Structured Approach To Implementing Information And Records Management (Idrm) Systems


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Provide an overview of a structured approach to analysis, design and specification of Information, Document and Records Management (IDRM) systems

Provide introduction to generic reference models for IDRM that can assist in solution definition

Structured IDRM methodology yields benefits in ensuring appropriate analysis, design and specification is performed ensuring requirements are captured and any solution complies with them:

Drives Delivery
Ensures Acceptance
Increases Productivity
Increases User Confidence
Provides Audit Trail
Maximises Cost Savings
Risk Management and Reduction
Provides for Change Management
Provides for Formal Project Closure

Standards and reference models (OAIS) provide a mechanism for designing solutions and comparing products from vendors

Published in: Technology, Business

Structured Approach To Implementing Information And Records Management (Idrm) Systems

  1. 1. Structured Approach to Implementing Information and Records Management (IDRM) Systems Alan McSweeney
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Provide an overview of a structured approach to analysis, design and specification of Information, Document and Records Management (IDRM) systems </li></ul><ul><li>Provide introduction to generic reference models for IDRM that can assist in solution definition </li></ul>
  3. 3. Information, Document and Records Management (IDRM) <ul><li>Information Management tends to be IT related – backup/restore of information under the control of IT systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IT systems tend by their nature to be centralised </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Records Management tends to be associated with the management of paper records </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Records tends to be managed in multiple locations across an organisation, local and central filing systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Records are seen as red tape - a relic of the old process-driven way of doing business - a cost to be reduced, if not eliminated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filing, dusty files and basements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Document Management tends to associated with systems to manage paper (and other) records electronically, either at a departmental or enterprise level </li></ul><ul><li>There is a division between IT information and its management and non-IT managed business records </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of electronic systems has lead to a tendency towards ad hoc or substandard IDRM practices and processes </li></ul><ul><li>Need to bridge the gap: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They all share the same management requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common business goals and requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Take an integrated approach </li></ul>
  4. 4. Information, Document and Records Management (IDRM) <ul><li>Information, document management and records management, retention and deletion procedures are becoming increasingly important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Driven by many regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards around correct storage and retrieval of business records and electronic communications </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. IDRM Challenges <ul><li>Budgets - Systems must be implemented in the context of limited budgets </li></ul><ul><li>Information Growth - The annual rate of growth of information to be managed in over 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance and Regulations - There are multiple compliance standards regulations to be adhered to </li></ul><ul><li>Management and Control - Information must be managed from creation to deletion with as easily and automatically as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Protection and Recovery - While being managed the information must be protected and recoverable </li></ul>
  6. 6. General Approach to IDRM <ul><li>An effective approach to IDRM supported by processes and systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a culture of compliance to business information management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures quality, enforces standards and guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates risk due to lost or unsaved documents and information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Designs IDRM systems and associated processes that allow you to actively managing information during its entire lifecycle, according to its value: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From creation to deletion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent with business importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With automated management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aligned with business needs </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. General Information Management Lifecycle <ul><li>Define solution to implement lifecycle </li></ul><ul><li>Define specific information lifecycle for different information types being analyses </li></ul>Create, Acquire, Update, Capture Store, Manage, Replicate and Distribute Protect and Recover Archive and Recall Delete/Remove
  8. 8. IDRM Structured Analysis and Design Approach <ul><li>Analyse your information, document management and records management requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Design and specify appropriate a solution and associated processes </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on your requirements, this can encompass hardware, software, processes, all of which are aligned with the needs of the business </li></ul><ul><li>Use a structured approach to enable the selection and implementation of IDRM solutions and processes that are based on a sound understanding of an organisation’s requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology is designed to ensure that any IDRM solution is strictly based on the business needs of the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure solutions meet requirements </li></ul>
  9. 9. General IDRM Analysis and Design Methodology
  10. 10. General IDRM Analysis and Design Methodology <ul><li>Steps 1 to 4 make certain that the IDRM analysis and design is focused on the key business requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of business activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of recordkeeping requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment of existing systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steps 5 to 6 focus on selecting the optimum approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of strategies for recordkeeping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design of IDRM system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steps 7 and 8 are concerned with the implementation of this optimum approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation of IDRM system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-implementation review </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The process can be used in its entirety or a subset of it can be followed to produce interim results </li></ul>
  11. 11. General IDRM Analysis and Design Methodology <ul><li>Practical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best practice implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes all information in all formats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User-based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies specific business needs and legal requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eight-step process can be applied at different levels </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. IDRM Analysis Benefits <ul><li>Understand the business, regulatory and social context in which they operate, and establish a business case for reviewing their IDRM practices </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse business activities and environmental factors to identify their IDRM requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the extent to which existing organisational strategies (for example, policies, standards, technology) satisfy these requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Redesign existing strategies or design new strategies to address unmet or poorly satisfied requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Implement, maintain and review these strategies </li></ul>
  13. 13. IDRM Analysis Outcomes <ul><li>The IDRM analysis approach enable the development of IDRM systems and processes that are based on a sound understanding of an organisation’s IDRM requirements </li></ul><ul><li>These systems and processes enable organisations to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct business in an orderly, efficient and accountable manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver products and services in a consistent manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support and document policy formation and managerial decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide consistency, continuity and productivity in management and administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate the effective performance of activities through an organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide continuity in the event of a disaster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet legislative and regulatory requirements including archival, audit and oversight activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide protection and support in litigation, including the management of risks associated with the existence of or lack of evidence of organisational activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect the interests of the organisation and the rights of employees, clients, and present and future stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support and document current and future research and development activities, developments and achievements, as well as research, provide evidence of business, personal activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish business, personal and cultural identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain corporate, personal or collective memory </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. IDRM System and Process Objectives <ul><li>In order to be full and accurate, information (or all types) must be authentic, reliable, complete, unaltered and useable and the systems that support them must be able to protect their integrity over time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentic - it must be possible to prove that a record is what it purports to be and that it has been created or sent by the alleged person and at the time purported. Information need to be protected against unauthorised addition, deletion, alteration, use or concealment and the creation, receipt, transmission of records needs to be controlled to ensure that records creators are authorised and identified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable - it must be possible to trust the information content as an accurate representation of the transaction to which it attests. It should be created and captured in a timely manner by an individual who has direct knowledge of the event or generated automatically by processes routinely used by the organisation to conduct the transaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete and Unaltered - it must be possible to protect information against unauthorised alteration and to monitor and track any authorised annotation, addition or deletion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usable - it must be possible to locate, retrieve, render and interpret information and understand the sequence of activities in which it was created and used for as long as such evidence is required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System Integrity - it must be possible to implement control measures, such as access monitoring, user verification, authorised destruction, security and disaster recovery to prevent unauthorised access, destruction, alteration or removal of information and to protect them it accidental damage or loss </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. IDRM Processes <ul><li>There are fundamental processes that are common to IDRM systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture/Acquire/Creat e – formally determine that information should be made and kept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Registration – formalise the capture of information into a designated system by assigning a unique identifier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification and Indexing – identify the business activities to which a record relates and then link it to other records to facilitate description, control, retrieval, disposal and access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access and Security – assign rights or restrictions to use or manage particular information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appraisal – identify and link the retention period of information to a functions-based disposal authority at the point of capture and registration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage – maintain, handle and store information in accordance with their form, use and value for as long as they are legally required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use and Tracking – ensure that only those employees with appropriate permissions are able to use or manage information and that such access can be tracked as a security measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disposal – identify information with similar disposal dates and triggering actions, review any history of use to confirm or amend the disposal status, and maintain a record of disposal action that can be audited </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Step 1 - Project Initiation and Initial Analysis and Investigation <ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the scope of the analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare a report </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining the boundaries of the analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List of the sources used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report containing the major findings of preliminary investigation and making recommendations on the scope, conduct and feasibility of the proposed IDRM project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project plan </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Step 2 - Analyse Information-Related Business Processes <ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect information from documentary sources and interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and document each business function, activity and transaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assigning terms to functions and activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defining the scope of functions and activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assigning dates to functions and activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a business classification scheme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify organisational stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record your findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validate the analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining the scope of the analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining the scale of functions and activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining the currency of the analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Document the sources used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document organisation’s functions, activities and transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight business-critical functions using risk assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepared a business classification scheme showing the organisation’s functions, activities and transactions in a hierarchical relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validate findings with stakeholders </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Step 3 - Define Information and Records Management Requirements <ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locate information sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify regulatory, business and external requirements for IDRM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document identified requirements for IDRM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess the risk of not meeting requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing on other IDRM projects and experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining a history of IDRM requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using IDRM requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IDRM requirements for housekeeping functions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identified and documented all sources of organisation’s IDRN requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documented organisation’s identified requirements in a structured and traceable form; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigation of risk and feasibility factors associated with requirements where necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documented assessment of these factors </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Step 4 - Analyse Existing Information and Records Management Systems <ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify existing information systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyse existing systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing housekeeping functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duplicate systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benchmark to assess organisation’s existing systems and practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identified, surveyed and documented relevant systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment whether the systems have the capacity to function as IDRM systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determined whether the systems currently create, capture and manage evidence consistent with your prioritised IDRM requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepared a report describing the strengths and weaknesses of the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>existing practices </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Step 5 - Define Information and Records Management Strategy <ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate the range of strategies available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Policy tactics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design tactics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation tactics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standards tactics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify appropriate tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Policy tactics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design tactics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation tactics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standards tactics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess factors that support or inhibit tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Types of activities and transactions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systems and technological environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing risks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check tactics against identified weaknesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopt an overall strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree where IDRM strategies ends and designing systems to incorporate those strategies begins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get high-level commitment to the remaining design and implementation process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigation of the range of tactics potentially available to organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment and documentation of the organisational constraints that may affect the adoption of these tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection of the most appropriate combination of tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of the links between the selected tactics and the requirements they are intended to address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of an overall design strategy to bring the tactics to fruition (including a framework for change management) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for recommended strategy or decision not to proceed, and the rationale behind it </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Step 6 - Design Information and Records Management System and Processes <ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish and maintain recordkeeping policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign recordkeeping responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Re)design work processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce design documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design electronic or hybrid systems for records creation, capture and control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop guidelines and operating procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct regular design reviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop initial training plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare initial system implementation plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining the limits of user participation in the design process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining where design stops and implementation begins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback from staff and other stakeholders on relevant system components (such as policies, processes, roles and responsibilities, guidelines and procedures) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation of any changes to requirements and design components arising from consultation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepared detailed design descriptions, logical and physical models, and technical design specifications for electronic system components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation of a system implementation plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation of a an initial training plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management endorsement of the design process </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Step 7 - Select/Build and Implement Information and Records Management System <ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select implementation strategies and techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation of policies, procedures and practices covering all aspects of IDRM systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication about new or improved systems to staff both before and during the implementation phase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation and review </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan the implementation process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage the implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide to begin the implementation process and stop refining the design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues affecting implementation such as time lags, cost overruns and user acceptance, can be minimised by conducting risk and feasibility assessments before the design and implementation (Step G) phases are begun </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representative of senior management to act as sponsor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of a project team and/or steering committee that includes relevant stakeholders and experts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection of an appropriate mix of implementation strategies and techniques based on risk, cost-benefit and feasibility assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of all the activities associated with each of the strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of a project plan to manage the implementation process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implemented and tested systems, processes and practices according to the project plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reports on the implementation process to the project sponsor, steering committee and staff </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Step 8 - Validate System and Process Operation After Implementation <ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan the evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriateness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect and analyse performance data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information creation and retrieval </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disposal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning from the process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document and report on your findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take corrective action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make arrangements for ongoing review </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification and documentation of performance indicators for the system and process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of methods to collect performance data for the initial and subsequent reviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of performance data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment of whether the system is satisfying IDRM requirements and working within organisational constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of substantiating documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment of design and implementation process and documented costs and benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review the conversion strategy, process and audit trail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verification of the existence, currency and comprehensiveness of technical, user and training documentation (including policies, procedures, information disposal authorities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation a report for management on the status of the system and recommendations for improvement (including staffing issues) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiation of remedial action endorsed by management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment an ongoing cycle of reviews of recordkeeping </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Benefits of Structured Approach <ul><li>You establish a business case for reviewing IDRM </li></ul><ul><li>You understand the business processes and activities that give rise to IDRM requirements </li></ul><ul><li>You define the IDRM requirements of the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>You assess the extent to which existing organisational IDRM procedures meet these requirements </li></ul><ul><li>You get redesigned existing processes or new processes designed to address partially of completely unfulfilled requirements </li></ul><ul><li>You will get a detailed design before embarking on (an expensive) implementation </li></ul><ul><li>You get a solution implemented to meet the agreed business requirements </li></ul><ul><li>The operation of the system is reviewed to ensure it meets the requirements </li></ul>
  25. 25. Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model <ul><li>Establishes a common framework of terms and concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies the basic functions of an OAIS </li></ul><ul><li>Defines an information model </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted as ISO 14721:2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Provides an idealised architecture and framework for IDRM design and implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OAIS is a reference model and conceptual framework) and not a detailed blueprint for system design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informs the design of system architectures, the development of systems and components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides common definitions of terms and a common language, means of making comparisons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basis for defining solution for acquisition/development and implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OAIS is focussed on information storage and management rather than processes that use the information such as workflow </li></ul><ul><li>A useful tool in IDRM design and implementation </li></ul>
  26. 26. Reference Model <ul><li>A framework that provides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For understanding significant relationships among the entities of some environment, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For the development of consistent standards or specifications supporting that environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A reference model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is based on a small number of unifying concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is an abstraction of the key concepts, their relationships, and their interfaces both to each other and to the external environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used as a basis for education and explaining standards to users and other stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does not specify an implementation </li></ul><ul><li>OAIS reference model divide IDRM into a number of functional areas such as ingest, storage, access, and preservation planning </li></ul>
  27. 27. Open Archival Information System (OAIS) <ul><li>Open </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference Model standard(s) are developed using a public process and are freely available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any type of knowledge that can be exchanged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent of the forms (i.e., physical or digital) used to represent the information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data are the representation forms of information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Archival Information System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware, software, and people who are responsible for the acquisition, preservation and dissemination of the information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional OAIS responsibilities are identified later and are more fully defined in the Reference Model detail </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. OAIS Reference Model <ul><li>Provides definitions of terms that need to have well-defined meanings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archival Storage, Content Data Object, Designated Community (key term), Ingest, Metadata, Representation Information, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High level concepts, e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The environment of an OAIS (Producers, Consumers, Management) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definitions of information, Information Objects and their relationship with Data Objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definitions of Information Packages, conceptual containers of Content Information and Preservation Description Information </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. OAIS Purpose, Scope, and Applicability <ul><li>Framework for understanding and applying concepts needed for long-term IDRM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term is long enough to be concerned about changing technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starting point for model addressing non-digital information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Framework for comparing architectures and operations of existing and future data stores </li></ul><ul><li>Basis for development of additional related standards </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses a full range of archival functions </li></ul><ul><li>Applicable to all data stores and those organisations dealing with information that may need IDRM </li></ul>
  30. 30. Functional Model <ul><li>Six entities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ingest : services and functions that accept SIPs from Producers; prepares AIPs for storage, and ensures that AIPs and their supporting Descriptive Information become established within the OAIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archival Storage : services and functions used for the storage and retrieval of AIPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Management : services and functions for populating, maintaining, and accessing a wide variety of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administration : services and functions needed to control the operation of the other OAIS functional entities on a day-to-day basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation Planning : services and functions for monitoring the OAIS environment and ensuring that content remains accessible to the Designated Community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access : services and functions which make the archival information holdings and related services visible to Consumers </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. OAIS Reference Model – High Level <ul><li>Producer provides the information to be preserved </li></ul><ul><li>Management sets overall OAIS policy </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer retrieves and acquires information of interest </li></ul>OAIS (IDRM) Management Producer Consumer
  32. 32. OAIS Reference Model – Medium Level <ul><li>SIP = Submission Information Package </li></ul><ul><li>AIP = Archival Information Package </li></ul><ul><li>DIP = Dissemination Information Package </li></ul>Administration Ingest Archival Storage Access Data Management Descriptive Information PRODUCER CONSUMER MANAGEMENT Queries Result Sets Descriptive Information Preservation Planning Orders SIP SIP SIP DIP DIP AIP AIP
  33. 33. OAIS Reference Model – Detail
  34. 34. OAIS Reference Model <ul><li>Information Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Object (basic concept): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Object (bit-stream) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation Information (permits “the full interpretation of Data Object into meaningful information”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information Object Classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation Description Information (PDI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packaging Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive Information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information Package </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Container that encapsulates Content Information and PDI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packages for submission (SIP), archival storage (AIP) and dissemination (DIP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AIP = “... a concise way of referring to a set of information that has, in principle, all of the qualities needed for permanent, or indefinite, Long Term Preservation of a designated Information Object” </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. OAIS Responsibilities <ul><li>Negotiates and accepts Information Packages from information producers </li></ul><ul><li>Obtains sufficient control to ensure long-term preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Determines which communities (designated) need to be able to understand the preserved information </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures the information to be preserved is independently understandable to the Designated Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Follows documented policies and procedures which ensure the information is preserved against all reasonable contingencies </li></ul><ul><li>Makes the preserved information available to the Designated Communities in forms understandable to those communities </li></ul>
  36. 36. OAIS Information Definition <ul><li>Information is defined as any type of knowledge that can be exchanged, and this information is always expressed (i.e., represented) by some type of data </li></ul><ul><li>In general, it can be said that “Data interpreted using its Representation Information yields Information” </li></ul><ul><li>In order for this Information Object to be successfully preserved, it is critical for an archive to clearly identify and understand the Data Object and its associated Representation Information </li></ul>
  37. 37. OAIS Archival Information Package <ul><li>Archival Information Package (AIP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Original target of preservation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information Object (Data Object & Representation Information) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation Description Information (PDI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other information (metadata) “which will allow the understanding of the Content Information over an indefinite period of time” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A set of Information Objects </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. OAIS Archival Information Package (AIP) <ul><li>Content Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Document as an electronic file together with its format description </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preservation Description Information (PDI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How the Content Information came into being, who has held it, how it relates to other information, and how its integrity is assured </li></ul></ul>Archival Information Package (AIP) Content Information Preservation Description Information (PDI) Packaging Information Package Descriptor Further described by Delimited by Derived from How to find Content information and PDI on some medium Information supporting user searches for AIP
  39. 39. Information Package <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Data Object - Physical Object or Digital Object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation Information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preservation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixity </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. OAIS Preservation Description Information (PDI) Preservation Description Information Reference Information Provenance Information Context Information Fixity Information
  41. 41. OAIS Reference Model in Wider Context <ul><li>Provides wider framework for IDRM design and implementation </li></ul>Business Process Services Network Infrastructure Data Models Behavior Models Application Interface Data Encoding Framework Reference Model Design Workflow Operations Messages Transport Data } OAIS
  42. 42. Summary <ul><li>Structured IDRM methodology yields benefits in ensuring appropriate analysis, design and specification is performed ensuring requirements are captured and any solution complies with them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drives Delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures Acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases Productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases User Confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides Audit Trail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximises Cost Savings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk Management and Reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides for Change Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides for Formal Project Closure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standards and reference models provide a mechanism for designing solutions and comparing products from vendors </li></ul>
  43. 43. More Information <ul><ul><ul><li>Alan McSweeney </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul></ul>