basic format for data type An English-like representation of the code Name of the data Part English Type enclosed in pointed brackets Part structured code consists of sequence, selection, and iteration Structure of the data Assuming that dataType has been previous defined 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 3 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 4 1
- 2. Pseudocode Pseudocode Algorithm header Example of Header Each algorithm begins with a header that names it, describes its parameters, and lists any pre- and postconditions The programmer using the algorithm often see only the header, not the complete algorithm The header information must be complete enough to communicate to the programmer 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 5 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 6 Example of pseudocode (contd.) Header in Pseudocode Purpose A short statement about what the algorithm does Precondition lists any precursor requirements for the parameters Sometimes there are no preconditions, we still list it as shown below If there are several input parameters, then the precondition should be shown for each 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 7 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 8 2
- 3. Header in Pseudocode Header in Pseudocode Example of array search algorithm Postcondition identifies any action taken and the status of any output parameters Return condition If a value is returned, it will be identified by a return condition The example of search algorithm returns a Boolean Any Q? What is difference between output parameter and return value? 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 9 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 10 Pseudocode Pseudocode Statement numbers Variables e.g. Algorithm 1-1 Intelligent data names names that describe the meaning of the data The expanded number of the statement that reads the files Selection of the name is 3.1 Do not use single character names Statement 2 is an example of a sequence Do not use generic names Statement 3.2 is an example of a selection • e.g. count, sum, total, row, column, and file Abbreviations are not excluded as intelligent data names Statement 3 is an example of a loop • e.g. numOfStu is a good abbreviation; noStu would not Algorithm analysis Style or efficiency considerations 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 11 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 12 3
- 4. Statement constructs State constructs Statement constructs Selection Any algorithm could be written with only three Selection statements evaluate one or more alternatives programming constructs Sequence Selection Loop Sequence Loop A series of statements iterates a block of code that do not alter the execution path within an algorithm 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 13 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 14 Pseudocode example Pseudocode example Algorithm 1-2 analysis There are no parameters If there were , we would have indicated whether they were pass by reference (ref) or pass by value (val), their name, and their type Using a code-oriented pseudocode as opposed to a “tight English” pseudocode Add one to i Pseudocode arrays are indexed starting at 0 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 15 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 16 4
- 5. 1-2 The Abstract Data Type The Abstract Data Type Spaghetti code Data type Nonstructural, linear programs consists of two parts, a set of data and the operations that Modular programming can be performed on the data Programs were organized in functions Object-oriented programming each of which still used a linear coding technique The functions are developed around an object The structured programming concepts we still use today such as a linked list were formulated in the 1970s Encapsulation One part of the object-oriented concept All processing for an object is bundled together in a library and hidden from user 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 17 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 18 The Abstract Data Type The Abstract Data Type Atomic data e.g. three atomic data types Data that we choose to consider as a single, nondecomposable entity Atomic data type Composite data The opposite of atomic data e.g. telephone number has three different part Area code, three-digit exchange and the number within the exchange 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 19 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 20 5
- 6. The Abstract Data Type The Abstract Data Type Data Structure An aggregation of atomic and composite data types into a Abstract Data Type set with defined relationships Users are not concerned with how the task is done but rather with what it can do ADT consists of a set of definitions that allow programmers to use the functions while hiding the implementation Abstraction 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 21 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 22 The Abstract Data Type Example of an ADT If we place our list in an ADT Consider a system analyst who needs to simulate user should not be aware of the structure we use the waiting line of a bank Four logical structures that might be used to hold a list This analysis requires the simulation of a queue However, queues are not generally available in programming languages Even if a queue type were available, the analyst would still need some basic queue operations • Enqueuing and dequeuing 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 23 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 24 Figure 1-1 Some data structures 6
- 7. Example of an ADT The Abstract Data Type Two potential solutions to this problem Formal definition of an ADT Writing a program that simulates the needed queue A data declaration packaged together with the operations • The solution is good only for one application at hand that are meaningful for the data type Writing a queue ADT that can be used to solve any queue problem If choosing the latter course writing a program to simulate the banking application is still needed but he can concentrate on the application rather than queue 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 25 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 26 1-3 A Model for an Abstract Data Type A Model for an Abstract Data Type ADT Model e.g. Shown in Figure 1-2 Shaded area with irregular outline represent the model Inside the area are two different aspects of the model the data structure and the operational functions Both are entirely contained in the model Both are not within the user’s scope Figure 1-2 Abstract data type model 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 27 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 28 7
- 8. A Model for an Abstract Data Type A Model for an Abstract Data Type Data operations A pointer to a hidden structure Data are entered, accessed, modified, and deleted through the operational interfaces Only the operation name and its parameter are visible to the user ADT data structure We must hide the implementation from the user while being able to store different data Each ADT class object will have a defined type that users must use in their programs, e.g. file 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 29 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 30 Figure 1-3 A pointer to a hidden structure A Model for an Abstract Data Type ADT Class Templates ADT class templates Two general components of a structure are Data • The data structure is given a template identifier of TYPE Key identifier, optionally • A key type identifier, KTYPE See Program 1-1 In Program 1-2, we create a structure, PICTURE key is the year the picture won the Award We define the list object (see Statement 11), designating that the structure type is PICTURE and the key type is short 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 31 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 32 8
- 9. 1-4 Algorithm Efficiency Algorithm Efficiency Algorithmics Linear loop Defined as “systematic study of fundamental techniques used to design and analyze efficiency algorithms” The study of algorithm efficiency focuses on loops We generally discuss the algorithm’s efficiency as a function of the number of elements to be processed 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 33 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 34 Algorithm Efficiency Algorithm Efficiency Logarithmic loops The controlling variable is multiplied or divided in each loop 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 35 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 36 9
- 10. Algorithm Efficiency Algorithm Efficiency Nested loops Dependent quadratic Linear logarithmic 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 37 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 38 Algorithm Efficiency Big-O Notation Quadratic O(n)--on the order of n If an algorithm is quadratic, we would say its efficiency is Big-O notation can be derived from f(n) using the following step In each term, set the coefficient of the term to 1 Keep the largest term and discard the others This formula generalizes to 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 39 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 40 10
- 11. Algorithm Efficiency Algorithm Efficiency For example Consider another example 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 41 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 42 Algorithm Efficiency Algorithm Efficiency Standard measures of efficiency Figure 1-4 Big-O ranges 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 43 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 44 11
- 12. Algorithm Efficiency Algorithm Efficiency Big-O analysis example Add matrices Figure 1-5 Add matrices The efficiency of Algorithm 1-3 is O(size2) or O(n2) 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 45 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 46 Algorithm Efficiency Algorithm Efficiency Multiply matrices When two matrices are multiplied, we must multiply each element in a row of the first matrix by its corresponding element in a column of the second matrix 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 47 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 48 12
- 13. Algorithm Efficiency Multiply Two Matrices (contd.) In this algorithm loops with three nested loops have a big-O efficiency of O(size3) or O(n3) 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 49 2009/9/24 DFS by KLSue/NCU 50 13

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