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A handy little helper?
Or a pain in the *ss for knowledge workers?
Alan Veys, Psychologist & Educational Technologist @ Vi...
• Who has a smartphone?
• What do you use it for?
Go to www.menti.com
and use the code 51 08 0
Or scan the QR code
• How o...
If I ask you to turn off your smartphone, what
would be the consequences?
• What would you feel?
• Fear of being offline (...
• Give you insight in/awareness of your own
smartphone (SP) use
• What are the consequences of being online all the
time?
...
Smartphone use: some figures (Menthal project)
• How often do you use your smartphone a day?
Average 88 times a day (Marko...
Smartphone use: some figures (Menthal project)
• How many hours do you use your smartphone a day?
Average 2,5h (youngsters...
We are always online/hyperconnected: Checking FB, what’s
app, Messenger, news sites, Tinder, mail, etc
Deep down we know...
• Conditioning: random rewards
• 3 basic needs
Psychological mechanisms @ the base
Why do people stay in Casino’s, playing a one-armed
bandit all day?
• Dopamine
• = happiness hormone: stimulates,motivates and keeps us alert
• When we are looking/hoping for a reward:
dopam...
Most succesfull sites/apps are
using this knowledge
• Facebook updates our newsfeed
• Instagram or twitter are offering us...
Are we addicted like
these gamblers?
Do I have a problem?
Take the 20 questions
Nomophobia test
So what rewards are we looking for in
these timelines? => 3 basis needs
• Rewards of the tribe/social rewards
We are socia...
So what rewards are we looking for in
these timelines? => 3 basis needs
• a post with 4 likes makes us less
happy then a p...
• Always on
• Easily accesible
• Information rich
• Interactive
• Not only for humans (The internet of things)
• Continuou...
IFTTT
What is the impact on our focus and attention?
What happens if we are constantly on-line?
• Multitasking and the cost of Task switching
• Low stress levels
• No more bre...
• Thinking Brain (Sum ergo cogito)
• Conscious reflection, analytical thinking, synthesing,
creativity, problemsolving, an...
• Oldest system (evolutionary)
• Subconscious, unaware, autonomous
• Conclusions based on here and now (senses)
• Reactive...
• Classifies and archives all incoming stimuli
• in long term memory
• Is being archived in a associative way
• Most activ...
What happens if we are constantly on-line?
• Multitasking and the cost
of Task switching
• Low stress levels
• Other
• Take your watch, a pen and a piece of paper
• Write down the word and then the numbers
M U L T I T A S K I N G
1 2 3 4 5...
• Take your watch, a pen and a NEW piece of paper
• Write down the M and then the number 1, then the U and the
number 2, t...
• Case in the supermarket
• We think we multitask all the time
e.g. when we are handling our e-mails during a meeting
But ...
Time
• On average, we need 2 min to recover our previous
attention level after a 30 sec interruption
• Loss is bigger for ...
Accuracy
• Working memory can only contain 7 chuncks on average
• The more you switch, the more you forget/ the more mista...
Bram & Bart
• Hyperconnectivity => Chronic stress
• Our body cannot recover
• Chemicals that can be life-safing in a dangourous situat...
Other consequences: traffic
Other consequences: safety
• October 2011 Blackberry fail in Arabic Emirates: 40% less
traffic accidents
• Risk of accidents x4 – x8 while calling
• ...
Other consequences
• Loneliness?
• Emotional exhausted
• Digital burn-out
• …
• We are knowledge workers: attention =
highest good
• Our work requires focus and attention
• We get distracted by phone ...
What can I do about it?
• Who had ever checked his/her SP @ the toilet?
• Who used breaks between lessons, before meetings, etc to
check your SP?
...
Archimedes law
Newtons law
Does this sound anti-tech?
Some evidence to back this up
• Digital leaders are
kicking-off from their
digital addiction in
silicon valley
• Detox cam...
• We use our SP for working, info gathering,
producing,…
• But SP’s were never designed for this
• E.g. quick e-mail check...
Your smartphone is not the problem
It’s how you use it
• New technology so
normal that we’re
searching
• What do you think you
can do about is?
• Tips are not proven,
best effor...
1. War: Eat when you can (very little supply and expensive
food)
2. 60-70: mass production of food. You can eat unlimited,...
1. Low supply: only 1 rule
E.g. eat what you can
2. Oversupply of food: basic rules are developping
E.g. Do not eat unheal...
• The same thing happens for information (cost)
telegram (1 day labour) – letter/telephone/telegram (expensice so
limited)...
• Go completely offline a couple of times a
day.
• Stop multitasking, start right tasking.
Batch process your mails etc
• ...
• Remove all temptation that lures you to your inbox
(visual, auditory, don’t use your inbox as a to do –list)
• Use the r...
• Off time
• My Time
• Flipd
• Digital Detox
• Do not disturb-tool (Apple)
• Forest
• Focus lock
• …
• More info on this s...
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z7dLU6fk9QY
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dRl8EIhrQjQ
Uitsmijter voor studenten: Wor...
Meer weten?
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Smartphones

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Workshop about psychological causes of high smartphone use and effects on focus and attention

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Smartphones

  1. 1. A handy little helper? Or a pain in the *ss for knowledge workers? Alan Veys, Psychologist & Educational Technologist @ Vives My smartphone What is hyperconnectivity doing to my brain?
  2. 2. • Who has a smartphone? • What do you use it for? Go to www.menti.com and use the code 51 08 0 Or scan the QR code • How often do you check your smartphone? And what do you check? • => Now turn off your smartphones please Some questions to start
  3. 3. If I ask you to turn off your smartphone, what would be the consequences? • What would you feel? • Fear of being offline (FOBO)? • Fear of missing out (FOMO)? • Fear of missing information (FOMI)? • Nomophobia? (No Mobile Phobia) What do you see in the movie? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= OINa46HeWg8 Let’s take a walk on the wild side and do an experiment…
  4. 4. • Give you insight in/awareness of your own smartphone (SP) use • What are the consequences of being online all the time? And maybe… when you are convinced… that you want to change your SP use…  What can you/we do about it? Tips & tricks Aim of this workshop
  5. 5. Smartphone use: some figures (Menthal project) • How often do you use your smartphone a day? Average 88 times a day (Markowitz, 2016) • Why do we check our SP? 35 to check the hour or to check if we have messages 53 for interaction: apps, mails, surfing, … Not exclusively youngsters ( 17-25year olds: check 100x/day) • With what frequency do you check your smartphone? Average: every 18 min. (25% of the respondents gets to every 14 min) Reported use is often underestimated
  6. 6. Smartphone use: some figures (Menthal project) • How many hours do you use your smartphone a day? Average 2,5h (youngsters 3h) Only 7 min. Day for calling Online 10 min a day for handy apps like train, bank, carsharing, etc Biggest part is SM like FB (15 min), Instagram (5 min), What’s app (35 min), games (30 min) and messengers…
  7. 7. We are always online/hyperconnected: Checking FB, what’s app, Messenger, news sites, Tinder, mail, etc Deep down we know it cannot be good/healthy, but ‘it’s stronger then ourselves’. This big use is not normal so why do we do it? Can you explain why you use your smartphone 53x/day? • Not rational so must be irrational/subconsious processes Result
  8. 8. • Conditioning: random rewards • 3 basic needs Psychological mechanisms @ the base
  9. 9. Why do people stay in Casino’s, playing a one-armed bandit all day?
  10. 10. • Dopamine • = happiness hormone: stimulates,motivates and keeps us alert • When we are looking/hoping for a reward: dopamine is being produced • When we get a reward: more dopamine produced • Random rewards makes our behavior continue (cfr Skinner: operant conditioning) • So why? When checking our smartphones, we get a dose of happiness When we find a reward=> even more dopamine is produced Conditioning/Random rewards
  11. 11. Most succesfull sites/apps are using this knowledge • Facebook updates our newsfeed • Instagram or twitter are offering us different pictures • Newssites update their homepage every hour • We are being motivated by dopamine (and not by the content of the information we find/seek)
  12. 12. Are we addicted like these gamblers? Do I have a problem? Take the 20 questions Nomophobia test
  13. 13. So what rewards are we looking for in these timelines? => 3 basis needs • Rewards of the tribe/social rewards We are social creatures. With every post we wander how much social confirmation we will get • Rewards of the hunt We are not hunting for food anymore, but our hunting instincts remain • Rewards of the self The feeling of having control over the situation or being proud of yourself
  14. 14. So what rewards are we looking for in these timelines? => 3 basis needs • a post with 4 likes makes us less happy then a post with 100+ likes • Ibood, 1 day fly, groupon, tweedehands.be, Tinder, … • E.g. easy games like Candy crush or organising our mailbox • => needs combined: we check our inbox because sometimes (random reward) we find something interesting and important. Social effect of communicating, finding advantages, organising mailbox (opening, moving, deleting, …)
  15. 15. • Always on • Easily accesible • Information rich • Interactive • Not only for humans (The internet of things) • Continuously registrating • => This trend will become more visible in the near future. Are we prepared? We are living in a hyperconnected world
  16. 16. IFTTT
  17. 17. What is the impact on our focus and attention?
  18. 18. What happens if we are constantly on-line? • Multitasking and the cost of Task switching • Low stress levels • No more breaks • Other But first: how our brain works … 3 Brainsystems
  19. 19. • Thinking Brain (Sum ergo cogito) • Conscious reflection, analytical thinking, synthesing, creativity, problemsolving, anticipating, reflecting on the past, deep thinking, long term planning and goal setting, proactive • Unique for humans • Needs constant attention and concentration • Uses a lot of energy, easily tired • Slow • Only 1 thought at a time (serial processing: see the cost of multitasking) Reflecting brain/goal driven
  20. 20. • Oldest system (evolutionary) • Subconscious, unaware, autonomous • Conclusions based on here and now (senses) • Reactive (not able to be proactive or reflect) • Fast (reflex), works with shortcuts in the brain • Uses very little energy • Part of this system is the affect-netwerk • Reacts to new stimuli like smells, images and mainly sounds and can disrupt the work of the other brains • Produces dopamine to investigate a new stimulus Reflex brain/ stimulus driven
  21. 21. • Classifies and archives all incoming stimuli • in long term memory • Is being archived in a associative way • Most active when no task has to be done: in breaks (even only minutes), while sleeping, … • Competes with reflecting brain (RB) for working memory: when RB is working, AB cannot Archiving brain
  22. 22. What happens if we are constantly on-line? • Multitasking and the cost of Task switching • Low stress levels • Other
  23. 23. • Take your watch, a pen and a piece of paper • Write down the word and then the numbers M U L T I T A S K I N G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 • Stop the clock and write down your time The cost of MULTITASKING
  24. 24. • Take your watch, a pen and a NEW piece of paper • Write down the M and then the number 1, then the U and the number 2, then the L and the number 3 etc till the end M U L T I T A S K I N G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Stop the clock and write down your time • Avg + 50% for a very small task. Imagine the cost for complex tasks! The cost of MULTITASKING
  25. 25. • Case in the supermarket • We think we multitask all the time e.g. when we are handling our e-mails during a meeting But we are task-switching Why is this hard? Context-switching costs enery ! • Task 1 => task 2 : stopt task 1, move data from task 1 from working memory to temporary memory, clean working memory, retrieve data from LT memory and put in temporary or working memory, build concentration • This takes time! Cost? Impact on intellectual productivity?
  26. 26. Time • On average, we need 2 min to recover our previous attention level after a 30 sec interruption • Loss is bigger for an external stimulus (e.g.. pop-up) • Loss is bigger when immediate action is requiered (phone call vs e-mail) • Incoming messages unrelated to the task have bigger impact Cost? Impact on intellectual productivity?
  27. 27. Accuracy • Working memory can only contain 7 chuncks on average • The more you switch, the more you forget/ the more mistakes you make (some remains of the first task stay in the working memory) • FIFO: old tasks are being overwritting by new ones • Multitasking is only effective for easy and routinous tasks where accuracy (and quality) is not requiered. • Info gets lost if we don’t take a brake (archiving brain do it’s job) Cost? Impact on intellectual productivity?
  28. 28. Bram & Bart
  29. 29. • Hyperconnectivity => Chronic stress • Our body cannot recover • Chemicals that can be life-safing in a dangourous situation become toxic when they are being produced continously • Local stress in eyes, neck, shoulders, back,… Consequence 2: low stress levels
  30. 30. Other consequences: traffic
  31. 31. Other consequences: safety
  32. 32. • October 2011 Blackberry fail in Arabic Emirates: 40% less traffic accidents • Risk of accidents x4 – x8 while calling • Watching a tekst = 5 sec eyes of the road @ 100 km/h = 110 meter not watching the road = 1 soccerfield • Calling slows down our reaction speed with 20-90% @70 km/h = 4,5 to 18m Some figures
  33. 33. Other consequences • Loneliness? • Emotional exhausted • Digital burn-out • …
  34. 34. • We are knowledge workers: attention = highest good • Our work requires focus and attention • We get distracted by phone calls, e-mails, sms, chats, people coming over, … • => every distraction has effect on attention and concentration, so on our efficiëncy and effectiveness. And also on our emotional state and mental energy Our SP: a weapon of mass distraction
  35. 35. What can I do about it?
  36. 36. • Who had ever checked his/her SP @ the toilet? • Who used breaks between lessons, before meetings, etc to check your SP? • Our archiving brain needs breaks. The archiving brain needs to organise new input and make connections during rest-time • Sometimes a night of sleep can solve a problem or give yoy new insights • Idle time is essential for brain workers Make time for breaks
  37. 37. Archimedes law
  38. 38. Newtons law
  39. 39. Does this sound anti-tech?
  40. 40. Some evidence to back this up • Digital leaders are kicking-off from their digital addiction in silicon valley • Detox camps and digital diets • Blogs with print screens of almost no apps on your phone
  41. 41. • We use our SP for working, info gathering, producing,… • But SP’s were never designed for this • E.g. quick e-mail check -> can’t do it now, small screen -> leave unread in inbox = time lost What where SP’s designed for?
  42. 42. Your smartphone is not the problem It’s how you use it
  43. 43. • New technology so normal that we’re searching • What do you think you can do about is? • Tips are not proven, best effort in uncertain domain What can you do about it?
  44. 44. 1. War: Eat when you can (very little supply and expensive food) 2. 60-70: mass production of food. You can eat unlimited, fat and unhealty food ready available => we eat more then we need 3. 70-80: First diets. We know fat to be unhealthy. First strategy: do not eat fat, etc 4. Now: healthy food is ready available. Strategy 1 is not sufficient => Low-carb, paleo, bio-vegan,… Stages of change: e.g. Fat
  45. 45. 1. Low supply: only 1 rule E.g. eat what you can 2. Oversupply of food: basic rules are developping E.g. Do not eat unhealty food 3. Oversupply of healthy food: need for adapted rules Applied on information and entertainment • 80’s: only few TV channels, expensive VCR cassettes and early computer games complicated • 90: movies become cheaper, bigger supply, DVD’s, pay-tv, playstation,… We can choose and not watch/play what we do not find interesting • 00: oversupply: pay-tv, blue ray, dvd, you-tube, netflix,… You can watch 24/7 on any device and never see it all Diet as a cultural technique
  46. 46. • The same thing happens for information (cost) telegram (1 day labour) – letter/telephone/telegram (expensice so limited) –fax - paying sms – email&what’s app (free) • We have arrived in the 3 stage but are still using strategies from stage 2 There are to many good movies-series-etc and not watching the bad is nog working anymore. We have yet to make the step to think about the quality of our communication. One-size-fits-all will not do Diet as a cultural technique
  47. 47. • Go completely offline a couple of times a day. • Stop multitasking, start right tasking. Batch process your mails etc • Take a break after every batch • Don’t mail, app,check your SP in ‘lost moments’: break and connect • Don’t start your day with e-mails if you have important, difficult or creative brainwork to do What could I do about it?
  48. 48. • Remove all temptation that lures you to your inbox (visual, auditory, don’t use your inbox as a to do –list) • Use the rule of 3 When more then 3 mails have been exchanged about a subject (or you expect this), use the phone or a conversation to come to a conclusion • Use qualitative communication e.g. Use ‘cc’ and ‘to’ correctly. Information is the new fat • Take enough sleep • Let technology help you What can I do about it?
  49. 49. • Off time • My Time • Flipd • Digital Detox • Do not disturb-tool (Apple) • Forest • Focus lock • … • More info on this site or google ‘digital detox’ Usefull apps
  50. 50. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z7dLU6fk9QY • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dRl8EIhrQjQ Uitsmijter voor studenten: Wordsmith
  51. 51. Meer weten?

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