The Classical Period

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The Classical Period

  1. 2. <ul><li>I. The Spread of Civilization in Africa II. Africa, Civilization, and the Wider World III. Nomadic Societies and Indo-European Migrations IV. The Spread of Chinese Civilization to Japan V. The Scattered Societies of Polynesia </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>I. The Spread of Civilization in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Varied ecosystems: Savannas, grasslands, plains, deserts </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Sahara, fertile in Late Stone Age </li></ul><ul><li>Desert by 3000 B.C.E. , </li></ul><ul><li> Migration north and south </li></ul><ul><li>A. Agriculture, Livestock, and Iron </li></ul><ul><li>Millet and sorghum by 3000 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Domesticated animals from Asia </li></ul><ul><li> Horses into Egypt, 2nd millennium B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Tsetse fly </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks horses and cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Camel from 1st century C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>No bronze age </li></ul><ul><li>Stone to iron </li></ul><ul><li>Iron from Mediterranean coast, Red Sea </li></ul><ul><li>to southern Africa by 1000 C.E. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>I. The Spread of Civilization in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Bantu Dispersal </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture and iron accompany Bantu dispersal </li></ul><ul><li>Bantu homeland in Nigeria </li></ul><ul><li>Saharan desiccation may have forced flight </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of iron an advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Spread throughout continent by 1200 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture, fishing, goats, cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Villages untied by kinship </li></ul><ul><li>Council of elders </li></ul>Bantu Migrations
  4. 5. <ul><li>II. Africa, Civilization, and the Wider World </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between Egypt and the rest of Africa? </li></ul><ul><li>Similarities </li></ul><ul><li>Dynastic brother-sister marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Divine kingship </li></ul><ul><li>Direction of influence? </li></ul><ul><li>A. Axum: A Christian Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Axum defeats Meroë, 3rd century C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Influence in Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>Axum </li></ul><ul><li>Urban center </li></ul><ul><li>Ge'ez - writing system </li></ul><ul><li>Used Arabic script </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled Red Sea trade </li></ul><ul><li>c. 350 C.E. , King Ezana converts to Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Invade in 1076 </li></ul><ul><li>Period of instability </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>II. Africa, Civilization, and the Wider World </li></ul><ul><li>B. Golden Ghana: A Trading State </li></ul><ul><li>Savanna peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Trade intermediaries </li></ul><ul><li>Link northern Africa and Niger and Senegal rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Salt for gold; gold for textiles, finished goods </li></ul><ul><li>Trade leads to state formation </li></ul><ul><li>Gao, Ghana </li></ul><ul><li>925 C.E. , Gao's leader converts to Islam, </li></ul><ul><li>then elites convert </li></ul><ul><li>Ghana </li></ul><ul><li>Soninke people </li></ul><ul><li>Kumbi Saleh, capital </li></ul><ul><li>Tolls on commerce create wealth </li></ul><ul><li> State grows </li></ul><ul><li>Influence into Sahara </li></ul><ul><li>Almoravids </li></ul><ul><li>Invade in 1076 </li></ul><ul><li>Period of instability </li></ul>West African States
  6. 7. <ul><li>III. Nomadic Societies and Indo-European Migrations </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralism: cames, reindeer, sheep, horses </li></ul><ul><li>Varied roles for women </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate long-distance agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Indo-Europeans </li></ul><ul><li>2nd millennium B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>North of the Black and Caspian seas </li></ul><ul><li> Middle East, Indus Plain </li></ul><ul><li>Included the Hittites, Hyksos, and Hsiung-nu (Huns) </li></ul><ul><li>Attack Chinese and Roman territories </li></ul><ul><li>Destroy the Gupta </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>III. Nomadic Societies and Indo-European Migrations A. The Celts and Germans </li></ul><ul><li>Celts </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland to Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Small kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Warrior elite </li></ul><ul><li>Kinship groups </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralism, agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>No cities, writing </li></ul><ul><li>Oral literature </li></ul><ul><li>including law codes </li></ul><ul><li>Animistic religion </li></ul><ul><li>Roman influence </li></ul><ul><li>especially Gauls </li></ul><ul><li>Germanic peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Much in common with Celts </li></ul><ul><li>Matrilineal </li></ul><ul><li>Women holy </li></ul><ul><li>Admired and despised by Romans </li></ul><ul><li>Larger political groupings by 3rd century C.E . </li></ul>Germanic and Slavic Peoples on the Move, 375-450
  8. 9. <ul><li>III. Nomadic Societies and Indo-European Migrations </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Slavs in Eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture to southern Russia by 3000 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Iron brought by Indo-Europeans, c. 1000 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Scythian state </li></ul><ul><li>7th to 3rd centuries B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Followed by the Sarmatians </li></ul><ul><li>Spread culture of Greeks and Persians </li></ul><ul><li>Slavs in by 4th C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdoms by 5th B.C.E. </li></ul>Germanic and Slavic Peoples on the Move, 375-450
  9. 10. <ul><li>IV. The Spread of Chinese Civilization to Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Politically independent of China </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural borrowings </li></ul><ul><li>A. Natural Setting and the Peopling of the Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Mountainous </li></ul><ul><li> Population concentrates on coastal plains </li></ul><ul><li>Asians from 5000 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>From Korea, Manchuria </li></ul><ul><li>Jomon culture Hunting-and-gathering </li></ul><ul><li>3rd millennium B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Ainu displaced </li></ul>East Asia at the End of the Classical Period
  10. 11. <ul><li>IV. The Spread of Chinese Civilization to Japan </li></ul><ul><li>B. Indigenous Culture and Society </li></ul><ul><li>Yayoi epoch </li></ul><ul><li>Last centuries B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>New techniques from mainland </li></ul><ul><li>Society </li></ul><ul><li>Clans </li></ul><ul><li>90% peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid social distinctions </li></ul><ul><li>Matriarchal Women head households </li></ul><ul><li>Hold religious, political roles </li></ul><ul><li>Yamato clan </li></ul><ul><li>Dominate in 4th, 5th centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Influence over southern Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Imperial cult </li></ul><ul><li>Shinto worship </li></ul>The Rise of Japanese Civilization
  11. 12. <ul><li>IV. The Spread of Chinese Civilization to Japan </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Chinese Model and the Remaking of Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese script adopted 300s C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Used by Yamato to build state </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Important from c. 550 </li></ul><ul><li>Korean mission to Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Official in 580s </li></ul><ul><li>Does not replace Shintoism </li></ul><ul><li>D. Political and Social Change </li></ul><ul><li>Emulation of Chinese rulers </li></ul><ul><li>Capitals at Nara, Heian </li></ul><ul><li>Scholar-monks </li></ul><ul><li>Merchant class </li></ul><ul><li>Women's roles changed by contact with China </li></ul><ul><li>E. Chinese Influence and Japanese Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Elite copy Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed by local lords, warriors </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>V. The Scattered Societies of Polynesia </li></ul><ul><li>Australia, New Guinea settled </li></ul><ul><li>Others come from Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Settle other islands </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Great Migration </li></ul><ul><li>c. 4000 years ago Austronesian expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Lapita pottery </li></ul><ul><li>Common culture with differences </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Voyagers of the Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>Double canoes, triangular sails ( pahi ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sail windward </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 120 miles/day </li></ul><ul><li>C. Ancient Hawaii </li></ul><ul><li>Two colonization waves, from c. 300 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 200,000 by 1700s </li></ul><ul><li>Kamehameha I </li></ul><ul><li>Unification, 1810 </li></ul><ul><li>At head of hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Chiefs ( ali'i ) </li></ul>The Spread of Polynesian Peoples
  13. 14. <ul><li>V. The Scattered Societies of Polynesia </li></ul><ul><li>D. The New Zealand Landfall and the Development of Maori Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Society Islanders </li></ul><ul><li>8th century C.E. Ancient Hawaii </li></ul><ul><li>Two colonization waves, from c. 300 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 200,000 by 1700s </li></ul><ul><li>Kamehameha I </li></ul><ul><li>Unification, 1810 </li></ul><ul><li>At head of hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Chiefs ( ali'i ) Fishing, agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 200,000 by 18th century </li></ul><ul><li>Maori Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Hapu , tribal units </li></ul><ul><li>Common land </li></ul><ul><li>Council </li></ul><ul><li>Led by chief </li></ul><ul><li>Chiefs also priests </li></ul><ul><li>Shamans </li></ul>The Spread of Polynesian Peoples

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