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الفروقات الفردية بين الطلاب كيف نفهمها

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
  11. 11. 12 ..*% 0 # + ( 6 . 6 0 %'0 G + " 5 % 6 M 0.+ <0 ' A; ")Adams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
  12. 12. 13 % 6 - %' # ! ,4 A; U L: ! $ ; = :/ .. 7 ; " 3 >R # . D O! 6 $%".;- +"+ = +; * # -8(Thorndike, Hagen, and Sattler, 1986).$ #)( A.+/ % " D: N; U $% 0 # + " , % R.A; " + 4 N; 3- % + *++ 7 : 5 (::6 + " , 7 : M>.- L ;% L L ;+ 7 :K 0 $>6 0 )!(- - -. / " ' . >+ > . - ' - 76 . 4 0 ,: 0 Q"R." # - 0 %' ; " 3 > * $%" + 3- #4#4 4.0 !< ; " ; . 6 8 # / > . - L !" 6$ # D ; ;9.> 4 !" + D ; 4 % # + = 3 8 + # / $K $ #.! 6 # + : #)-( . Q<+0 0-., J : : 0 # 0 7 6R- 3 > +(Harvey, Kigar, and Witelson, 1999).8 + - > # 6 0 . 6
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  16. 16. 17 + R +; " P * / 0 $' , = :1 $ - *+: %5 ,0.K 0 $ - 6 + " " * 4 # + : 0 C ;% 6 # + : % * ". 4 # + : 3 > * / - N; # + : 9 *+: " % *K: +% E " 7)*+:1.(E " 9 - 4 6 # <1 G 6:+ %* +" . - 6 0 , 3 % + >. *!, 8 0 " 7 / $ # :- 0 % E "# - % - 9! , = - 6 / % 0 - 4. % E " : N;M>*+: ; " , .* /.D> * A; - * 0 1 .%.O* < * . . 6> ## + : *!, > * + $ - 2 " > 6> M 4 6> >! = > /. - % 0 4 D> * 4 A; 0 3 ( 0." , = :0 * . ? %( A; * ? %( . <.1 * , 3 4 0 # 0 L . <1 % + ,0(Fowler, 1981).
  17. 17. 18 - O* < * . O ; " ;# 0 ; - + % # 0 ; 5 ,0 -.G *< > # + 3 - ; " - $ -.D0 ; 1 0 8 <1 $ + 0 3 -." ; ! @ + R " # / + ;* 9." # 0 * * # + *+ ( ' ?K - " '" # *+ - D K.,,P 4 <:" *+: + 3 0 6 D0 . 4 " ,. + +# 4 * D> * 0 $ $ - 1+ ! *( 0 $% . 0 + $% *+.$ ! O* < * . " # %)E!, OM 4 O*<# ; # O# + O !0! ;,*!, # '.(8 % 0 * N; A; $% - + 4 # + : , , % ( " #.* " , # - ? %( . < # " 6 (.;% <+0 + R % $" , = > / $ . *+ >(Gopher, 1996). 8 . >" + ( $ - !< ;+ " # , *), 6 , . / + ( + 0 $< $ / .(2 .+ - + *< % K => *+ = : " % ( 8 $ ; ! 4 -+.
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
  20. 20. 21 " # " ' ( $ - < 7 # 4.% - +: " ,: % $ " , # $ ,.; 7 6:+ * 0 : " ,.(Burbaud et al, 2000) 6 " , %' 4 # + : # ". - 6 , O* < * .)/($% + 6 + *< ' / 0 + . = %(.;+. $% " , L# - *<:G $ , $ - $ ' , %.( ; ! !< ; " " ')- +" . < # ( # ( " ,* 5 # ; #(% 0 + # *+ . = -.. - 0 + # + * *94 G 0 # <+0 # , (.# 4 $ , :" 0 + - = . $ '9 - . > +. < ! 4 # + : 6! ,4 $ # 0 " , M 0 $ , . $% . ( 0.! + 0 + + # ;+. 9> 0 = - 1" 0 2 " $ ,- 0 E + # ".": ? 0 + #. ; !#K $<+ > $% " 0 + E N # P .8 $%*!, ;A.# + : 6 ( - - - + K <+0 4.
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
  22. 22. 23 6 )0(8 " K 9 3 8 1 >"- :9 G 9 / . ] A - = :0$ -0 %,F> @*.% 8 + A0 * -.8 0 = : D0 3 0 * :OL 84 $0 * + + ; ' ?K.. ; # :+ + - + 0 $ *< + . G *< - # % . . -.$$-8O0 % 0 8.<+ L ;+.8 + 8. 0,1> - 3 : =89!6. = % @ 6 4 +: 0 . / ' * = 0.+* % 8 0# % * - ,*)0(* 8 0 8 % 9 8 0 4. 8 0 L ; <+0:: 0 !< + + 8M 3# " 8 > +.L 00 , . - E,/ . # % . N # # % * + # ;. '&# 3 * " $$ , , $# ; (.% " 6 " , ! + " ,. . <+0 L ; "R.* - 3 L L " L L> L ,: L + ; 0 3 * 6 + " % +6 +.
  23. 23. 24 <+ 6 , #4 # " M / A; 0 3 *+ / 6! ,.A . 8 0 + " $ K + $ % 0 + + %.K *" 0 . *" . 8 0 +.0 + - 4 0 ' !.*+ =4 . 0 9 ; K ' % N " 0 % '. , # + : . 4 6 *< * " 4 7 9.? R/ = :/ . 6 # + : 0 *<# %-.. - 4 # + : ? R/ = :/ A; . 6–6 + %- 6 + L.A;% " 4 / " 4 # + : 0 * 5 . < < - <1 * / = :/. # + : *<% " 4 # + : 4 6 K.L > :0)1993(Murphy and Zajonc0 . 0 $ - % + K 0D0- < 3 *!, = :.$R % -5" " 4 # -.CL ; $ 6 + # 3 >" 4 6 R - <+0 ' * " 4 O 4." +: - G * " ! ;%. 3- , # A; " 4 # + : $ ' 7 $' . -Limbic System(Damasio, 1994).9 # A; ?)*+: 1(./%' O # > " 4 # + :
  24. 24. 25 $% $ > . < * +:/ 3 # $ # % !. " 4 # + : 3 > . *94E 1 7 3 6! 0 0 ? 0 -.? . 6 4 $% + * " ,F # 0 A * " 4.+ %' ,P: % + ,F " 4 # 4 =4 $ %$% " 1.7 6 * , ; " ,(Dekosky, Heilman, Bowers, & Valenstein, 1980; Heilman, Scholes, & Watson, 1975). " 4 # + : " , = > 0 $ , 0 G 8 , ,P * " 4 . 6." # L ; <+0 - % " . - + * " 4 . 6 " , ;" " 4 5. 0 KD> * " 4 # + : 0 9 " + 4. " , 0 ;"* > " 4 # ! + " , #! <+ % 0 3 ? %(. !8 . ;" O ( = <0 # " 8 * " 4./ OL ; <+# 7O? %( 38. < # ! "(de Gelder, Bocker, Tuomainan, Hensen, &Vroomen,1999). . . / . / . *" / ; " * " 4 *" /( 0.# O ,/ + : * +
  25. 25. 26 4 !+ # *- - ' " 4 # + : + *" / . . / . / . *" /.#! $ " 0 ( " 4 # + : . / . *" / ,.# *-*< >% /:. ;/ - $ ' . 0.% . *Z=Z " 4 * ". *< " # <:. A : % R +(Murphy and Zajonic, 1993).. *00 + *+: 0 # . 6. > % *< ( 4:> ( # - / M $ K(–( 6 , '.+ D :! * " 4 ; - # *- G . / . *" / ; " < " - . 0 . 9>** - =(LeDoux, 1998).; 4 0 + 0 + :0 " 4 / . ; " M . 6 9! +. . 4 . *" / " 4 ; " " * <: 9 + #% 1 R R # R L 0 ? - / L ' *!,.>"- ON >] 2 0 * R/ . % L >% . >+ L. K " 8 1 # 0 6 <.L K L 9 > % ( # K # / ; L 0L : > K => % L . / . *" / 3 ; ".* L # + < + <+0 ' 3 > 6 , D : L
  26. 26. 27 8 * " 0 3 ; - + #.O A; ( 0 *: L . L. ( + 0 + > K " 4 # 4 U 3. + ( 0 3 : ? $ - * : N > 9 0 * - . 0." 4 ; " 0 *" / . . /*9 *!, " 0 X % : *<:Q A 4 > + ". #4 " $ 0 6 ( 0 + *" / . . / " D ( " ( 0 3 4 M / 34 %.+*" / . . / " 0 * -* ! % 0 + #4 " 4. " 4 # + : " # " 0 ! % : * " 4 # + : / - > # ? $ - 0 3" + * 6.^ O <+ > 8 E,: !< A :, 9 " , 0 _ " * #.+ " # ,.G " 8E ,:/ 6 , O %'M 0" ," # * " @.# 5 " . 6 + @ 8 0 = %'0 - $% ; . 4 L ; ?", 5 ,P 3" F * " . 0 O8 # K * O ; $% " (Asendorpf, 1987; Carels et al.,1999; Cole, 1996; Dimberg, 1990; Larsen 1987); %' # .
  27. 27. 28 M(Adamec, 1991; Kalin, 1999;Kalin, Shelton, & Davidson, 2000). " 4 M ) *% 8.# 0 - ,F .( ' 4 '.0 $% ? $ . # N > 4 # ! %'U.,P ; - (K - - 0 + % # 5 ,0 ' 4.6 - ,P * > % ,1 ` % 9 '. 0;% + # " " 4 1 +" + % 3.# " ? 0 #":+ 7 G 0 + % + # " - " 4.O* < * . ; E ,:/ 0 #":+ " ' 7 *9 %' D7 R "(Bruder et al, 1997;Tomarken, Davidson, Wheeler, & Doss, 1992). # + : R * , : . / 6 " 4.( ; E ,:/ / 9 > ! , : ( 0 %' ;7 @ , L " , # +(Reiman et al, 1984). L. # <1 " 4 # " L ; $ - $.#> D ; +9O Fink (1995, 1998)@ </ # %'0%$D; $ . * " ! + 0 +., / =4 %0 >6 # %$% 4 4
  28. 28. 29 8 M ( 0 $%.4* "4D -D; $% )9 $ % " 3. ( 0 *, " 4 *+ : O : + + . : $.!;" # ( ( R 9 $% 0 " = <0 @ - : / 9 - ># <14"# + : * -6 4(Gentile, Lamb, & Rivers, 1985; Kinard, 2001).K: !* - 4 .- 4 " 4 $% $%*.(@OL ; .!; % 4 $% 9 > < R *+ :$% " 0 # $ % $.: 0 ,P (3. $ . 0 + " 4 (- $% <+0 <+0 $% !.O <!< # + :# + 0 <+/ $ / " 4 # + :. .' 4 % + $ ) + +1 $ 4.$ $+ *+ L # $ . $ $ ! M (> = :/ . @. $% 9 > <K 0 D K O$% $ % 1 N , +: A;.+ 1 , ; 0 -.$ 4 4 => $ % ! # " 4 (- + - > 0 + 0>. " . '!< #:= - ! ? ) > : = <0 = - : ,P X +.?
  29. 29. 30 ,P # 1 - = ,F = -.+ 0 $ , 0 ! ? . 0 - 0% 0 -.,4 > - ,P *!- 4.M + M L O3 OL ; . (@ 6 , $% D; 5. ! 3 : > " . @ #4 " 4 $ - #4 " 4 *<.!* < % 2(–# ? % + " 4 ( 0 6 + % * L ;+ $ # * 0 + 0: 8 8 5 3 6 ."( # 0 <+ " *.- .."08 = <0 # ( = - #.+ $ - 0 8 . #! *(" 8 9 $ .8 ! * 8 ' # K L ; +.- 4 A 0 0 6 8 ; # :.8 L ; L 0 - / 0 *+ : >8 D; 8- ( . + #. 0 " 6: +."# ) 0 " 8 *+ 3( 8 0 ".* L ; +/3 ( $ *, 6 + 6:+ , 0 . ; . +/$.". ! "( ) * + *K: # # + : 7 0 + Q *+ . ( $' *R :. $ . >9 + 0 N 4 - -
  30. 30. 31 0 " . /8 7 G./ 8 , 3 *+: " 4 4 6 # + : $% 3 ! % - - 6 ( - * " # ". 0 7 G 0 # 4 2( 0 $ 08L "."> = +;0 R = +;0 . 6 +" - - + 4 % R > R. % # " <+ -" - A;% ! 6 - " " . L ; 4 >+. # $ # + : $ '" #, . 1 *+ 0 # + : *!, #! (" 6 ( - -.O +; " P 6 < 0 " <0 . = ( - + " R + : # " . >+ + : *+ (-.+ : . >+ 1 # A; *+.# + : 6 ( - N; - -% + <!< * "0 $ - . D $ $ 9 3. +: / ?%. $ 4 A 4 <+ % $ G 5 ,0 *+ : 0 (..O* < * 6 *+ : $% 0 - R $ # ; ! - # + ..- - $ # $' 0 % + <!< # + :. $% . 7 $ - + / 6! ,+ 1 > !+ 6 +0*( 0 -. $ : @ N;$- E, D0 6 <!< 7 # + : ! # 6 ( -.
  31. 31. 32 , -: 6.8< 4 8 0 $R ;% 8 L ;.8"0 . : 89dyslexic= - # A; 8 0 A - D; E , $ (@ $R +. - - . 6 4 . / 3 / .( <!< # + : 5 6 (.( 0 L + :" 8 , 8 : - <+0 % *(IEP)O *+ : . (@+ = - 6 . # % E , . 4 ( *+ : ? %' 8 " 8 % 8 ; # :)8 " ( D0( 8$ - D; : 6 8 4 - 8.8 0 O 0 3 ' 4 OL ; 0 *:" . 2 0.8 ,: # 0 3 5 ,0 0 -" (.# + O ,F #8 ! . , 98 % *; R R 8 0. " *+ : . Q ( : # + A;"%. + 8 8 - *( 0 0 8 8" ( - * : 8 %." 4 3 * 0 - 3 4 0> ] $ % 0 R + ; 8 O+ 5 ,/ # % *+ . 8 -.* # ? $ + + $ *!K ( A; * # ( +.L ;+3( $ -
  32. 32. 33 ,= # P $8- 4 + 8 +8N . *. . : ,0 . * 1 D; 0 $% ! # -1$% # / 6.
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  36. 36. 37 , / 0 " 1 0 " 3.N'%O D' P>F L3$=A '%(= L >Q: -2001ij k l m n o pq r st pu v o pq wt r xt yz{ | }vt v t pu -1984k l2001 v t pu m n o pq r s v t pu o pq ~• •u w€ •t wt ‚ p nt ƒn„t … † ‡ ~• t k u ˆpqtv t pu ‰ ~ t t i ‚ v t pu x Š o pq wt ‚ p nt yv•t r € z t‹ -Œ1968•nvŽu k l1979 v ‚ ‡ ‚ rp • ˆp q •‚ ‘ ‚ † ˆpqt R O: 4$S$ 4 >O: ••t v t pu o pq ~• t rq q p ’ {‚“‚ ”: 1.q | • vp–— ˜™ ˆ 2.o pq ~• t x Špq q• ‡ o u 3.‡ ‚ … ~ { $7 4 T$ ( N(= UI 1 P&P= D&P 2 V$5: 1" .…ˆpq ‡ z ‚ › œ • •… • ‚"t Š ˆp qt i | q• ž
  37. 37. 38 2" .t pu o pq ~• t ˜s ‹ x pq • pq o u ˜ { v" t‹ t t i ‚ v t pu Š wt ‚ yv u r € z ˆpv t pu x t q l ~• t Š p zt Š wt ‚ p zt t n ‚ ” v t pu – ‰ ‡vz x v – ‰ ˜ n ‚ ” ••t pq Ÿp xt q q •p n • ‚ ”: 1.Š k u ˆpqt wt ‚r € z t‹ t 2.˜•t ¡ wt ‚ ” q„ p zt:MS Word, Excel, PowerPoint, etc. 3.‡ p D'%=: 1981-1983-¢ t‹ rq{¢ ¡i † p u ¡i † p u t Š- ‡ w€ • r p • 1980-1981-¢ t‹ rq{¢ ¡i † p u ¡i † p u t Š- ‡ w€ • vŠ t 1964-1968-—t ¡r € z t Š-† £—„ ¤ j • v •‚ ‘ ‚ 4$ W(: “The Relationship Between Teachers Perceptions of Ideal and Actual Supervisory Behaviors and Teachers Satisfaction with Supervision” Unpublished Dissertation, 1983. “Effective Teaching Behaviors”, a study conducted at Saudi Aramco Training Centers, T&CD, Saudi Aramco, 1989 and 1990.
  38. 38. 39 “Apprentice Learning Styles”, a paper presented at 1990 In-Service Training Day, T&CD, Saudi Aramco, 1990. “Positive Motivation and Learning”, a presentation at 1991 In-Service Training Day, T&CD, Saudi Aramco, 1991. “Cooperative Learning: Most Frequent Questions and Concerns”, a presentation at 1999 In-Service Training Day, T&CD, Saudi Aramco, 1999. “GATB Validation Study: Arabic Alternates C & D, Parts II, IV, & VI”, Academic Curriculum & Testing Unit, T&CD, Saudi Aramco, 2001. "§ k l xt ¨z ”œ©u:™‘ ‡ ª"¡‹ z, ¡ v t pu182003. 4$ %=$J#B: «.¤6742*i •¨31311v ‚ ¡ :966)3(8722486*••966)3(8722811 l q ‚:com.saadehkhalil@yahoo

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