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Solution Architecture And
(Robotic) Process
Automation Solutions
Alan McSweeney
http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney
https://www.amazon.com/dp/1797567616
Solution Architecture And RPA (Robotic Process
Automation) Solutions
• Automation solutions, like all other technology solutions,
should be subject to an architecture and design process
• There are many approaches to and options for the automation
of business activities
• Too often automation solutions are tactical applications
layered over existing business systems
• The objective of all IT solutions is to automate manual business
processes and their activities to a certain extent
• The requirement for RPA-type applications arises in part
because of automation failures within existing applications or
the need to automate the interactions with or integrations
between separate, possibly legacy, applications
June 8, 2021 2
Solution Automation – The Wider Context
• One of the roles of IT architecture is to always seek to take the
wider architectural view
• Ensure that solutions are designed and delivered within a
strategic framework to avoid, as much as is practical and
realistic, short-term tactical solutions and approaches that lead
to an accumulation of design, operations and support debt
− Tactical solutions will always play a part in the organisation’s solution
landscape
• Confirm that any process automation initiative happens within
a sustainable long-term approach that maximises value
delivered
• The objective of these notes is to put automation into its wider
and larger IT architecture context while accepting the need for
tactical approaches in some instances
June 8, 2021 3
Topics
1. Solution And Process Automation – The Wider Technology
And Approach Landscape
2. Business Processes, Business Solutions And Automation
3. Organisation Process Model
4. Strategic And Tactical Automation
5. Deciding On The Scope Of Automation
6. Digital Strategy, Digital Transformation And Automation
7. Specifying The Automation Solution
8. Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN)
9. Sample Business Process – Order To Cash
10. RPA (Robotic Process Automation)
June 8, 2021 4
1. Solution And Process Automation – The Wider
Technology And Approach Landscape
June 8, 2021 5
Solution And Process Automation – The Wider
Technology And Approach Landscape
Automation
Technologies And
Approaches
Enterprise Process
and Automation
Architecture
Approaches
Enterprise Decision
Management (EDM)
Business Motivation
Model (BMM)
Process Mining
Data Integration
Service Orientation
API Management
Solution Replacement
Business Process
Management (BPM)
And Business Process
Automation Solutions
Business Process
Management (BPM)
Business Process
Automation (BPA)
BPI (Business Process
Intelligence)
Workflow
Management (WFM)
Process Description
Approaches
Business Process
Model and Notation
(BPMN)
Decision Model and
Notation (DMN)
Case Management
Model and Notation
(CMMN)
Production Rule
Representation (PRR)
Semantics of Business
Vocabulary and
Business Rules (SBVR)
RuleML
Business Process
Execution Approaches
Web Services
Business Process
Execution
Language (WS-BPEL)
XML Process
Definition Language
(XPDL)
Rules
Engines/Business
Rules Management
Tools And Systems
(BRMS)
BRMS Tools and
Vendors
Robotic Process
Automation (RPA)
Tools And Systems
Digital Process
Automation Tools and
Vendors
RPA Tools and
Vendors
Ad Hoc Automation
Techniques and
Technologies
Screen Scraping
Scripting Languages
Optical Character
Recognition and
Intelligent Data
Extraction
Finite State Machines
June 8, 2021 6
Solution And Process Automation – The Wider
Technology And Approach Landscape
• Enterprise Process and Automation Architecture Approaches – process and
automation techniques and approaches from a top-down, strategic, standardised,
organisation-wide enterprise architecture viewpoint
• Business Process Management (BPM) And Business Process Automation
Solutions – automation approaches and techniques and toolsets from the existing
technology and process design and management area of BPM
• Process Description Approaches – methodologies, standard, tools and approaches
to analysing, designing and specifying processes and their rules
• Business Process Execution Approaches – tools and approaches that take formally
design business processes and provide platforms that allow them to be executed
• Rules Engines/Business Rules Management Tools And Systems (BRMS) – these
are tools that provide rules engines to allow rules be defined and executed and to
be integrated within other applications
• Robotic Process Automation (RPA) Tools And Systems – these are specific Robotic
Process Automation tools
• Ad Hoc Automation Techniques and Technologies – this refers to a variety of
automation analysis, design and implementation approaches
June 8, 2021 7
Solution And Process Automation – The Wider
Technology And Approach Landscape
• These categories
of approaches,
methodologies,
standards,
technologies,
techniques and
toolsets are not
mutually
exclusive
• There is
considerable
overlap
between them
June 8, 2021 8
Enterprise
Process and
Automation
Architecture
Approaches
Rules Engines/Business Rules
Management Systems (BRMS)
Business
Process
Management
(BPM) And
Business
Process
Automation
Solutions
Robotic Process
Automation
(RPA) Tools And
Systems
Business
Process
Execution
Approaches
Ad Hoc Automation
Techniques and
Technologies
Process
Description
Approaches
Solution Automation – The Wider Technology And
Approach Landscape
• There are many approaches to automating the operation
of solutions, from tactical to strategic, from simple to
complex and from single point-to-point to compound
service orientation and orchestration
• These include methodologies and approaches for analysing
and designing automation
• RPA technologies and toolsets are just one approach to
process and solution automation
June 8, 2021 9
RPA Is Just A Subset Of Automation
• The topic and scope of automation is much greater than
just RPA
June 8, 2021 10
Automation RPA
Process Automation (RPA), POA (Process Oriented
Architecture) And BPM (Business Process Management) –
Three Related Topics
June 8, 2021 11
RPA
Process automation POA
Linking process areas to
actual (desired)
interactions – customer
(external interacting party)
service journeys through
the organisation
BPM
Disciplined approach to identify,
design, execute, document,
measure, monitor and control both
automated and non-automated
business processes to achieve
consistent, targeted results aligned
with an organisation’s strategic
goals
Solution Automation – The Wider Context
June 8, 2021 12
Maybe Take
a Look …
… Before You Leap
Consider the range of
approaches and
technologies available
when evaluating
automation options
2. Business Processes, Business Solutions And
Automation
June 8, 2021 13
Business Processes, Business Solutions And
Automation
• All automation takes place within the context of business
processes and the set of IT solutions and manual activities
that are used to operate those processes
June 8, 2021 14
Business Processes, Business Solutions And
Automation
June 8, 2021 15
Business
Process
Being
Operated
Core Business
Solutions Used to
Support the
Business Process
Ad Hoc Business
Tools
Supplementing Core
Business Solutions
Organisation
Functions That
Operate the Process
Using the Solutions
and Tools
Business Processes, Business Solutions And
Automation – Four Layers
June 8, 2021 16
Business Processes, Business Solutions And
Automation
June 8, 2021 17
Business
Processes Core Business
Solutions
Ad Hoc
Supporting
Business
Tools
Organisation
Business
Functions
Business Rules,
Business
Knowledge and
Decision Rules
Business Processes
Should Apply Business
Rules in Decision
Making
Business Processes
Are Operated By
Organisation
Functions
Core Business Solutions
Are Designed to
Implement Business
Processes
Core Business Solutions
Are Inevitably
Supplemented By Ad Hoc
Tools Developed Over
Time
Organisation
Business Functions
Use Core Business
Solutions to Operate
Processes
Organisation
Business
Functions Use Ad
Hoc Tools to
Supplement The
Operation of
Business
Processes
Organisation
Business
Functions Apply
Knowledge
Incorporated In
Business Rules
Business Rules and Business Knowledge
Incorporated Into Ad Hoc Supporting Tools
Business Processes
Should Apply Business
Rules in Decision
Making
Business Rules
and Business
Knowledge
Incorporated
Into Business
Solutions
3. Organisation Process Model
June 8, 2021 18
Organisation Process Model
• Automation is concerned with reducing of eliminating manual
involvement in activities and tasks within business processes
• Decisions performed within the context of business processes are
frequently the target of automation effort
• Identifying decisions and other activities within business processes
that are capable of being automated is an important automation
planning and analysis activity
• Understanding the set of processes that are performed by the
organisation provides a perspective on the opportunities and need
for automation
• Once an inventory of organisation processes has been created, these
can be mapped to the business solutions or to the manual activities
that enable and support those processes
− This can identify gaps in existing business solutions that may offer
opportunities for automation
June 8, 2021 19
Organisation Generic Process Structure – Level 1
And Level 2 Processes
June 8, 2021 20
Organisation
Processes
Develop Vision
And Strategy
Define The
Business Concept
And Long-Term
Vision
Develop Business
Strategy
Execute And
Measure Strategic
Initiatives
Develop And
Maintain Business
Models
Develop And
Manage Products
And Services
Govern And
Manage
Product/Service
Development
Program
Generate And
Define New
Product/Service
Ideas
Develop Products
And Services
Market And Sell
Products And
Services
Understand
Markets,
Customers, And
Capabilities
Develop Marketing
Strategy
Develop And
Manage Marketing
Plans
Develop Sales
Strategy
Develop And
Manage Sales
Plans
Deliver Physical
Products
Plan For And Align
Supply Chain
Resources
Procure Materials
And Services
Produce/Assemble
/Test Product
Manage Logistics
And Warehousing
Deliver Services
Establish Service
Delivery
Governance And
Strategies
Manage Service
Delivery Resources
Deliver Service To
Customer
Manage Customer
Service
Develop Customer
Care/Customer
Service Strategy
Plan And Manage
Customer Service
Contacts
Service Products
After Sales
Manage Product
Recalls And
Regulatory Audits
Evaluate Customer
Service Operations
And Customer
Satisfaction
Develop And
Manage Human
Capital
Develop And
Manage Human
Resources
Planning, Policies,
And Strategies
Recruit, Source,
And Select
Employees
Manage Employee
On Boarding,
Development, And
Training
Manage Employee
Relations
Reward And
Retain Employees
Redeploy And
Retire Employees
Manage Employee
Information And
Analytics
Manage Employee
Communication
Deliver Employee
Communications
Manage
Information
Technology
Develop And
Manage IT
Customer
Relationships
Develop And
Manage IT
Business Strategy
Develop And
Manage IT
Resilience And Risk
Manage
Information
Develop And
Manage
Services/Solutions
Deploy
Services/Solutions
Create And
Manage Support
Services/Solutions
Manage Financial
Resources
Perform Planning
And Management
Accounting
Perform Revenue
Accounting
Perform General
Accounting And
Reporting
Manage Fixed-
Asset Project
Accounting
Process Payroll
Process Accounts
Payable And
Expense
Reimbursements
Manage Treasury
Operations
Manage Internal
Controls
Manage Taxes
Manage
International
Funds/
Consolidation
Perform Global
Trade Services
Acquire, Construct,
And Manage
Assets
Plan And Acquire
Assets
Design And
Construct
Productive Assets
Maintain
Productive Assets
Dispose Of Assets
Manage Enterprise
Risk, Compliance,
Remediation, And
Resiliency
Manage Enterprise
Risk
Manage
Compliance
Manage
Remediation
Efforts
Manage Business
Resiliency
Manage External
Relationships
Build Investor
Relationships
Manage
Government And
Industry
Relationships
Manage Relations
With Board Of
Directors
Manage Legal And
Ethical Issues
Manage Public
Relations Program
Develop And
Manage Business
Capabilities
Manage Business
Processes
Manage Portfolio,
Program, And
Project
Manage Enterprise
Quality
Manage Change
Develop And
Manage
Enterprise-Wide
Knowledge
Management
Capability
Measure And
Benchmark
Manage
Environmental
Health And Safety
Develop, Manage,
And Deliver
Analytics
Organisation Generic Process Structure
• This is one possible representation of the set of processes an
organisation must implement in order to operate effectively
• This shows processes to level 2
− Organisation processes can be typically decomposed to level 4 or 5
• IT systems and business knowledge underpin the successful
implementation and operation of business processes
• Understanding processes in important or successful
automation
• Grounding automation activities in a knowledge of the
underlying business processes maximises success of
automation initiatives
June 8, 2021 21
Organisation Generic Process Structure
June 8, 2021 22
Vision,
Strategy,
Business
Management
Operational Processes With Cross Functional Linkages
Management and Support Processes
Develop and
Manage
Products and
Services
Market and
Sell Products
and Services
Deliver
Products and
Services
Manage
Customer
Service
Human
Resource
Management
Information
Technology
Management
Financial
Management
Acquire,
Construct, and
Manage Assets
Manage
Enterprise Risk,
Compliance,
Remediation,
and Resiliency
External
Relationship
Management
Develop and
Manage
Business
Capabilities
Vision and
Strategy
Business
Planning,
Merger,
Acquisition
Governance
and
Compliance
Three Pillars Of Any Organisation
Organisation
Strategy, Infrastructure and Product and Service Development
Develop strategy, implement governance and management, commit to the enterprise, build
technology, communication and resource infrastructure that supports products and services and
support functional processes, develop and manage new products and services, manage mergers,
acquisitions and divestments, develop and manage strategic business partners and business
relationships and the supply chain
Operations
Implement and operate organisation competencies and associated processes that support the
customer operations and management including both day-to-day and operations support and
readiness processes and sales management and supplier/partner relationship management
including customer acquisition, product and service sales, product and service delivery and billing
Organisation Management and Support
Basic organisation competencies and associated business processes required to run any
organisation - facilities, information technology, financial management, legal management, HR,
regulatory management, process, cost and quality management, strategy development and
planning, improvement and change and knowledge management
June 8, 2021 23
Three Pillars Of Any Organisation
• Exact organisation profile depends on many factors such
as:
− The type and mix of products and services the organisation
provides
− The nature of the customer relationship – known or anonymous
− The number of different types of customer
− The number and type of external parties interacted with
June 8, 2021 24
Organisation Generic Process Structure
June 8, 2021 25
Vision, Strategy,
Business
Management
Core Operational Processes With Cross Functional Linkages
Management and Support Processes
External Party Facing
Processes
Internal and
Supporting Processes
Organisation Process Structure, Digital
Transformation And Automation
• Operational processes may offer the greatest return on
automation, especially in the context of any digital
transformation programme, where those operational
processes are extended outside the organisation
• Internal and supporting processes offer opportunities for
greater efficiencies and speed
June 8, 2021 26
Organisation Generic Process Structure
June 8, 2021 27
Generic process
structure maps
to generic
process groups
Mapping Operational Processes To Business Systems
• Mapping (operational) business processes
and their activities, tasks and steps to
business systems allows you to:
− Identify activities currently performed manually
and that have the potential to be automated
− Identify business processes that use more than
one business system with possible opportunities
for automation at system boundaries
June 8, 2021 28
Business
System
Business
System
Business
System
Business
System
Business
System
Business
System
Business
System
Business
System
Business
System
Business
System
Business
System
Business
System
Business
System
Business
System
Business
System
Business
System
Business
System
Business
System
Business
System
Business
System
Mapping Operational Processes To Business Systems
• The process to business system mapping can be performed to lower levels
– processes, activities, tasks steps – to business systems, components and
functions
• The greater the mapping granularity and detail the more accurate the
identification of automation opportunities will be
June 8, 2021 29
Process Level 1
Process Level 2
Process Level 3
Process Level 4
Process Level 5
Business System
Module
Component
Function
Command
June 8, 2021 30
Resolve Problems With Existing Process Approach
• Symptoms of poor business process management
− No standard process/method for addressing how to define
business requirements and when to improve business processes
− When automation of processes is commissioned, “Business” says
that they do not always get what they think they have asked for
− The processes used to document and communicate business
processes and requirements are neither easy nor documented
− Our business programs frequently exist in a culture of reacting to
cross-functional problems/emergencies
− IT has responsibility for creating and maintaining business process
flows, business requirements and business rules
Characteristics And Requirements Of Process
Automation
• A workflow-oriented approach to process and decision
automation
• A repeatable work process involving people and systems with
defined and documented activities
− Repeatable and repeated consistency
• Joins multiple isolated and disconnected applications
• Handle and insulate complexity
− Systems and process knowledge dispersed throughout the organisation
− Not always documented
− Documentation not always up-to-date
• Processes cross functions and teams
− Automation captures this cross-functional knowledge
June 8, 2021 31
Processes And Applications
• Process uses application(s) and applications embody processes defined within
their processing logic and sequence
• Operational processes may be contained entirely within/be implemented by an
application or they may exist outside the application
June 8, 2021 32
Application
Process
Application
Process
Application
Process
4. Strategic And Tactical Automation
June 8, 2021 33
Ad Hoc Business
Tools
Supplementing Core
Business Solutions
Strategic And Tactical Automation
June 8, 2021 34
Business
Process
Being
Operated
Core Business
Solutions Used to
Support the
Business Process
Organisation
Functions That
Operate the Process
Using the Tools
Strategic Automation Focuses on Business Processes,
Core Solutions and Organisation Business Functions
Strategic And Tactical Automation
June 8, 2021 35
Business
Process
Being
Operated
Core Business
Solutions Used to
Support the
Business Process
Ad Hoc Business
Tools
Supplementing Core
Business Solutions
Organisation
Functions That
Operate the Process
Using the Tools
Tactical Automation
Focuses on the
Periphery and
Bypasses the
Complexity of the
Core
Tactical And Strategic Automation
June 8, 2021 36
Tactical Automation Strategic Automation
• Solutions Delivered Quickly At
Lower Cost
• Rapid Response to Business Need
• Benefits and Savings Achieved
Quickly
+
-
+
-
• Solutions Difficult to Support
• Solutions May Not Scale
• Solutions May Be Unstable and
Error-Prone
• Solutions May Make Costly Mistakes
• Could Lead to Many Separate Tools
and Approaches to Automation
• Robust, Scalable, Supportable
Automation Platform
• Platform and Approach
Designed to Meet All
Automation Requirements
• Potential Significant Benefits
and Returns
• Potentially Long Time to Make
Decision on Strategic Tool
• Potentially Long Solution
Delivery Time
• Solutions May Be More Costly
To Develop
Tactical And Strategic Automation
• Tactical automation is not always bad and strategic
automation is not always good
June 8, 2021 37
Evolution Of Automation
June 8, 2021 38
• Disparate, disconnected individual automation activities
• No overall automation programme
• Script-like automation approaches and technologies
• Automation is seen as a targeted solution to process and
integration inefficiencies
• Specific automation projects initiated
• Tools being evaluated and selected
• Organisation-wide investment in automation
• Business process focussed automation activities
• Automation viewed as valid approach to drive organisation inefficiencies to
deliver solutions
• Investment in automation tools and skills
• Automation is viewed as a normal and natural solution
implementation activity
• Automation is implemented pervasively across the organisation
• Process measurement is implemented widely and consistently
• The organisation uses automation in all its forms
automatically
• The operation of automation is continually assessed to
determine options for improvement and optimisation
Initial
Automation
Efforts
Tactical
Automation
Systematic
Automation
Strategic
Automation
Automated
Automation
June 8, 2021 39
Performance Metrics
• Performance issues can be defined as gaps between how a
process is currently performing in relation to how it should
be performing
• A methodical analysis can help to understand the nature of
the gaps, why they exist and how the situation can be
rectified
• Key element of this understanding is the identification of
actionable and auditable metrics that accurately indicate
process performance
− Metrics will provide indicators as to where and how a process
should be adjusted
June 8, 2021 40
Performance Metrics
• Is the process meeting its performance goals?
• Does the process take too long and if so, why and what is the
measurement of “too long”?
• What could happen to make it worse?
• How would we know if the process has improved, i.e., if time is the
measurement of the process, can cost be ignored or if cost is the
measurement of the process, can time be ignored?
• How is data reported about the process, who views this data and
what do they do with it?
• Where should performance points be recorded so the process is
accurately measured and monitored?
• Would entering these performance points affect the performance of
the process?
Process Measurement – KPIs And KRIs
June 8, 2021 41
• KPI = Key Performance
Indicator
• Not financial
• Measures of actions and
activities (for example, calls
handled, work done)
• Linked directly to performance
• Can be measured frequently
(weekly, monthly)
• KRI = Key Results Indicator
• Financial and non-financial
• Measure the outcomes and
results achieved (for example,
user satisfaction
• Measured less frequently
(monthly, quarterly)
Process Measurements And Actions
• If you automate processes you really need to know how the automation is
working
• There needs to be a consistent KPI/KRI generation framework, from initial
data collection to actions to be performed based on KPI/KRI values
• There is no point in collecting data and generating metrics unless action
will be taken if metrics indicate this is warranted
June 8, 2021 42
Process
Collected
Measurement
Data
Performance
Indicators
Measures Metrics
Results
Indicators
Actions
Process
Measurement
Framework
Process
Operation
Process And Automation Metrics Hierarchy
June 8, 2021 43
KPI
Process Metrics
Results Metrics
Operational Metrics
Process Metrics – Roll-up
of Operational Metrics
High-Level Metrics Which
Measure Progress Toward
Strategic Service Objectives
Align Metrics
to Allow Roll-
up
Process And Automation Performance Metrics
• Need to define set of metrics that capture what is important to the service
delivery
• Balance between too few and too many
• Metrics need to tell you when the performance standards have been met
• Need to assess that the definition of metrics will cause supplier to take
actions to optimise their value which may lead to undesirable
consequences
• Define tiered metrics to match tiered reporting: operational and strategic
• Define measurement framework that measures performance and
interactions across process and automation landscape
• Measure what is important and what has an impact
• Measure outcomes – the what rather than the how
− However, the how is useful for process and automation problem determination
and resolution
June 8, 2021 44
Tactical Solutions Can Create Externalities
• Costs imposed on other parts of the organisation that did
not agree to incur and were not involved in the any
decision about those costs
− Support costs
− Costs of errors
− Cost to secondary consequences of errors
• Automation solutions can be just another set of UDA (User
Developed Applications) that contribute to the growth of
shadow IT within the organisation
June 8, 2021 45
Automation Solutions And Shadow IT
• The desire for automation can arise from a business need to resolve
perceived or actual problems with existing business systems and/or
the failure of the IT function to deliver required functionality:
− Multiple legacy systems not integrated with manual handoffs between them
− Automate data capture/data entry
− Automate initial data processing and escalate for manual actions
− Developing wrappers around existing applications
− Connecting a new application to existing applications
− Automating manual elements of business processes
− Automating decision making
− Automating data exchanges and transfers
− Automating reporting
− Automating service management self-service
• Automation is a classic vector for the introduction of shadow IT into
the organisation
June 8, 2021 46
Automation, Shadow IT And Innovation
• Business-lead IT automation solutions can represent
innovative ways to do business, work smarter, add value
and achieve results
− Improve employee experience and empowers employees
• Shadow IT represents latent demand for solutions not
being provided by the IT function
− Represents an insight into what the IT solutions the business need
• The IT function needs to engage with the business to
encourage innovative solution ideas and bring them into
formal IT support earlier
June 8, 2021 47
Automation, Shadow IT And Productivity
• Business caught between loss of productivity due to the
absence of the desired solutions or the loss of productivity
due to having to use transfer data between multiple
separate solutions
• Initial productivity gains from shadow IT can diminish over
time
• Shadow IT solutions supported within the business
functions
− Uncosted unplanned peer support
• Accumulating backlog of solutions that have to be brought
into formal support and/or need to migrate shadow IT
solution and its data to a supported platform
June 8, 2021 48
June 8, 2021 49
Automation, Shadow IT And Productivity
• Short term productivity gains
• Long-term productivity gap
IT Architecture
IT Architecture Failing Business Relationships
8 June 2021 50
IT Function Business
IT Responds
and Delivers
Slowly
Business Want Rapid
Response to Need
and Changes
IT Does Not Understand
or Invest in and Develop
IT Architecture
IT Architecture
Does Not Provide
Technology
Leadership
Business Does Not View IT
Architecture As Provider of
Technology Consulting Services
IT Architecture Is
Inwardly and
Backwardly Focussed
Rather Than Being
Business Lead
Breaking The Flow From Business Strategy To IT
Solutions
June 8, 2021 51
Business
Objectives
Business
Operational
Model
Solution
Portfolio
Realisation
And
Delivery
Solution
Usage,
Management ,
Support
And
Operations
Business
Strategy
Business
IT
Strategy
Solution
Portfolio
Design And
Specification
Business
shadow IT
expenditure External
Suppliers and
Service
Providers
External
Suppliers and
Service
Providers
Business-perceived or actual
barriers to solution delivery by
internal IT organisation
Shadow IT solutions
ultimately may be
passed to the
support function
At least 40% of technology
spending is diverted from IT
Over 30% of CIOs routinely
not consulted on IT
solution acquisition and
expenditure
Them Us
Them and Us
Mentality
Core Solution Business Processing Stages And
Shadow IT For Application And Process Automation
• Use of shadow IT solutions occurs routinely at multiple stages
throughout the use of business systems, extending and
enhancing their functionality or providing features not
available or that area easier to use
June 8, 2021 52
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 Step 9 Step 10 Step 11 Step 12
Extract
Data and
Analyse
Outside
Solution
Extract
and
Exchange
Data With
Other
Party
Reporting
Using
Separate
Solution
Use
Separate
Tool To
Perform
Work
Extract
and Send
Data
Outside
Party
Manually
Enter
Output
from
External
Solution
Perform
Additional
Steps
Using
Separate
Solution
Reporting
and
Analysis
Shadow IT Occurs Pervasively Throughout the Use of Core IT Solutions
System 1 System 2 System 3 System 4
Core Solution Business Processing Stages And
Shadow IT For Application And Process Automation
June 8, 2021 53
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 Step 9 Step 10 Step 11 Step 12
Extract
Data and
Analyse
Outside
Solution
Extract
and
Exchange
Data With
Other
Party
Reporting
Using
Separate
Solution
Use
Separate
Tool To
Perform
Work
Extract
and Send
Data
Outside
Party
Manually
Enter
Output
from
External
Solution
Perform
Additional
Steps
Using
Separate
Solution
Reporting
and
Analysis
• Shadow IT in the form of tactical automation is frequently needed to make
up for gaps and shortfalls in core business solutions, supplementing
incomplete solutions and providing omitted functionality
• Linking business solutions together into a practical operational reality
Shadow IT, Automation And Solution Architecture
• The potential problem of automation-driven shadow IT gives IT
architecture the opportunity show leadership
• Develop model for IT as a solution and service broker
− Service Oriented IT – SOIT
• Enable a balance between the strategic needs of the IT function and the
immediate and tactical solution requirements of the business
• IT architecture can bridge the sometimes wide gap between the business
and the IT function in providing leadership in the area of automation
June 8, 2021 54
5. Deciding On The Scope Of Automation
June 8, 2021 55
Deciding On The Scope Of Automation
June 8, 2021 56
What To
Automate And
How
Automated?
What
Approach Do
You Intend to
Take?
Decision
Automation
Data
Automation
Application
Automation
and
Integration
Process
Automation
Action
Automation
Low (Manual
Intervention,
Review,
Supervision)
High (Fully
Automated
and
Autonomous)
Complex,
Advanced –
High Levels of
Automation,
High Action
Volumes,
Many
Automation
Points
Simple,
Tactical – Low
Levels of
Automation,
Low Action
Volumes, Few
Automation
Points
User
Adoption, Use
Risk
Evaluate
Solution
Approach and
Make Decision
to Proceed
Technology
Risk
Automation
Failure/Error
Risk
Process
Automation
Risk
Implementation
Risk
Autonomous
Operation Risk
Loss of
Business
Knowledge
What Is the
Desired Level of
Automation?
What Type of
Automation
Technology is
Applicable?
What Are the
Risks of
Automation?
Review The Automation Technology Options And
Approaches
Automation
Technologies And
Approaches
Enterprise Process
and Automation
Architecture
Approaches
Enterprise Decision
Management (EDM)
Business Motivation
Model (BMM)
Process Mining
Data Integration
Service Orientation
API Management
Solution Replacement
Business Process
Management (BPM)
And Business Process
Automation Solutions
Business Process
Management (BPM)
Business Process
Automation (BPA)
BPI (Business Process
Intelligence)
Workflow
Management (WFM)
Process Description
Approaches
Business Process
Model and Notation
(BPMN)
Decision Model and
Notation (DMN)
Case Management
Model and Notation
(CMMN)
Production Rule
Representation (PRR)
Semantics of Business
Vocabulary and
Business Rules (SBVR)
RuleML
Business Process
Execution Approaches
Web Services
Business Process
Execution
Language (WS-BPEL)
XML Process
Definition Language
(XPDL)
Rules
Engines/Business
Rules Management
Tools And Systems
(BRMS)
BRMS Tools and
Vendors
Robotic Process
Automation (RPA)
Tools And Systems
Digital Process
Automation Tools and
Vendors
RPA Tools and
Vendors
Ad Hoc Automation
Techniques and
Technologies
Screen Scraping
Scripting Languages
Optical Character
Recognition and
Intelligent Data
Extraction
Finite State Machines
June 8, 2021 57
Automation Solution And Technology Risks
• All IT solutions have implementation and operation risks
• There are specific risks related to automation solution that need to
be considered, managed, addressed, mitigated or circumvented
− User Adoption, Use Risk – the target users might reject the automation
because of fears such as losing control or being replaced
− Technology Risk – the high expectations of the selected automation
technology may not be realised
− Automation Failure/Error Risk – the automated solution may operate in error
− Process Automation Risk – the underlying business process may be automated
badly
− Implementation Risk – the solution may be implemented badly or inefficiently
− Autonomous Operation Risk – the autonomous operation of the process may
lead to a lack of awareness and knowledge of automation operations and/or
there could be excessive trust in the accuracy of the automation
− Loss of Business Knowledge – automation might lead to a lack of knowledge of
the underlying business rules, activities and decision-making rules
June 8, 2021 58
Automation Implementation Options
• Ultimately long-term organisation-wide success and results
will require a strategic top-down approach
June 8, 2021 59
Option Advantages Disadvantages
Bottom Up • See results quickly at low cost
• Limited investment in tools
• Gain knowledge and experience
• Validate approach
• Solutions implemented fragile and
not efficient, scalable or robust
• Not a basis for large-scale
operations
Top Down • Scalable, robust solutions
• Reusable components
• Takes a strategic and organisation-
wide view of automation
• Manage entire application
development and deployment
lifecycle
• Manage processes in execution
• Large investment before results
obtained
• Strategic approach may mean
solution implementation loses
flexibility and agility
Success Measurement Framework – Three Es
June 8, 2021 60
Success
Efficacy
Efficiency
Effectiveness
Success Measurement Framework
• Efficacy
− Are the automation solutions working?
− Are they producing the correct outcomes?
− Are they secure?
− Are they reliable?
− Metrics
• Cost of automation project(s) and cost of operation of replaced processes vs cost of existing processes
• Efficiency
− Are the automation solutions operating with the minimum of resources?
− Are the automation supportable and maintainable?
− Metrics
• Staff reduction
• Productivity increase
• Throughput increase
• Effectiveness
− Are the automation solutions contributing to longer-term objectives?
− Metrics
• Accuracy improvement
• Cycle time reduction
• Customer satisfaction
• Number of automated controls
• Assessment of risk reduction
June 8, 2021 61
6. Digital Strategy, Digital Transformation And
Automation
June 8, 2021 62
Digital Strategy, Digital Transformation And
Automation
• Digital transformation is concerned with moving the
organisation from its current state to one that involves
extending and exposing business processes outside the
organisation along the dimensions of:
− External Parties Participating in Digital
Interaction/Collaboration – who of the many parties in your
organisation landscape do you interact with digitally
− Numbers and Types of Interactions/ Collaborations and Business
Processes Included in Digital Strategy – which types of
interactions and associated business processes do you digitally
implement
− Channels Included in Digital Strategy – what digital channels do
you interact over
June 8, 2021 63
Solution Automation And Digital Transformation
• The exposure of business processes outside the
organisation to enable external interaction can give rise to
the need for process automation
• Inefficient processes that involve multiple business
systems, multiple handoffs and manual activities are not
suitable for external deployment
June 8, 2021 64
Digital Strategy And Business Processes
June 8, 2021 65
Business Processes Within
The Organisation
Digital Means
Extending and
Exposing Business
Processes Outside
the Organisation –
The Organisation Is
being Opened-Up
Digital Transformation And Enablement Is About …
June 8, 2021 66
Moving the organisation from one that is internally focussed around
its siloed structures:
To one that is focussed on customer (external interacting party)
straight-through interactions:
Automation can accelerate this by enabling reuse of existing business
systems in new ways
Interactions Between Organisation Processes
June 8, 2021 67
Core
Processes
Supporting
Processes
Management
Processes
Defines Strategy and Approach
for Implementing and Operating
Core Operational Processes
Defines Strategy and Approach
for Implementing and Operating
Core Operational Processes
External Interacting Parties and Experience Journeys
What They
Interact With
Core
Processes
Interactions Between Organisation Processes
June 8, 2021 68
Business
Customer
Retail
Customer
Public
Service
Provider
Dealer
Sub-
Contractor
Agent
Regulator
Supplier
External Interactions And Internal Organisation
Reality
June 8, 2021 69
Apparent External Organisation Interactions – Sample Order To Case Process
Internal Organisation Actual Reality
Customer Experiences And External Interactions And
Internal Organisation Reality
June 8, 2021 70
Internal Organisation Users
External users expect to experience
seamless end-to-end interactions
External users
also interact
with internal
users
Internal users
frequently
experience
disconnected
processes and
systems/
solutions
Automation
Automation Can Be The Glue to Join
External and Internal Processes
Digital Creates User Expectations
• Understand, manage, control and deliver on the expectations
• Automation can assist with linking activities and tasks within the business process
and may be a practical enabler of digital transformation
June 8, 2021 71
           
• Interaction over digital channels reduces the expected and tolerated
latency and the asynchronicity of communications between the
organisation and external parties
           
        
     
  

Response Time Expected and Tolerated Across Channels
Channel
Digital User Expectations
June 8, 2021 72
First time problem
resolution or response to
request
Support is available
whenever it is needed
All information is accurate
and available online all the
time
Products and services can
be ordered and their
delivery tracked
Access is available from
anywhere at any time
Proactive
notifications
Range of channels and
functions affects decision to
do business
Demand multi-channel
experience
Simple, consistent,
easy to use
Provide advice and
assistance
Loyalty and
rewards
Immediate access
and response
7. Specifying The Automation Solution
June 8, 2021 73
Specifying The Automation Solution
• There are various approaches to specifying the automation solution
including:
− Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) -
https://www.omg.org/spec/BPMN/2.0/
− Decision Model and Notation (DMN) -
https://www.omg.org/spec/DMN/1.2/About-DMN/
− Case Management Model and Notation (CMMN) -
https://www.omg.org/spec/CMMN/1.1/About-CMMN/
− Production Rule Representation (PRR) -
https://www.omg.org/spec/PRR/About-PRR/
− Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules (SBVR) -
https://www.omg.org/spec/SBVR/1.4/About-SBVR/
− RuleML - http://wiki.ruleml.org/index.php/RuleML_Home
• These can be used to create an unambiguous understanding of the
decision and how it can and will be automated
• Combination of these techniques can be used:
− BPMN to represent the process
− DMN to represent the automated decision-making
June 8, 2021 74
Decision Model And Notation (DMN)
• The aim of DMN is to provide a decision modelling representation
language that can accurately describe the process by which
decisions are made and that can understood by all stakeholders –
business users, business analysts and solution designers and
developers
• DMN includes both the definition of decision requirements and the
modelling of the logic of decision making
June 8, 2021 75
Decision
Modelling and
Representation
Business Process
Business Rules
and Decision
Logic
Describes the Co-
ordination of Business
Activities and Tasks
Where Decisions Occur
Describes the Detailed
Logic and Rules Used To
Make Decisions
Describes Decision
Models and Decision
Requirements
Business Processes And Decisions
• Decisions are embedded in business processes
• Business processes provide a context for decision-making
• Automation focuses on the mechanisation of manual activities, including
decisions
• DMN is one of the many techniques available to describe how activities can
be automated and to formally define automation work
June 8, 2021 76
Decisions
DMN Elements
• Decision Requirements Graph (DRG)
• Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD)
• Decision Tables
• Friendly Enough Expression Language (FEEL)
− Simple Expression Language (S-FEEL) – subset of FEEL
June 8, 2021 77
Decision Requirements Graph (DRG)
• This is a diagram that shows at a high level the
requirements needed for a decision and their
dependencies
• The DRG is used to define and link the elements involved
in making decisions:
− Decision – takes inputs, applies decision logic derived from
Business Knowledge Model(s) to create an output
− Input Data Element – information used as input to Decision(s)
− Business Knowledge Model – structure that formalises business
knowledge in a format such as decision table, business rules or
other
− Knowledge Source – authority for Business Knowledge Model
June 8, 2021 78
A Decision involves determining an output from one or more inputs using
decision logic and rules that may be derived from different sets of business
knowledge.
A Business Knowledge Model represents business knowledge in a form such
as business rules, decision rules or executable logic
Input Data represents information used in a Decision or a Business Knowledge
Model
A Knowledge Source is an authority for a Decision or a Business Knowledge
Model
Information Requirement represents input data to a Decision or the output
from a Decision being used as an input to another Decision
Knowledge Requirement represents the use of a Business Knowledge Model
Authority Requirement represents a dependency of one design element on
another element that is a source or knowledge, guidance or expertise
DMN Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) And
Decision Requirements Diagram (DRDs) Notation
June 8, 2021 79
Decision
Input Data
Business
Knowledge
Model
Knowledge Source
Information Requirement
Knowledge Requirement
Authority Requirement
DMN Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) And
Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD) Elements
• Shows the data inputs to decision processing
June 8, 2021 80
Decision 1
Input Data A Input Data B Input Data C
Decision 2
Input Data D Input Data E
DMN Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) And
Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD) Elements
• Decisions may require business knowledge which in term
may draw from knowledge sources
June 8, 2021 81
Decision 1
Input Data A
Compliance
Business
Knowledge
Compliance
Regulations
Input Data B
Compliance SOPs
Compliance
Legislation
Compliance Special
Interest Group
DMN Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) And
Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD)
June 8, 2021 82
Decision 1
Input Data A Input Data B Input Data C
Decision 2
Input Data D Input Data E
Business
Knowledge
Knowledge
Source
Business
Knowledge
Knowledge
Source
Decision 1
Input Data A Input Data B Input Data C
Business
Knowledge
Knowledge
Source
Decision 1 Decision 2
Input Data D Input Data E
Business
Knowledge
Knowledge
Source
Decision
Requirements
Graph (DRG)
Decision
Requirements
Diagram (DRD)
Decision
Requirements
Diagram (DRD)
DMN Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) And
Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD)
• DRG is a view of the entire set of decisions while DRDs
focus on individual decisions that take place in the context
of the overall process
June 8, 2021 83
Decision Table
• Decision tables are used to formally express decision logic
• Contains all the inputs required to make a decision
• Contains all combinations of input values
• A decision can have many decision tables, the combined
output of which are used to make the overall decision
• Decision table elements:
− Information item name – name of the Business Knowledge Model
− One or more input clauses consisting of input expression and
allowed values
− One or more output clauses containing the allowed values
− Output values
− Descriptive information – rule number, description, reference
June 8, 2021 84
Decision Table
June 8, 2021 85
Information Item Name:
IF AND IF AND IF THEN Description Reference
Rule Number Input Expression
1
Input Expression
2
Input Expression
3
Output
Expression
Allowed Values Allowed Values Allowed Values Allowed Values
1 Value 1.1 Value 1.2 Value 1.3 Output 1 Description 1 Reference 1
2 Value 2.1 Value 2.2 Value 2.3 Output 2 Description 2 Reference 2
3 Value 3.1 Value 3.2 Value 3.3 Output 3 Description 3 Reference 3
4 Value 4.1 Value 4.2 Value 4.3 Output 4 Description 4 Reference 4
5 Value 5.1 Value 5.2 Value 5.3 Output 5 Description 5 Reference 5
• Information Item Name – specifies what is being decided
• Rule Number – specifies the sequence of rules and the order in which they are applied
• Input Expression – specifies the variable who value is being assessed
• Allowed Values – specifies the list of available values the Input Expression can take
• Value – specifies the value of the Input Expression being looked for in the rule
• Output Expression – specifies the variable who value is being set by the rule
• Output – specifies the value being assigned to the Output Expression by the rule
• Description and Reference – specifies optional descriptive information
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Sample Decision Table
Credit Card Financial Suitability
IF AND IF AND IF AND IF AND IF THEN
Rule Number Applicant Main Own
Income
Applicant Additional
Own Income
Applicant Monthly
Outgoings
Applicant Savings Applicant Assets Output Expression
1>=30000 ,<40000 >=0 ,<15,000 >=0 ,<1,000 >=0 ,<5,000 >=0 ,<25,000 Financially Suitable
2>=40000 ,<50000 >=15,000 ,<30,000 >=1,000 ,<2,000 >=5,000 ,<10,000 >=25,000 ,<50,000 Financially Suitable
3>=50000 ,<60000 >=30,000 ,<45,000 >=2,000 ,<3,000 >=10,000 ,<15,000 >=50,000 ,<75,000 Financially Suitable
4>=60000 ,<70000 >=45,000 ,<60,000 >=3,000 ,<4,000 >=15,000 ,<20,000 >=75,000 ,<100,000 Financially Suitable
5>=70000 ,<80000 >=60,000 ,<75,000 >=4,000 ,<5,000 >=20,000 ,<25,000 >=100,000 ,<125,000 Financially Suitable
6>=80000 ,<90000 >=75,000 ,<90,000 >=5,000 ,<6,000 >=25,000 ,<30,000 >=125,000 ,<150,000 Financially Suitable
7>=90000 ,<100000 >=90,000 ,<105,000 >=6,000 ,<7,000 >=30,000 ,<35,000 >=150,000 ,<175,000 Financially Suitable
8>=100000 >=105,000 ,<0,000 >=7,000 >=35,000 >=175,000 Financially Suitable
9>=30000 ,<40000 >=0 ,<15,000 >=3,000 ,<4,000 - - Financially Unsuitable
… … … … … … …
… … … … … … …
June 8, 2021 86
Sample Credit Card Decisions
• There can be a network of decisions, each of which has a
decision table
• This breaks down the overall decision into a set of smaller
decisions
June 8, 2021 87
Credit Card
Suitability
Credit Score
Financial Suitability
Demographic
Suitability
Balance Transfer
Eligibility
Student Eligibility
Card Type Credit Limit
Over Credit Card
Decision
Friendly Enough Expression Language (FEEL)
• Friendly Enough Expression Language (FEEL) can be used
to define in an easily understand plain language format the
information contained in a decision table
June 8, 2021 88
information Item Name
Context Name 1 Context_Name_1
Context Name 2 Context_Name_2
Context Name 3 Context_Name_3
Context Name 4 Context_Name_4
If Context_Name_1 = N OR Context_Name_2 = M AND Context_Name_3
> O THEN Result = YES
ELSE Result + No
Friendly Enough Expression Language (FEEL)
• The approach can also be used to consolidate decision
tables
June 8, 2021 89
Information Item Name
Applicant Existing
Customer
Applicant_Existing_Customer
Applicant Main Own
Income
Applicant_Main_Own_Income
Applicant Additional
Own Income
Applicant_Additional_Own_Inc
ome
Applicant Monthly
Outgoings
Applicant_Monthly_Outgoings
Applicant Savings Applicant_Savings
Applicant Assets Applicant__Assets
Rule Applicant Existing Customer Applicant Main Own
Income
Applicant Additional
Own Income
Applicant Monthly
Outgoings
Applicant Savings Applicant Assets Credit Card Financial
Suitability
1 Yes Income Value Range
1
Additional Own
Income Range 1
Monthly Outgoings
Range 1
Savings Range 1 Assets Value Range 1 Suitable
2
3 Monthly Outgoings
Range 2
Savings Range 2
4 Assets Value Range 2
5 Savings Range 3
6 Additional Own
Income Range 2
Monthly Outgoings
Range 3
7 Savings Range 4
8 Monthly Outgoings
Range 4
Assets Value Range 5
9 Savings Range 5
10
… … … … … … … …
… … … … … … … …
State Machines
• State machines are a technique to model the behaviour of a system based
on inputs that trigger state changes
• Approach can be used to model and design processes and decision-making
systems by identifying the states the system can be in, what inputs or
events trigger state transitions and how the system behaves in each state
• This can be a very useful technique to define rules
• This approach allow all input, events, actions and states to be identified
and defined rigorously
• Provides a common language that allows all parties understand rules and
processing
• State machines can get very large with hundreds of states that are complex
to represent graphically
June 8, 2021 90
State State
Event/Input
Event/Input
Finite State Machine (FSM) Characteristics
• The system has a finite set of states
• The system has a defined initial state
• There is a finite set of events and/or inputs that trigger
transitions between states
• System behaviour at a given point in time depends upon
the current state and the input or event that occurs at that
point in time
• The behaviour of the system in defined for each state and
for each possible input or event in that state
June 8, 2021 91
FSM Example
• Vending machine that can accept 20, 50 and 100 cent
coins
• Can dispense items valued at 150, 200 and 250 cents
• Machine can accept the following inputs:
− 20 cent coin
− 50 cent coin
− 100 cent coin
− Unrecognised coin
− Return Button to return coins
− Dispense 150 cent item
− Dispense 200 cent item
− Dispense 250 cent item
June 8, 2021 92
FSM Example
• The machine will only return 20, 50 and 100 coins if an
excess amount has been entered after an item has been
dispensed
− 3 x 20 cent, 2 x 50 cent = 160 cent and 150 cent item selected –
no money returned
− 2 x 100 cent = 260 cent and 150 cent item selected – 50 cent
returned
• A maximum of 340 cents can be accumulated before any
subsequent coins are rejected
− Could have entered two 20 cent and four 50 cent coins = 240 and
then one 100 cent coin
− 240 cents is the largest amount that can be accumulated that is
smaller than the most expensive item
June 8, 2021 93
FSM Example – State Transition Diagram
• State
transition
diagrams can
get very
complex very
quickly even
as the
number of
states and
events is
quite small
June 8, 2021 94
Start
20
20 Cent Coin
Deposited
50
100
50 Cent Coin
Deposited
100 Cent Coin
Deposited
40
20 Cent Coin
Deposited
70
120
50 Cent Coin
Deposited
100 Cent Coin
Deposited
20 Cent Coin
Deposited
100
150
100 Cent Coin
Deposited
20 Cent Coin
Deposited
50 Cent Coin
Deposited
50 Cent Coin
Deposited
200
100 Cent Coin
Deposited
FSM Example – State Transition Table
June 8, 2021 95
Input
Return Dispense 150 Item Dispense 200 Item Dispense 250 Item 20 Cent
Coin
50 Cent
Coin
100 Cent
Coin
Unrecognised Coin
State
0 0 0 0 0 20 50 100 Return Coin, 0
20 Return coins, 0 20 20 20 40 70 120 Return Coin, 20
40 Return coins, 0 40 40 40 60 90 140 Return Coin, 40
50 Return coins, 0 50 50 50 70 100 150 Return Coin, 50
60 Return coins, 0 60 60 60 80 110 160 Return Coin, 60
70 Return coins, 0 70 70 70 90 120 170 Return Coin, 70
80 Return coins, 0 80 80 80 100 130 180 Return Coin, 80
90 Return coins, 0 90 90 90 110 140 190 Return Coin, 90
100 Return coins, 0 100 100 100 120 150 200 Return Coin, 100
110 Return coins, 0 110 110 110 130 160 210 Return Coin, 110
120 Return coins, 0 120 120 120 140 170 220 Return Coin, 120
130 Return coins, 0 130 130 130 150 180 230 Return Coin, 130
140 Return coins, 0 140 140 140 160 190 240 Return Coin, 140
150 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, 0 150 150 170 200 250 Return Coin, 150
160 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, 0 160 160 180 210 260 Return Coin, 160
170 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20
cent, 0
170 170 190 220 270 Return Coin, 170
180 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20
cent, 0
180 180 200 230 280 Return Coin, 180
190 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x
20 cent, 0
190 190 210 240 290 Return Coin, 190
200 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 50
cent, 0
Dispense Item, 0 200 220 250 300 Return Coin, 200
220 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20,
50 cent, 0
Dispense Item, Return 20
cent, 0
220 240 270 320 Return Coin, 220
240 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x
20, 50 cent, 0
Dispense Item, Return 2 x
20 cent, 0
240 260 290 340 Return Coin, 240
260 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 3 x
20, 50 cent, 0
Dispense Item, Return 3 x
20 cent, 0
Dispense Item, 0 260 260 260 Return Coin, 260
290 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x
20, 2 x 50 cent, 0
Dispense Item, Return 2 x
20, 50 cent, 0
Dispense Item, Return 2 x
20 cent, 0
290 290 290 Return Coin, 290
340 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 50
cent,
Dispense Item, Return 2 x
20, 2 x 50 cent, 0
Dispense Item, Return 2 x
20, 50 cent, 0
340 340 340 Return Coin, 340
FSM Example – State Transition Table
June 8, 2021 96
Input
Return Dispense 150 Item Dispense 200 Item Dispense 250 Item 20 Cent
Coin
50 Cent
Coin
100 Cent
Coin
Unrecognised Coin
State
0 0 0 0 0 20 50 100 Return Coin, 0
20 Return coins, 0 20 20 20 40 70 120 Return Coin, 20
40 Return coins, 0 40 40 40 60 90 140 Return Coin, 40
50 Return coins, 0 50 50 50 70 100 150 Return Coin, 50
60 Return coins, 0 60 60 60 80 110 160 Return Coin, 60
70 Return coins, 0 70 70 70 90 120 170 Return Coin, 70
80 Return coins, 0 80 80 80 100 130 180 Return Coin, 80
90 Return coins, 0 90 90 90 110 140 190 Return Coin, 90
100 Return coins, 0 100 100 100 120 150 200 Return Coin, 100
110 Return coins, 0 110 110 110 130 160 210 Return Coin, 110
120 Return coins, 0 120 120 120 140 170 220 Return Coin, 120
130 Return coins, 0 130 130 130 150 180 230 Return Coin, 130
140 Return coins, 0 140 140 140 160 190 240 Return Coin, 140
150 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, 0 150 150 170 200 250 Return Coin, 150
160 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, 0 160 160 180 210 260 Return Coin, 160
170 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20
cent, 0
170 170 190 220 270 Return Coin, 170
180 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20
cent, 0
180 180 200 230 280 Return Coin, 180
190 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x
20 cent, 0
190 190 210 240 290 Return Coin, 190
200 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 50
cent, 0
Dispense Item, 0 200 220 250 300 Return Coin, 200
220 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20,
50 cent, 0
Dispense Item, Return 20
cent, 0
220 240 270 320 Return Coin, 220
240 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x
20, 50 cent, 0
Dispense Item, Return 2 x
20 cent, 0
240 260 290 340 Return Coin, 240
260 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 3 x
20, 50 cent, 0
Dispense Item, Return 3 x
20 cent, 0
Dispense Item, 0 260 260 260 Return Coin, 260
290 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x
20, 2 x 50 cent, 0
Dispense Item, Return 2 x
20, 50 cent, 0
Dispense Item, Return 2 x
20 cent, 0
290 290 290 Return Coin, 290
340 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 50
cent,
Dispense Item, Return 2 x
20, 2 x 50 cent, 0
Dispense Item, Return 2 x
20, 50 cent, 0
340 340 340 Return Coin, 340
Shows the
New State
Dispense 150
Cent Item But
No Change
Remains in 260
State and Coin
Returned
FSM Example – State Transition Table
• This table shows the complete set of inputs for all states
showing new states and actions taken
• All inputs in all states, all actions and all state transitions
can be defined and understood
• Tabular format allows a large amount of information to be
represented in a small space
• Gaps can be identified
• Allows rules to be implemented with precision, accuracy
and reliability
• FSMs are similar to Decision Tables in DMN
June 8, 2021 97
UML State Machine
• State
− Activity represent processing that can occur while the system is in
a given state but that does not cause a transition from that state
• State Transition has three elements:
− Event – an occurrence that causes a state change
− Guard – a logical condition that can governs if a transition can
actually take place
− Action – some processing that takes place in the act of moving
from one state to another
June 8, 2021 98
State
Activity
State
Activity
State Transition
Event / Guard / Action
Other State Representations
• There are many other state machine representation types
− Harel State Diagrams
− Mealy Machine
− Moore Machine
• These are all useful rules representation techniques
June 8, 2021 99
Process Automation – Designing The Application
• This can involve designing a meta application that controls
one or more existing applications to automate, fully or
partially, the interactions with those applications and thus
enable the successful operation of the process
June 8, 2021 100
Designing The Meta Application
June 8, 2021 101
Task 1
Task 3
Task 2
Decide
Start
Wait
Task 4
Task 5
Task 7
Task 6
Decide
Task 8
Task 8
Wait
Task 9
Notify
End
Meta Process Is A Representation Of The
Compressed/Collapsed Operational Process(es)
• When unnecessary and replicated activities in the operational processes
have been removed, you are left with necessary activities that must be
incorporated into the meta-process
June 8, 2021 102
Collapse
Compress
9. Sample Business Process – Order To Cash
June 8, 2021 103
Sample Business Process – Order To Cash
• Most organisation have some form of customer ordering
process – from simple, single-item single-price purchase with
shipping delivered by an online solution to complex multi-
product purchases with recurring payments and servicing
requirements
• The apparently simple act of receiving and handling an order
can trigger a large number of business processes that may be
provided by a number of separate solutions and be operated by
different business functions
• Order to Cash process provides an example for process analysis
and for process automation
− Order to Cash process described here is just for illustration
• Even when organisations have an ERP application that provides
integrated Order To Cash process, there will still be functional
and process elements outside this
June 8, 2021 104
Order To Cash Sub-Processes And Related Processes
June 8, 2021 105
Marketing, Lead,
Opportunity
Management
Sales Quotation
Management Customer Loyalty
Customer
Relationship
Management
Product
Management
Customer Service
Support Debt Collection
Logistics and Order
Fulfilment
Distribution Workforce
Management
Invoicing, Billing,
Credit and Hare
Financial
Management
Warranty
Process Automation To Link Order To Cash Sub-
Processes
June 8, 2021 106
Marketing, Lead,
Opportunity
Management
Sales
Quotation
Management
Customer
Loyalty
Customer
Relationship
Management
Product
Management
Customer
Service
Support Debt Collection
Logistics and
Order Fulfilment
Distribution
Workforce
Management
Invoicing, Billing
and Financial
Management
Warranty
Process Automation To Link Order To Cash
Processes
• Where one or more of the sub-processes associated with
the Order To Cash process are provided by separate
systems and/or business functions, some form of
automation may be useful to provide integration with no
or limited manual activity
• This may be a reflection of a pragmatic reality associated
with having multiple legacy applications
June 8, 2021 107
Order To Cash Process Can Cross Organisational
Functions
June 8, 2021 108
Order to Cash Process And Related Sub-Processes
June 8, 2021 109
Buy Product/
Service
Provide Quotation
Collect and
Validate
Requirements
Qualify
Opportunity and
Make Decision To
Proceed
Process
Information and
Create Quotation
and Handle
Internal Review
and Approval, if
Needed
Create Solution
and Approach to
Delivery and
Implementation
Identify And
Perform Cross-
Sell/Up-Sell
Activities
Identify Resource
Requirements
Develop Cost and
Schedule Estimates
Identify and Cost
Components
Identify Third Party
Elements and
Costs
Contact Third Party
Agree Cost
Apply Discounts
Determine
Customer Loyalty
Discounts
Determine Other
Discounts
Determine Overall
Cost
Determine
Profitability and
Review Costs
Manage Internal
Review and
Approval Process
Issue Quotation
Follow-up on
Quotation, Handle
Feedback and
Provide
Clarification
Sell Solution
Manage
Negotiations,
Finalise Purchase
Details
Manage Sales
Outcome
Agree Delivery
Process and
Schedule
Process Sales
Order
Handle Back
Orders
Handle and Fulfil
Order
Review Any Third-
Party Involvement
Schedule Third
Party Involvement
Determine Order
Component
Availability
Determine Order
Fulfillment Process
and Schedule
Schedule Product
and Solution
Creation/Assembly
Confirm Creation/
Assembly Scope
Schedule Creation/
Assembly
Resources
Perform Creation/
Assembly
Validate Creation/
Assembly
Complete
Creation/
Assembly
Plan and Schedule
Logistics
Verify Delivery
Contents
Plan, Transport
and Deliver
Solution Product
Components
Pack Products
Collect Products
Track Delivery
Handle Delivery
Issues
Handle Delivery
Data and
Documentation
Plan and Schedule
Service Delivery
Review and
Confirm Service
Delivery Scope
Confirm Delivery
Approach, Roles,
Responsibilities,
Resources and Pre-
Requisites
Confirm Scope
with Customer
Schedule
Resources
Schedule Third
Party Involvement
Perform
Site/Environment
Survey and Ensure
Readiness and
Suitability
Decide on nd
Create Service
Delivery Plan
Confirm Schedule
with Customer
Initiate Service
Delivery
Deploy Solution
Including Services
and Product
Validate Service
Confirm Service
with Customer and
Get Signoff
Complete Service
Delivery
Conduct Service
Delivery/Project
Review and Assess
Success
Archive Service
Delivery Data and
Documentation
Process Returns
Receive and
Handle Return
Request
Authorise Return
Process Return
Schedule Return
Logistics
Validate Return
Close and
Document Return
Handle Customer
Queries and
Service Request
Receive Customer
Query Problem
and Service
Request
Analyse Customer
Query Problem
and Service
Request
Resolve Customer
Query Problem
and Service
Request
Respond Customer
Query Problem
and Service
Request
Close and
Document
Customer Query
Problem and
Service Request
Handle Customer
Complaints
Receive Customer
Complaint
Route Customer
Complaint
Resolve/Escalate
Customer
Complaint
Respond to
Customer
Complaint
Close and
Document
Customer
Complaint
Billing
Setup Customer
Billing
Setup Payment
Schedule
Setup Once-off
Billing
Setup Recurring
Billing
Setup Direct
Debit/Credit Card
Payments
Bill Invoicing
Generate Invoices
Transmit Invoices
Schedule Payment
Processing
Bill Payments and
Receivables
Management
Receive Payments/
Deposits/ Transfer
Handle and
Reconcile
Payments
Manage Failed and
Overdue Payments
Bill Inquiry
Handling
Receive Customer
Bill Inquiry
Assess Customer
Bill Inquiry
Authorise
Customer Bill
Invoice
Adjustment
Track and Manage
Customer Bill
Inquiry Resolution
Analyse Detailed
Bill Inquiry
Determine
Appropriate Bill
Adjustment
Record Customer
Bill Invoice
Adjustment
Issue Adjusted Bill
Report Customer
Bill Inquiry
Close and
Document
Customer Bill
Inquiry
Handle Warranty
Claims
Receive Warranty
Claim
Collect Warranty
Claim Details
Validate and
Respond to
Warranty Claim
Investigate and
Define Warranty
Issue
Schedule Service
Activity
Analyse Defect and
Determine Cause
Determine
Corrective Action
Determine
Responsible Party
and Manage
Recovery
Approve or Reject
Warranty Claim
Perform Corrective
Action
Close and
Document
Customer
Warranty Claim
Service
Receive/ Schedule
Service Request/
Requirement
Confirm Service
Requirements
Schedule Service
and Resource
Requirements
Generate Service
Order
Perform Service
Close and
Document Service
Activity
Order to Cash High Level Partial Process View
June 8, 2021 110
Order to Cash High Level Process Partial View
• This is a partial view of the sub-processes in the overall sample OTC process
showing the interactions between different participants
• A process view allows the context of specific automations to be shown
• One of the objectives of introducing automation into the process is to optimise it:
− Collapse – reduce the number of participants, handoffs between participants and replicated
activities
− Compress – reduce the number of steps in the process
− Automate – eliminate manual involvement in process steps to accelerate processing and
reduce or eliminate queueing of work
June 8, 2021 111
Collapse
Compress
Multiple Decisions Across Extended Order To Cash
Process
June 8, 2021 112
Buy Product/
Service
Provide Quotation
Collect and
Validate
Requirements
Qualify
Opportunity and
Make Decision To
Proceed
Process
Information and
Create Quotation
and Handle
Internal Review
and Approval, if
Needed
Create Solution
and Approach to
Delivery and
Implementation
Identify And
Perform Cross-
Sell/Up-Sell
Activities
Identify Resource
Requirements
Develop Cost and
Schedule Estimates
Identify and Cost
Components
Identify Third Party
Elements and
Costs
Contact Third Party
Agree Cost
Apply Discounts
Determine
Customer Loyalty
Discounts
Determine Other
Discounts
Determine Overall
Cost
Determine
Profitability and
Review Costs
Manage Internal
Review and
Approval Process
Issue Quotation
Follow-up on
Quotation, Handle
Feedback and
Provide
Clarification
Sell Solution
Manage
Negotiations,
Finalise Purchase
Details
Manage Sales
Outcome
Agree Delivery
Process and
Schedule
Process Sales
Order
Handle Back
Orders
Handle and Fulfil
Order
Review Any Third-
Party Involvement
Schedule Third
Party Involvement
Determine Order
Component
Availability
Determine Order
Fulfillment Process
and Schedule
Schedule Product
and Solution
Creation/Assembly
Confirm Creation/
Assembly Scope
Schedule Creation/
Assembly
Resources
Perform Creation/
Assembly
Validate Creation/
Assembly
Complete
Creation/
Assembly
Plan and Schedule
Logistics
Verify Delivery
Contents
Plan, Transport
and Deliver
Solution Product
Components
Pack Products
Collect Products
Track Delivery
Handle Delivery
Issues
Handle Delivery
Data and
Documentation
Plan and Schedule
Service Delivery
Review and
Confirm Service
Delivery Scope
Confirm Delivery
Approach, Roles,
Responsibilities,
Resources and Pre-
Requisites
Confirm Scope
with Customer
Schedule
Resources
Schedule Third
Party Involvement
Perform
Site/Environment
Survey and Ensure
Readiness and
Suitability
Decide on and
Create Service
Delivery Plan
Confirm Schedule
with Customer
Initiate Service
Delivery
Deploy Solution
Including Services
and Product
Validate Service
Confirm Service
with Customer and
Get Signoff
Complete Service
Delivery
Conduct Service
Delivery/Project
Review and Assess
Success
Archive Service
Delivery Data and
Documentation
Process Returns
Receive and
Handle Return
Request
Authorise Return
Process Return
Schedule Return
Logistics
Validate Return
Close and
Document Return
Handle Customer
Queries and
Service Request
Receive Customer
Query Problem
and Service
Request
Analyse Customer
Query Problem
and Service
Request
Resolve Customer
Query Problem
and Service
Request
Respond Customer
Query Problem
and Service
Request
Close and
Document
Customer Query
Problem and
Service Request
Handle Customer
Complaints
Receive Customer
Complaint
Route Customer
Complaint
Resolve/Escalate
Customer
Complaint
Respond to
Customer
Complaint
Close and
Document
Customer
Complaint
Billing
Setup Customer
Billing
Setup Payment
Schedule
Setup Once-off
Billing
Setup Recurring
Billing
Setup Direct
Debit/Credit Card
Payments
Bill Invoicing
Generate Invoices
Transmit Invoices
Schedule Payment
Processing
Bill Payments and
Receivables
Management
Receive Payments/
Deposits/ Transfer
Handle and
Reconcile
Payments
Manage Failed and
Overdue Payments
Bill Inquiry
Handling
Receive Customer
Bill Inquiry
Assess Customer
Bill Inquiry
Authorise
Customer Bill
Invoice
Adjustment
Track and Manage
Customer Bill
Inquiry Resolution
Analyse Detailed
Bill Inquiry
Determine
Appropriate Bill
Adjustment
Record Customer
Bill Invoice
Adjustment
Issue Adjusted Bill
Report Customer
Bill Inquiry
Close and
Document
Customer Bill
Inquiry
Handle Warranty
Claims
Receive Warranty
Claim
Collect Warranty
Claim Details
Validate and
Respond to
Warranty Claim
Investigate and
Define Warranty
Issue
Schedule Service
Activity
Analyse Defect and
Determine Cause
Determine
Corrective Action
Determine
Responsible Party
and Manage
Recovery
Approve or Reject
Warranty Claim
Perform Corrective
Action
Close and
Document
Customer
Warranty Claim
Service
Receive/ Schedule
Service Request/
Requirement
Confirm Service
Requirements
Schedule Service
and Resource
Requirements
Generate Service
Order
Perform Service
Close and
Document Service
Activity
Decisions Within Sample Partial Process View
June 8, 2021 113
Multiple Decisions Across Extended Order To Cash
Process
• The extended Order To Cash processes contains many
decisions that can have the potential to be automated
including:
− Provide Quotation
− Qualify Opportunity and Make Decision To Proceed
− Identify And Perform Cross-Sell/Up-Sell Activities
− Develop Cost and Schedule Estimates
− Apply Discounts
− Decide on and Create Service Delivery Plan
− Authorise Return
− Resolve/Escalate Customer Complaint
− Authorise Customer Bill Invoice Adjustment
− Determine Appropriate Bill Adjustment
− Determine Corrective Action
− Confirm Service Requirements
June 8, 2021 114
Sample Decision – Identify And Perform Cross-
Sell/Up-Sell Activities
June 8, 2021 115
Create Up-
sell/Cross-sell
Offers
Specific
Customer Order
History
Customer Offers
Identification
Model
Discounting
Policies
Specific
Customer
Payment History
Specific
Customer
Loyalty
Information
General
Customer Order
Information
Stock
Information
Current
Discounted
Product
Information
Related Product
Information
General Offers
Identification
Model
Customer
Information
Excess Stock
Policies
Sample Decision – Identify And Perform Cross-
Sell/Up-Sell Activities
• This sample Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) contains the following elements
− Input Data
• Specific Customer Order History – the customer’s order history will provide details on wat they have previously
bought and so what they may or may not be likely to buy in addition to the specific order contents
• Specific Customer Payment History – the customer’s payment history will indicate the value of previous orders and
likely maximum value of an order that will be likely to be accepted
• General Customer Order Information – orders placed by other customers that are similar but include additional
products will be an indicator of what additional products might be bought
• Specific Customer Loyalty Information – this consists of the customer’s membership or and participation in any
loyalty scheme and any additional rewards that might apply to additional purchases or use of accumulated rewards
for additional purchases
• Stock Information – additional purchase suggestions may be driven by excess stock in related products
• Current Discounted Product Information – additional purchase suggestions may be driven by discounts available on
products
• Related Product Information – the product database may contain information on product relationships
− Business Knowledge Model
• General Offers Identification Model – this identifies generalised related products based on all past customer
behaviours and policies on discounts and handling of excess stock
• Customer Offers Identification Model – this identifies specific related products based on information about the
specific customer
− Knowledge Source
• Discounting Policies – this contains details on how discounts should be calculated and applied
• Excess Stock Policies – this contains details on how excess stock should be handled
− Decision
• Create Up-sell/Cross-sell Offers – this generates a set of recommended additional products that are presented to
the customer
June 8, 2021 116
8. Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN)
June 8, 2021 117
June 8, 2021 118
BPMN As A Common Process Description And
Specification Language
• Two layers of complexity for business process design
− Core set of BPMN process representation diagram elements
− Extended set of BPMN process representation diagram elements
• What BPMN is not:
− Organisation structure design language
− Data model and data flow design language – does contain some data modelling
elements
− System functional flow design language
• BPMN diagrams can be complex
− BPMN V2.0 (latest version) has a lot of elements
− Keep it simple and easy to understand
− Add appropriate complexity through refinement and drill-down
− Focus on getting the process description right
− Complexity and rigour of BPMN is related to the ability to create Business
Process Execution Language (BPEL - BPEL4WS) – you probably do not intend to
use this feature
June 8, 2021 119
Types Of Process
• Standard Process (Orchestration Process) defines the flow
of activities between participants
• Choreography - exchange of information (Messages)
between participants
June 8, 2021 120
BPMN Language Structure
BPMN
Flow Objects Connectors Artifacts Swimlanes
Activities
Events
Gateways
Sequence Flows
Message Flows
Associations
Text Annotation
Group
Pool
Lane
Data
Data Objects
Data Inputs
Data Outputs
Data Stores
Data
Associations
June 8, 2021 121
Swimlanes And Pools
• Swim lanes are a visual means for organising and
categorising process activities
• Used to demonstrate hand-offs between
functions/roles/business units
• Show process sequence
• Show cross-functional process flow
− Pool – represents major participants in a process with separate
pools for different organisations or major business units
− Lane – contained within pools
• Organise and categorise process activities within a pool according to
function or role
− All other BPMN diagram elements are placed within swimlanes
and pools
June 8, 2021 122
Swimlanes And Pools
• Good at showing who does what, when and in response to what
• Adds a dimension not available in standard flow-charting
• Shows responsibilities
• Allows identification and elimination of duplicate tasks
June 8, 2021 123
Flow Objects
Flow Objects
Activities Events Gateways
Task
Sub-Process
Transaction
Start
End
Intermediate
Exclusive
Inclusive
Parallel
Complex
June 8, 2021 124
Flow Objects
• Define the flow of the process
− Activities - work performed within a business process
• Task – unit of work
• Sub-Process – a set of self-contained activities collapsed within process
representation for ease of understanding
• Transaction – a sub-process that must be completed or undone if not completed
− Events - something that happens
• Start – acts as a trigger for a process/sub-process and takes an input only
• End – represents the result of a process/sub-process and generates an output only
• Intermediate - represents something that happens between the start and end
events
− Gateways - determine splitting and merging of paths within process depending
on the conditions
• Exclusive – where the sequence slow can take only one of two or more alternative
paths
• Inclusive – where the sequence slow can take one, more than one or all of two or
more alternative paths and results from paths must be subsequently merged
• Parallel – multiple parallel paths are defined
• Complex – complex behaviours can be defined
June 8, 2021 125
Flow Objects – Graphics
Task
Sub-Process
Transaction
Start
End
Intermediate
Exclusive
Inclusive
Parallel
Complex
June 8, 2021 126
Activities – Detailed Specification
• Classified by
− Task Type
• Service – automated application
• Send – send a message to an external participant
• Receive – wait for a Message to arrive from an external Participant
• User – human performs the task with the assistance of an application and scheduled through a
task manager
• Script – executed by a business process engine
• Manual – not managed by any business process engine.
• Business Rule – provide input to a Business Rules Engine and get the output of calculations
− Process or Sub-Process
• Embedded – sub-process embedded within a process
• Event – triggered by an event
• Called – pre-defined process that can be called
− Looping
• Simple
• Multiple in Parallel
• Multiple in Sequence
− Calling – External Sub-Process
− Transaction Backout (“Compensation”)
June 8, 2021 127
Activities
Looping Symbol
Task Border
Shows if
Called/Sub-
Process
Top Left Symbol
Identifies Task
Type
Rewind Symbol Used
to Indicate
Transaction Backout
(“Compensation”)
June 8, 2021 128
Activities – Graphics For Combinations Of Task Type
And Loop Type
No Loop Simple Loop Multiple in
Parallel
Multiple in
Sequence
Simple/Not Specified
Service
Send
Receive
User
Script
Manual
Business Rule
June 8, 2021 129
Activities – Graphics For Sub-Processes
Embedded Sub-
Process
Embedded
Transaction Sub-
Process
Embedded Sub-
Process Triggered
by Event
Embedded Called
Sub-Process
No Event Specified
Message
Error
Escalation
Compensation
(Backout of
Transaction)
Conditional
Signal
Multiple
June 8, 2021 130
Events
• Simple
− Start
− Intermediate
− End
• Triggered
− Start
− Intermediate
• Inward Direction “Catching”
• Outward Direction “Throwing”
− End
• Triggers (Not All Apply to All
Events)
− Message
− Timer
− Conditional
− Signal
− Multiple
− Multiple in Parallel
− Error
− Escalation
− Compensation (Backout of
Transaction)
− Link
− Cancel
− Terminate
June 8, 2021 131
Events
Single Light
Border Indicates
Start Event
Double Light Border and
Hollow Symbol Indicates
Intermediate Inwardly
Directed Event
Single Dark
Border Indicates
End Event
Symbol Indicates
Trigger Type
Double Light Border and
Filled Symbol Indicates
Intermediate Outwardly
Directed Event
June 8, 2021 132
Events – Graphics For Combinations Of Type,
Direction And Trigger
Start Intermediate
(Inward Direction
“Catching”)
Intermediate
(Outward
Direction
“Throwing”)
End
No Trigger
Message
Timer
Conditional
Signal
Multiple
Multiple in Parallel
Error
Escalation
Compensation
(Backout of
Transaction)
Link
Cancel
Terminate
June 8, 2021 133
Gateways
• Control the execution of the process
• Do not represent work being done
• Gateways represent decisions/branching (exclusive,
inclusive, and complex), merging, forking and joining
• Parallel gateways synchronise/combine and create parallel
flows
• Event-based gateways represents a branching point in the
process where the alternative paths that follow the
gateway are based on events that occur
June 8, 2021 134
Gateways – Graphics For Types
Inclusive (AND)
Exclusive (OR)
or
Complex
Parallel
Exclusive Event
Start Exclusive Event
Start Parallel Event
June 8, 2021 135
Sample Parallel Gateway
June 8, 2021 136
Artifacts
• Used to add information into the process model/diagram
• Make the process model/diagram more readable
− Data Object – shows which data is required by or produced in an
activity
− Group – used to group different activities to highlight sections
− Annotation – adds text to a diagram
June 8, 2021 137
Artifacts
Grouping of
Process Elements
Annotation
Comment
June 8, 2021 138
Data
• One requirement of process design/modelling is to be able
to model the items (physical or information items) that are
created, manipulated, and used during the execution of a
process
− Data inputs
− Data outputs
− Data stores – persistent
− Collections – set of data, input or outputs
June 8, 2021 139
Data
Data
Data Collection
Data Input
Data Collection Input
Data Output
Data Collection Output
Data Store
June 8, 2021 140
Extended BPMN Attributes
• BPMN diagram elements have many extended attributes that are
not part of the core process definition
• These are used when creating a process repository
• Used when exporting BPMN process to XML
• Activity attributes
− isForCompensation
− loopCharacteristics
− Resources
− SequenceFlow
− InputOutputSpecification
− Properties
− BoundaryEventRefs
− DataInputAssociations
− DataOutputAssociations
− StartQuantity
− CompletionQuantity
− …
June 8, 2021 141
BPMN Usage Options
Consistent
Approach to
Business Process
Analysis and
Description
Complete
Automated
Business Process
Management
Implementation Time, Cost, Resource Requirements, Complexity, Difficulty, Risks
Low High
Basic BPMN
Process
Diagramming
Allows You to
Start Here
BPMN Can
Grow to Enable
This
10. Process Automation Architecture
June 8, 2021 142
(Robotic) Process Automation
• RPA is concerned with (partially or completely) automating
processes
• Involves outcome and decision automation
• The process is the glue that links the decision-making activities
together
• Automation needs to focus on processes and their decisions
and how to make them consistent, repeatable and autonomous
and be able to be performed in (near) real time
• Existing applications implement or are used in (operational)
processes
• RPA is concerned with abstracting the details of these
operational processes into partially or fully automated meta-
processes
June 8, 2021 143
Goals Of Process Automation
• Allow existing set of applications be interacted with and controlled
• Map complexity to existing applications to simplicity of requesting applications
• Single platform for all automation initiatives
• Provide an interface to allow interactions be initiated and results obtained
• Automate (some of) the interactions with the controlling applications
June 8, 2021 144
Process
Automation
Existing
Applications
Requesting
Applications
Why Process Automation?
− Process Automation can just be a decorative skin hiding the ugliness of what
lies below
− Process Automation just masks inefficiencies of existing
applications/organisation structures/processes
− Process Automation just makes a bad situation less bad
• All true but the cost of application and organisation transformation
and time to achieve it may be too great and too long
− Organisation needs a solution now
− Tactical vs. Strategic balance required
• Process Automation enables quick deployment of efficient, (semi)
automated solutions while longer-term transformational changes
are effected
• There is always a risk that these long-term changes never happen
− Interim solution frequently endure long after their intended expiry
June 8, 2021 145
June 8, 2021 146
Key Business Drivers For Process Automation
• Save money – do things better with optimised processes
− Build better new processes faster
− Know what you are doing (right or wrong) through current
process understanding
− Get control of parallel processes by consolidating to core
processes
− Eliminate non-value added work through automation of manual
processes
− Business process outsourcing
• Implement large systems better
• Stay ahead of compliance and regulation
• Process Automation is an opportunity to create value
through savings and improvements
Why Implement Process Automation?
• Reduce manuals errors, improve quality, accuracy and ensure consistency
− Automation creates a repeatable process that encapsulates best practices
− Avoids manual errors that cause problems and require resolution and rework
− Reduced cycle times
• Reduce manual effort
− Processes operate automatically without the need for manual effort
− Increase productivity
− Increase throughput
• Always available
− Process is always ready for work
− Respond more quickly
− Greater scalability
• Collect information
− Automated solution captures process information for reporting, analysis and process
improvement
− Information gives the opportunity for process insight
− Greater visibility and control
− Reduce risk
June 8, 2021 147
Characteristics And Requirements Of Process
Automation
• A workflow-oriented approach to process and decision
automation
• A repeatable work process involving people and systems with
defined and documented activities
− Repeatable and repeated consistency
• Joins multiple isolated and disconnected applications
• Handle and insulate complexity
− Systems and process knowledge dispersed throughout the organisation
− Not always documented
− Documentation not always up-to-date
• Processes cross functions and teams
− Automation captures this cross-functional knowledge
June 8, 2021 148
Processes And Applications
• Process uses application(s) and applications embody processes defined within
their processing logic and sequence
• Operational processes may be contained entirely within/be implemented by an
application or they may exist outside the application
June 8, 2021 149
Application
Process
Application
Process
Application
Process
Application Automation Interface Options
June 8, 2021 150
Application
Databases Applications
Application
Presentation
Pages/Screens
Process And
Decision
Automation,
Request
Management
Application
Interface
Layer
1
2
4
5
3
Requests
and
Responses
Application Automation Interface And Control
Options
1. Interface with existing applications through its presentation
layer, simulating keystrokes and screen navigation
2. Avail of APIs/service interfaces provided by applications
3. Use existing service integration/API management layer
(SOA/Service Bus or similar)
4. Use scripts to control calling and sequencing of applications
5. Directly update underlying application database
• Process Automation implementations will mix available
interface and control options as appropriate
• Process Automation environment provides facilities to enable
the use of all available interface options
June 8, 2021 151
Automation Scenarios/Use Cases
• Front-end Application to Back-end Application(s) – consolidate
interactions with back-end application(s) providing partial
automation
• Application to Application Automation – automate interactions
between applications
• Automate Manual Activity – automate set of tasks performed
outside application
• Data Transfer and Transformation – move data from source to
target
• Data Extraction/Scraping – screen-scraping data from application,
navigating front-end
• API Wrapper – build API or service layer to existing application
• Build Meta Application – create an application that controls other
applications
June 8, 2021 152
Front-end Application To Back-end Application(s)
• Allow front-end application interact with back-end
application in a semi-automated way
June 8, 2021 153
Application To Application Automation
• Automate interactions between two application
June 8, 2021 154
Automate Manual Activity
• Build application that automates manual activities
performed outside existing application
June 8, 2021 155
Data Transfer And Transformation
• Automate movement of data from a source to a target,
performing any required data transformation
June 8, 2021 156
Data Source Data Target
Data Extraction/Scraping
• Automate the extraction of data from the user interface of
any application
June 8, 2021 157
Automation Scenarios – API/Service Wrapper
• Automation layer exposes APIs or services that provide for
integration with source application(s)
June 8, 2021 158
c
Build Meta Application
• Build a meta-application that consolidates interactions
with a back-end application
June 8, 2021 159
Application Interface Sources And Targets
• Automation may involve a single application being controlled
or it may involve a source controlled and target controlling
application
June 8, 2021 160
Automation
Source
Application
Target
Application
Application Interface Sources And Targets
June 8, 2021 161
June 8, 2021
Application
Databases
Applications
Application
Presentation
Pages/Screens
Application
Interface Layer
1
2
4
5
3
Application
Presentation
Pages/Screens
1
4
3
Application
Interface Layer Application
Databases
Process And
Decision
Automation,
Request
Management
2
Applications
Application Interface Sources And Targets
• Every automation/integration may have two halves –
source and target
• Source application is being controlled/automated
• Target can drive automation or have results of automation
pushed
• Integration and automation layer sits between sources and
targets managing integrations and the applications of rules
June 8, 2021 162
Application Interface Options
• Not all interface options will be available for all
applications being connected to and interacted with
June 8, 2021 163
Automation
Dashboard/
Analytics/
Reporting
June 8, 2021 164
Automation Design, Development, Deployment Management,
Governance, Implementation, Execution And Operational
Framework – Idealised High Level Capabilities
Automation Execution
Library
Operational
Automation Usage
and Audit Data
Operational
Automation
Scheduler,
Rules Engine
|
Automation Design,
Development and Testing
Automation
Templates
Automation
Publication/
Deployment
and Version
Control
Internal Source/Target Interacting Applications
Automation
Component Library
Deployed Automation
Execution
Automation
Alerting/
Event
Management
Administration
Interface
Internal Interaction
Layer
External
Access
Layer
Application Interaction Analysis
and Scripting
External
Source/
Target
Interacting
Applications
External
to
Internal
Translation
Access
Gateway
Security Access
and Management
1
2
3
4
6
5
7
8
10
9
11 12 13
15
16 17
18
19
14
Automation Design, Development, Deployment Management,
Governance, Implementation, Execution And Operational Framework
– Idealised High Level Capabilities
• Describes an architecture for an automation development,
deployment, execution and management solution
• Set of components and facilities required to implement
and operate organisation-wide scalable automation
applications
• Can be used to assess the capabilities of automation
applications and to design an overall automation
architecture
June 8, 2021 165
Automation Design, Development, Deployment Management,
Governance, Implementation, Execution And Operational Framework
– Idealised High Level Capabilities
1. Automation Design, Development and Testing – an environment that allows meta-processes/automation applications be developed and
tested
2. Automation Templates – provides a set of automation and integration templates
3. Automation Component Library – library of automation components that can be assembled into a developed automation
4. Application Interaction Analysis and Scripting – provides facilities to analyse the operation of applications in order to develop
automation scripts
5. Security Access and Management – provides support for source and target authorisation and authentication and integration with their
security layers
6. Automation Publication/ Deployment and Version Control – a facility for deploying or publishing developed automations to an
operational execution environment
7. Automation Execution Library – the library of deployed automations
8. Operational Automation – an automation deployed in production and available for automation
9. Scheduler, Rules Engine – manages the definition and operation automation schedules and the actioning of automation based on
triggering events
10. Internal Interaction Layer – manages interactions with internal applications being automated or controlled
11. External Access Layer – manages interactions with external applications being automated or controlled
12. External to Internal Translation - translates external requests to internal addresses to provide an additional level of security
13. Access Gateway – provides communications channels to external application sources and targets
14. External Source/ Target Interacting Applications – the set of external applications being controlled or connected with or that are
interacting with the automations/meta-processes
15. Internal Source/ Target Interacting Applications – the set of internal applications being controlled or connected with or that are
interacting with the automations/meta-processes Administration Interface
16. Administration Interface – facility to manage the operational and executing automation environment
17. Operational Automation Usage Data – the set of automation execution data collected on executed automations
18. Automation Alerting/ Event Management – facility to generate alerts and handle events from executing automations
19. Automation Dashboard/ Analytics/ Reporting – facility to present, report on and analyse automation performance and usage data
June 8, 2021 166
Summary
• Automation is a technology trend IT architects should be aware of
and know how to respond to business requests as well as
recommend automation technologies and solutions where
appropriate
• Automation is a bigger topic than just RPA
• Change to digital operations means that internal processes are
exposed – the potentially inefficient and manual processes must be
made efficient and external interactions must be masked from the
internal complexity
• Moving the organisation from one that is internally focussed around
its siloed structures to one that is focussed on customer (external
interacting party) straight-through interactions
• Automating existing processes requires a structured approach to
process analysis
• A structured approach to designing new optimised processes is
important to successful RPA implementation
June 8, 2021 167
More Information
Alan McSweeney
http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney
https://www.amazon.com/dp/1797567616
8 June 2021 168

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Solution Architecture And (Robotic) Process Automation Solutions

  • 1. Solution Architecture And (Robotic) Process Automation Solutions Alan McSweeney http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney https://www.amazon.com/dp/1797567616
  • 2. Solution Architecture And RPA (Robotic Process Automation) Solutions • Automation solutions, like all other technology solutions, should be subject to an architecture and design process • There are many approaches to and options for the automation of business activities • Too often automation solutions are tactical applications layered over existing business systems • The objective of all IT solutions is to automate manual business processes and their activities to a certain extent • The requirement for RPA-type applications arises in part because of automation failures within existing applications or the need to automate the interactions with or integrations between separate, possibly legacy, applications June 8, 2021 2
  • 3. Solution Automation – The Wider Context • One of the roles of IT architecture is to always seek to take the wider architectural view • Ensure that solutions are designed and delivered within a strategic framework to avoid, as much as is practical and realistic, short-term tactical solutions and approaches that lead to an accumulation of design, operations and support debt − Tactical solutions will always play a part in the organisation’s solution landscape • Confirm that any process automation initiative happens within a sustainable long-term approach that maximises value delivered • The objective of these notes is to put automation into its wider and larger IT architecture context while accepting the need for tactical approaches in some instances June 8, 2021 3
  • 4. Topics 1. Solution And Process Automation – The Wider Technology And Approach Landscape 2. Business Processes, Business Solutions And Automation 3. Organisation Process Model 4. Strategic And Tactical Automation 5. Deciding On The Scope Of Automation 6. Digital Strategy, Digital Transformation And Automation 7. Specifying The Automation Solution 8. Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) 9. Sample Business Process – Order To Cash 10. RPA (Robotic Process Automation) June 8, 2021 4
  • 5. 1. Solution And Process Automation – The Wider Technology And Approach Landscape June 8, 2021 5
  • 6. Solution And Process Automation – The Wider Technology And Approach Landscape Automation Technologies And Approaches Enterprise Process and Automation Architecture Approaches Enterprise Decision Management (EDM) Business Motivation Model (BMM) Process Mining Data Integration Service Orientation API Management Solution Replacement Business Process Management (BPM) And Business Process Automation Solutions Business Process Management (BPM) Business Process Automation (BPA) BPI (Business Process Intelligence) Workflow Management (WFM) Process Description Approaches Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) Decision Model and Notation (DMN) Case Management Model and Notation (CMMN) Production Rule Representation (PRR) Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules (SBVR) RuleML Business Process Execution Approaches Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) XML Process Definition Language (XPDL) Rules Engines/Business Rules Management Tools And Systems (BRMS) BRMS Tools and Vendors Robotic Process Automation (RPA) Tools And Systems Digital Process Automation Tools and Vendors RPA Tools and Vendors Ad Hoc Automation Techniques and Technologies Screen Scraping Scripting Languages Optical Character Recognition and Intelligent Data Extraction Finite State Machines June 8, 2021 6
  • 7. Solution And Process Automation – The Wider Technology And Approach Landscape • Enterprise Process and Automation Architecture Approaches – process and automation techniques and approaches from a top-down, strategic, standardised, organisation-wide enterprise architecture viewpoint • Business Process Management (BPM) And Business Process Automation Solutions – automation approaches and techniques and toolsets from the existing technology and process design and management area of BPM • Process Description Approaches – methodologies, standard, tools and approaches to analysing, designing and specifying processes and their rules • Business Process Execution Approaches – tools and approaches that take formally design business processes and provide platforms that allow them to be executed • Rules Engines/Business Rules Management Tools And Systems (BRMS) – these are tools that provide rules engines to allow rules be defined and executed and to be integrated within other applications • Robotic Process Automation (RPA) Tools And Systems – these are specific Robotic Process Automation tools • Ad Hoc Automation Techniques and Technologies – this refers to a variety of automation analysis, design and implementation approaches June 8, 2021 7
  • 8. Solution And Process Automation – The Wider Technology And Approach Landscape • These categories of approaches, methodologies, standards, technologies, techniques and toolsets are not mutually exclusive • There is considerable overlap between them June 8, 2021 8 Enterprise Process and Automation Architecture Approaches Rules Engines/Business Rules Management Systems (BRMS) Business Process Management (BPM) And Business Process Automation Solutions Robotic Process Automation (RPA) Tools And Systems Business Process Execution Approaches Ad Hoc Automation Techniques and Technologies Process Description Approaches
  • 9. Solution Automation – The Wider Technology And Approach Landscape • There are many approaches to automating the operation of solutions, from tactical to strategic, from simple to complex and from single point-to-point to compound service orientation and orchestration • These include methodologies and approaches for analysing and designing automation • RPA technologies and toolsets are just one approach to process and solution automation June 8, 2021 9
  • 10. RPA Is Just A Subset Of Automation • The topic and scope of automation is much greater than just RPA June 8, 2021 10 Automation RPA
  • 11. Process Automation (RPA), POA (Process Oriented Architecture) And BPM (Business Process Management) – Three Related Topics June 8, 2021 11 RPA Process automation POA Linking process areas to actual (desired) interactions – customer (external interacting party) service journeys through the organisation BPM Disciplined approach to identify, design, execute, document, measure, monitor and control both automated and non-automated business processes to achieve consistent, targeted results aligned with an organisation’s strategic goals
  • 12. Solution Automation – The Wider Context June 8, 2021 12 Maybe Take a Look … … Before You Leap Consider the range of approaches and technologies available when evaluating automation options
  • 13. 2. Business Processes, Business Solutions And Automation June 8, 2021 13
  • 14. Business Processes, Business Solutions And Automation • All automation takes place within the context of business processes and the set of IT solutions and manual activities that are used to operate those processes June 8, 2021 14
  • 15. Business Processes, Business Solutions And Automation June 8, 2021 15 Business Process Being Operated Core Business Solutions Used to Support the Business Process Ad Hoc Business Tools Supplementing Core Business Solutions Organisation Functions That Operate the Process Using the Solutions and Tools
  • 16. Business Processes, Business Solutions And Automation – Four Layers June 8, 2021 16
  • 17. Business Processes, Business Solutions And Automation June 8, 2021 17 Business Processes Core Business Solutions Ad Hoc Supporting Business Tools Organisation Business Functions Business Rules, Business Knowledge and Decision Rules Business Processes Should Apply Business Rules in Decision Making Business Processes Are Operated By Organisation Functions Core Business Solutions Are Designed to Implement Business Processes Core Business Solutions Are Inevitably Supplemented By Ad Hoc Tools Developed Over Time Organisation Business Functions Use Core Business Solutions to Operate Processes Organisation Business Functions Use Ad Hoc Tools to Supplement The Operation of Business Processes Organisation Business Functions Apply Knowledge Incorporated In Business Rules Business Rules and Business Knowledge Incorporated Into Ad Hoc Supporting Tools Business Processes Should Apply Business Rules in Decision Making Business Rules and Business Knowledge Incorporated Into Business Solutions
  • 18. 3. Organisation Process Model June 8, 2021 18
  • 19. Organisation Process Model • Automation is concerned with reducing of eliminating manual involvement in activities and tasks within business processes • Decisions performed within the context of business processes are frequently the target of automation effort • Identifying decisions and other activities within business processes that are capable of being automated is an important automation planning and analysis activity • Understanding the set of processes that are performed by the organisation provides a perspective on the opportunities and need for automation • Once an inventory of organisation processes has been created, these can be mapped to the business solutions or to the manual activities that enable and support those processes − This can identify gaps in existing business solutions that may offer opportunities for automation June 8, 2021 19
  • 20. Organisation Generic Process Structure – Level 1 And Level 2 Processes June 8, 2021 20 Organisation Processes Develop Vision And Strategy Define The Business Concept And Long-Term Vision Develop Business Strategy Execute And Measure Strategic Initiatives Develop And Maintain Business Models Develop And Manage Products And Services Govern And Manage Product/Service Development Program Generate And Define New Product/Service Ideas Develop Products And Services Market And Sell Products And Services Understand Markets, Customers, And Capabilities Develop Marketing Strategy Develop And Manage Marketing Plans Develop Sales Strategy Develop And Manage Sales Plans Deliver Physical Products Plan For And Align Supply Chain Resources Procure Materials And Services Produce/Assemble /Test Product Manage Logistics And Warehousing Deliver Services Establish Service Delivery Governance And Strategies Manage Service Delivery Resources Deliver Service To Customer Manage Customer Service Develop Customer Care/Customer Service Strategy Plan And Manage Customer Service Contacts Service Products After Sales Manage Product Recalls And Regulatory Audits Evaluate Customer Service Operations And Customer Satisfaction Develop And Manage Human Capital Develop And Manage Human Resources Planning, Policies, And Strategies Recruit, Source, And Select Employees Manage Employee On Boarding, Development, And Training Manage Employee Relations Reward And Retain Employees Redeploy And Retire Employees Manage Employee Information And Analytics Manage Employee Communication Deliver Employee Communications Manage Information Technology Develop And Manage IT Customer Relationships Develop And Manage IT Business Strategy Develop And Manage IT Resilience And Risk Manage Information Develop And Manage Services/Solutions Deploy Services/Solutions Create And Manage Support Services/Solutions Manage Financial Resources Perform Planning And Management Accounting Perform Revenue Accounting Perform General Accounting And Reporting Manage Fixed- Asset Project Accounting Process Payroll Process Accounts Payable And Expense Reimbursements Manage Treasury Operations Manage Internal Controls Manage Taxes Manage International Funds/ Consolidation Perform Global Trade Services Acquire, Construct, And Manage Assets Plan And Acquire Assets Design And Construct Productive Assets Maintain Productive Assets Dispose Of Assets Manage Enterprise Risk, Compliance, Remediation, And Resiliency Manage Enterprise Risk Manage Compliance Manage Remediation Efforts Manage Business Resiliency Manage External Relationships Build Investor Relationships Manage Government And Industry Relationships Manage Relations With Board Of Directors Manage Legal And Ethical Issues Manage Public Relations Program Develop And Manage Business Capabilities Manage Business Processes Manage Portfolio, Program, And Project Manage Enterprise Quality Manage Change Develop And Manage Enterprise-Wide Knowledge Management Capability Measure And Benchmark Manage Environmental Health And Safety Develop, Manage, And Deliver Analytics
  • 21. Organisation Generic Process Structure • This is one possible representation of the set of processes an organisation must implement in order to operate effectively • This shows processes to level 2 − Organisation processes can be typically decomposed to level 4 or 5 • IT systems and business knowledge underpin the successful implementation and operation of business processes • Understanding processes in important or successful automation • Grounding automation activities in a knowledge of the underlying business processes maximises success of automation initiatives June 8, 2021 21
  • 22. Organisation Generic Process Structure June 8, 2021 22 Vision, Strategy, Business Management Operational Processes With Cross Functional Linkages Management and Support Processes Develop and Manage Products and Services Market and Sell Products and Services Deliver Products and Services Manage Customer Service Human Resource Management Information Technology Management Financial Management Acquire, Construct, and Manage Assets Manage Enterprise Risk, Compliance, Remediation, and Resiliency External Relationship Management Develop and Manage Business Capabilities Vision and Strategy Business Planning, Merger, Acquisition Governance and Compliance
  • 23. Three Pillars Of Any Organisation Organisation Strategy, Infrastructure and Product and Service Development Develop strategy, implement governance and management, commit to the enterprise, build technology, communication and resource infrastructure that supports products and services and support functional processes, develop and manage new products and services, manage mergers, acquisitions and divestments, develop and manage strategic business partners and business relationships and the supply chain Operations Implement and operate organisation competencies and associated processes that support the customer operations and management including both day-to-day and operations support and readiness processes and sales management and supplier/partner relationship management including customer acquisition, product and service sales, product and service delivery and billing Organisation Management and Support Basic organisation competencies and associated business processes required to run any organisation - facilities, information technology, financial management, legal management, HR, regulatory management, process, cost and quality management, strategy development and planning, improvement and change and knowledge management June 8, 2021 23
  • 24. Three Pillars Of Any Organisation • Exact organisation profile depends on many factors such as: − The type and mix of products and services the organisation provides − The nature of the customer relationship – known or anonymous − The number of different types of customer − The number and type of external parties interacted with June 8, 2021 24
  • 25. Organisation Generic Process Structure June 8, 2021 25 Vision, Strategy, Business Management Core Operational Processes With Cross Functional Linkages Management and Support Processes External Party Facing Processes Internal and Supporting Processes
  • 26. Organisation Process Structure, Digital Transformation And Automation • Operational processes may offer the greatest return on automation, especially in the context of any digital transformation programme, where those operational processes are extended outside the organisation • Internal and supporting processes offer opportunities for greater efficiencies and speed June 8, 2021 26
  • 27. Organisation Generic Process Structure June 8, 2021 27 Generic process structure maps to generic process groups
  • 28. Mapping Operational Processes To Business Systems • Mapping (operational) business processes and their activities, tasks and steps to business systems allows you to: − Identify activities currently performed manually and that have the potential to be automated − Identify business processes that use more than one business system with possible opportunities for automation at system boundaries June 8, 2021 28 Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System
  • 29. Mapping Operational Processes To Business Systems • The process to business system mapping can be performed to lower levels – processes, activities, tasks steps – to business systems, components and functions • The greater the mapping granularity and detail the more accurate the identification of automation opportunities will be June 8, 2021 29 Process Level 1 Process Level 2 Process Level 3 Process Level 4 Process Level 5 Business System Module Component Function Command
  • 30. June 8, 2021 30 Resolve Problems With Existing Process Approach • Symptoms of poor business process management − No standard process/method for addressing how to define business requirements and when to improve business processes − When automation of processes is commissioned, “Business” says that they do not always get what they think they have asked for − The processes used to document and communicate business processes and requirements are neither easy nor documented − Our business programs frequently exist in a culture of reacting to cross-functional problems/emergencies − IT has responsibility for creating and maintaining business process flows, business requirements and business rules
  • 31. Characteristics And Requirements Of Process Automation • A workflow-oriented approach to process and decision automation • A repeatable work process involving people and systems with defined and documented activities − Repeatable and repeated consistency • Joins multiple isolated and disconnected applications • Handle and insulate complexity − Systems and process knowledge dispersed throughout the organisation − Not always documented − Documentation not always up-to-date • Processes cross functions and teams − Automation captures this cross-functional knowledge June 8, 2021 31
  • 32. Processes And Applications • Process uses application(s) and applications embody processes defined within their processing logic and sequence • Operational processes may be contained entirely within/be implemented by an application or they may exist outside the application June 8, 2021 32 Application Process Application Process Application Process
  • 33. 4. Strategic And Tactical Automation June 8, 2021 33
  • 34. Ad Hoc Business Tools Supplementing Core Business Solutions Strategic And Tactical Automation June 8, 2021 34 Business Process Being Operated Core Business Solutions Used to Support the Business Process Organisation Functions That Operate the Process Using the Tools Strategic Automation Focuses on Business Processes, Core Solutions and Organisation Business Functions
  • 35. Strategic And Tactical Automation June 8, 2021 35 Business Process Being Operated Core Business Solutions Used to Support the Business Process Ad Hoc Business Tools Supplementing Core Business Solutions Organisation Functions That Operate the Process Using the Tools Tactical Automation Focuses on the Periphery and Bypasses the Complexity of the Core
  • 36. Tactical And Strategic Automation June 8, 2021 36 Tactical Automation Strategic Automation • Solutions Delivered Quickly At Lower Cost • Rapid Response to Business Need • Benefits and Savings Achieved Quickly + - + - • Solutions Difficult to Support • Solutions May Not Scale • Solutions May Be Unstable and Error-Prone • Solutions May Make Costly Mistakes • Could Lead to Many Separate Tools and Approaches to Automation • Robust, Scalable, Supportable Automation Platform • Platform and Approach Designed to Meet All Automation Requirements • Potential Significant Benefits and Returns • Potentially Long Time to Make Decision on Strategic Tool • Potentially Long Solution Delivery Time • Solutions May Be More Costly To Develop
  • 37. Tactical And Strategic Automation • Tactical automation is not always bad and strategic automation is not always good June 8, 2021 37
  • 38. Evolution Of Automation June 8, 2021 38 • Disparate, disconnected individual automation activities • No overall automation programme • Script-like automation approaches and technologies • Automation is seen as a targeted solution to process and integration inefficiencies • Specific automation projects initiated • Tools being evaluated and selected • Organisation-wide investment in automation • Business process focussed automation activities • Automation viewed as valid approach to drive organisation inefficiencies to deliver solutions • Investment in automation tools and skills • Automation is viewed as a normal and natural solution implementation activity • Automation is implemented pervasively across the organisation • Process measurement is implemented widely and consistently • The organisation uses automation in all its forms automatically • The operation of automation is continually assessed to determine options for improvement and optimisation Initial Automation Efforts Tactical Automation Systematic Automation Strategic Automation Automated Automation
  • 39. June 8, 2021 39 Performance Metrics • Performance issues can be defined as gaps between how a process is currently performing in relation to how it should be performing • A methodical analysis can help to understand the nature of the gaps, why they exist and how the situation can be rectified • Key element of this understanding is the identification of actionable and auditable metrics that accurately indicate process performance − Metrics will provide indicators as to where and how a process should be adjusted
  • 40. June 8, 2021 40 Performance Metrics • Is the process meeting its performance goals? • Does the process take too long and if so, why and what is the measurement of “too long”? • What could happen to make it worse? • How would we know if the process has improved, i.e., if time is the measurement of the process, can cost be ignored or if cost is the measurement of the process, can time be ignored? • How is data reported about the process, who views this data and what do they do with it? • Where should performance points be recorded so the process is accurately measured and monitored? • Would entering these performance points affect the performance of the process?
  • 41. Process Measurement – KPIs And KRIs June 8, 2021 41 • KPI = Key Performance Indicator • Not financial • Measures of actions and activities (for example, calls handled, work done) • Linked directly to performance • Can be measured frequently (weekly, monthly) • KRI = Key Results Indicator • Financial and non-financial • Measure the outcomes and results achieved (for example, user satisfaction • Measured less frequently (monthly, quarterly)
  • 42. Process Measurements And Actions • If you automate processes you really need to know how the automation is working • There needs to be a consistent KPI/KRI generation framework, from initial data collection to actions to be performed based on KPI/KRI values • There is no point in collecting data and generating metrics unless action will be taken if metrics indicate this is warranted June 8, 2021 42 Process Collected Measurement Data Performance Indicators Measures Metrics Results Indicators Actions Process Measurement Framework Process Operation
  • 43. Process And Automation Metrics Hierarchy June 8, 2021 43 KPI Process Metrics Results Metrics Operational Metrics Process Metrics – Roll-up of Operational Metrics High-Level Metrics Which Measure Progress Toward Strategic Service Objectives Align Metrics to Allow Roll- up
  • 44. Process And Automation Performance Metrics • Need to define set of metrics that capture what is important to the service delivery • Balance between too few and too many • Metrics need to tell you when the performance standards have been met • Need to assess that the definition of metrics will cause supplier to take actions to optimise their value which may lead to undesirable consequences • Define tiered metrics to match tiered reporting: operational and strategic • Define measurement framework that measures performance and interactions across process and automation landscape • Measure what is important and what has an impact • Measure outcomes – the what rather than the how − However, the how is useful for process and automation problem determination and resolution June 8, 2021 44
  • 45. Tactical Solutions Can Create Externalities • Costs imposed on other parts of the organisation that did not agree to incur and were not involved in the any decision about those costs − Support costs − Costs of errors − Cost to secondary consequences of errors • Automation solutions can be just another set of UDA (User Developed Applications) that contribute to the growth of shadow IT within the organisation June 8, 2021 45
  • 46. Automation Solutions And Shadow IT • The desire for automation can arise from a business need to resolve perceived or actual problems with existing business systems and/or the failure of the IT function to deliver required functionality: − Multiple legacy systems not integrated with manual handoffs between them − Automate data capture/data entry − Automate initial data processing and escalate for manual actions − Developing wrappers around existing applications − Connecting a new application to existing applications − Automating manual elements of business processes − Automating decision making − Automating data exchanges and transfers − Automating reporting − Automating service management self-service • Automation is a classic vector for the introduction of shadow IT into the organisation June 8, 2021 46
  • 47. Automation, Shadow IT And Innovation • Business-lead IT automation solutions can represent innovative ways to do business, work smarter, add value and achieve results − Improve employee experience and empowers employees • Shadow IT represents latent demand for solutions not being provided by the IT function − Represents an insight into what the IT solutions the business need • The IT function needs to engage with the business to encourage innovative solution ideas and bring them into formal IT support earlier June 8, 2021 47
  • 48. Automation, Shadow IT And Productivity • Business caught between loss of productivity due to the absence of the desired solutions or the loss of productivity due to having to use transfer data between multiple separate solutions • Initial productivity gains from shadow IT can diminish over time • Shadow IT solutions supported within the business functions − Uncosted unplanned peer support • Accumulating backlog of solutions that have to be brought into formal support and/or need to migrate shadow IT solution and its data to a supported platform June 8, 2021 48
  • 49. June 8, 2021 49 Automation, Shadow IT And Productivity • Short term productivity gains • Long-term productivity gap
  • 50. IT Architecture IT Architecture Failing Business Relationships 8 June 2021 50 IT Function Business IT Responds and Delivers Slowly Business Want Rapid Response to Need and Changes IT Does Not Understand or Invest in and Develop IT Architecture IT Architecture Does Not Provide Technology Leadership Business Does Not View IT Architecture As Provider of Technology Consulting Services IT Architecture Is Inwardly and Backwardly Focussed Rather Than Being Business Lead
  • 51. Breaking The Flow From Business Strategy To IT Solutions June 8, 2021 51 Business Objectives Business Operational Model Solution Portfolio Realisation And Delivery Solution Usage, Management , Support And Operations Business Strategy Business IT Strategy Solution Portfolio Design And Specification Business shadow IT expenditure External Suppliers and Service Providers External Suppliers and Service Providers Business-perceived or actual barriers to solution delivery by internal IT organisation Shadow IT solutions ultimately may be passed to the support function At least 40% of technology spending is diverted from IT Over 30% of CIOs routinely not consulted on IT solution acquisition and expenditure Them Us Them and Us Mentality
  • 52. Core Solution Business Processing Stages And Shadow IT For Application And Process Automation • Use of shadow IT solutions occurs routinely at multiple stages throughout the use of business systems, extending and enhancing their functionality or providing features not available or that area easier to use June 8, 2021 52 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 Step 9 Step 10 Step 11 Step 12 Extract Data and Analyse Outside Solution Extract and Exchange Data With Other Party Reporting Using Separate Solution Use Separate Tool To Perform Work Extract and Send Data Outside Party Manually Enter Output from External Solution Perform Additional Steps Using Separate Solution Reporting and Analysis Shadow IT Occurs Pervasively Throughout the Use of Core IT Solutions System 1 System 2 System 3 System 4
  • 53. Core Solution Business Processing Stages And Shadow IT For Application And Process Automation June 8, 2021 53 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 Step 9 Step 10 Step 11 Step 12 Extract Data and Analyse Outside Solution Extract and Exchange Data With Other Party Reporting Using Separate Solution Use Separate Tool To Perform Work Extract and Send Data Outside Party Manually Enter Output from External Solution Perform Additional Steps Using Separate Solution Reporting and Analysis • Shadow IT in the form of tactical automation is frequently needed to make up for gaps and shortfalls in core business solutions, supplementing incomplete solutions and providing omitted functionality • Linking business solutions together into a practical operational reality
  • 54. Shadow IT, Automation And Solution Architecture • The potential problem of automation-driven shadow IT gives IT architecture the opportunity show leadership • Develop model for IT as a solution and service broker − Service Oriented IT – SOIT • Enable a balance between the strategic needs of the IT function and the immediate and tactical solution requirements of the business • IT architecture can bridge the sometimes wide gap between the business and the IT function in providing leadership in the area of automation June 8, 2021 54
  • 55. 5. Deciding On The Scope Of Automation June 8, 2021 55
  • 56. Deciding On The Scope Of Automation June 8, 2021 56 What To Automate And How Automated? What Approach Do You Intend to Take? Decision Automation Data Automation Application Automation and Integration Process Automation Action Automation Low (Manual Intervention, Review, Supervision) High (Fully Automated and Autonomous) Complex, Advanced – High Levels of Automation, High Action Volumes, Many Automation Points Simple, Tactical – Low Levels of Automation, Low Action Volumes, Few Automation Points User Adoption, Use Risk Evaluate Solution Approach and Make Decision to Proceed Technology Risk Automation Failure/Error Risk Process Automation Risk Implementation Risk Autonomous Operation Risk Loss of Business Knowledge What Is the Desired Level of Automation? What Type of Automation Technology is Applicable? What Are the Risks of Automation?
  • 57. Review The Automation Technology Options And Approaches Automation Technologies And Approaches Enterprise Process and Automation Architecture Approaches Enterprise Decision Management (EDM) Business Motivation Model (BMM) Process Mining Data Integration Service Orientation API Management Solution Replacement Business Process Management (BPM) And Business Process Automation Solutions Business Process Management (BPM) Business Process Automation (BPA) BPI (Business Process Intelligence) Workflow Management (WFM) Process Description Approaches Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) Decision Model and Notation (DMN) Case Management Model and Notation (CMMN) Production Rule Representation (PRR) Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules (SBVR) RuleML Business Process Execution Approaches Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) XML Process Definition Language (XPDL) Rules Engines/Business Rules Management Tools And Systems (BRMS) BRMS Tools and Vendors Robotic Process Automation (RPA) Tools And Systems Digital Process Automation Tools and Vendors RPA Tools and Vendors Ad Hoc Automation Techniques and Technologies Screen Scraping Scripting Languages Optical Character Recognition and Intelligent Data Extraction Finite State Machines June 8, 2021 57
  • 58. Automation Solution And Technology Risks • All IT solutions have implementation and operation risks • There are specific risks related to automation solution that need to be considered, managed, addressed, mitigated or circumvented − User Adoption, Use Risk – the target users might reject the automation because of fears such as losing control or being replaced − Technology Risk – the high expectations of the selected automation technology may not be realised − Automation Failure/Error Risk – the automated solution may operate in error − Process Automation Risk – the underlying business process may be automated badly − Implementation Risk – the solution may be implemented badly or inefficiently − Autonomous Operation Risk – the autonomous operation of the process may lead to a lack of awareness and knowledge of automation operations and/or there could be excessive trust in the accuracy of the automation − Loss of Business Knowledge – automation might lead to a lack of knowledge of the underlying business rules, activities and decision-making rules June 8, 2021 58
  • 59. Automation Implementation Options • Ultimately long-term organisation-wide success and results will require a strategic top-down approach June 8, 2021 59 Option Advantages Disadvantages Bottom Up • See results quickly at low cost • Limited investment in tools • Gain knowledge and experience • Validate approach • Solutions implemented fragile and not efficient, scalable or robust • Not a basis for large-scale operations Top Down • Scalable, robust solutions • Reusable components • Takes a strategic and organisation- wide view of automation • Manage entire application development and deployment lifecycle • Manage processes in execution • Large investment before results obtained • Strategic approach may mean solution implementation loses flexibility and agility
  • 60. Success Measurement Framework – Three Es June 8, 2021 60 Success Efficacy Efficiency Effectiveness
  • 61. Success Measurement Framework • Efficacy − Are the automation solutions working? − Are they producing the correct outcomes? − Are they secure? − Are they reliable? − Metrics • Cost of automation project(s) and cost of operation of replaced processes vs cost of existing processes • Efficiency − Are the automation solutions operating with the minimum of resources? − Are the automation supportable and maintainable? − Metrics • Staff reduction • Productivity increase • Throughput increase • Effectiveness − Are the automation solutions contributing to longer-term objectives? − Metrics • Accuracy improvement • Cycle time reduction • Customer satisfaction • Number of automated controls • Assessment of risk reduction June 8, 2021 61
  • 62. 6. Digital Strategy, Digital Transformation And Automation June 8, 2021 62
  • 63. Digital Strategy, Digital Transformation And Automation • Digital transformation is concerned with moving the organisation from its current state to one that involves extending and exposing business processes outside the organisation along the dimensions of: − External Parties Participating in Digital Interaction/Collaboration – who of the many parties in your organisation landscape do you interact with digitally − Numbers and Types of Interactions/ Collaborations and Business Processes Included in Digital Strategy – which types of interactions and associated business processes do you digitally implement − Channels Included in Digital Strategy – what digital channels do you interact over June 8, 2021 63
  • 64. Solution Automation And Digital Transformation • The exposure of business processes outside the organisation to enable external interaction can give rise to the need for process automation • Inefficient processes that involve multiple business systems, multiple handoffs and manual activities are not suitable for external deployment June 8, 2021 64
  • 65. Digital Strategy And Business Processes June 8, 2021 65 Business Processes Within The Organisation Digital Means Extending and Exposing Business Processes Outside the Organisation – The Organisation Is being Opened-Up
  • 66. Digital Transformation And Enablement Is About … June 8, 2021 66 Moving the organisation from one that is internally focussed around its siloed structures: To one that is focussed on customer (external interacting party) straight-through interactions: Automation can accelerate this by enabling reuse of existing business systems in new ways
  • 67. Interactions Between Organisation Processes June 8, 2021 67 Core Processes Supporting Processes Management Processes Defines Strategy and Approach for Implementing and Operating Core Operational Processes Defines Strategy and Approach for Implementing and Operating Core Operational Processes External Interacting Parties and Experience Journeys What They Interact With
  • 68. Core Processes Interactions Between Organisation Processes June 8, 2021 68 Business Customer Retail Customer Public Service Provider Dealer Sub- Contractor Agent Regulator Supplier
  • 69. External Interactions And Internal Organisation Reality June 8, 2021 69 Apparent External Organisation Interactions – Sample Order To Case Process Internal Organisation Actual Reality
  • 70. Customer Experiences And External Interactions And Internal Organisation Reality June 8, 2021 70 Internal Organisation Users External users expect to experience seamless end-to-end interactions External users also interact with internal users Internal users frequently experience disconnected processes and systems/ solutions Automation Automation Can Be The Glue to Join External and Internal Processes
  • 71. Digital Creates User Expectations • Understand, manage, control and deliver on the expectations • Automation can assist with linking activities and tasks within the business process and may be a practical enabler of digital transformation June 8, 2021 71             • Interaction over digital channels reduces the expected and tolerated latency and the asynchronicity of communications between the organisation and external parties                                Response Time Expected and Tolerated Across Channels Channel
  • 72. Digital User Expectations June 8, 2021 72 First time problem resolution or response to request Support is available whenever it is needed All information is accurate and available online all the time Products and services can be ordered and their delivery tracked Access is available from anywhere at any time Proactive notifications Range of channels and functions affects decision to do business Demand multi-channel experience Simple, consistent, easy to use Provide advice and assistance Loyalty and rewards Immediate access and response
  • 73. 7. Specifying The Automation Solution June 8, 2021 73
  • 74. Specifying The Automation Solution • There are various approaches to specifying the automation solution including: − Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) - https://www.omg.org/spec/BPMN/2.0/ − Decision Model and Notation (DMN) - https://www.omg.org/spec/DMN/1.2/About-DMN/ − Case Management Model and Notation (CMMN) - https://www.omg.org/spec/CMMN/1.1/About-CMMN/ − Production Rule Representation (PRR) - https://www.omg.org/spec/PRR/About-PRR/ − Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules (SBVR) - https://www.omg.org/spec/SBVR/1.4/About-SBVR/ − RuleML - http://wiki.ruleml.org/index.php/RuleML_Home • These can be used to create an unambiguous understanding of the decision and how it can and will be automated • Combination of these techniques can be used: − BPMN to represent the process − DMN to represent the automated decision-making June 8, 2021 74
  • 75. Decision Model And Notation (DMN) • The aim of DMN is to provide a decision modelling representation language that can accurately describe the process by which decisions are made and that can understood by all stakeholders – business users, business analysts and solution designers and developers • DMN includes both the definition of decision requirements and the modelling of the logic of decision making June 8, 2021 75 Decision Modelling and Representation Business Process Business Rules and Decision Logic Describes the Co- ordination of Business Activities and Tasks Where Decisions Occur Describes the Detailed Logic and Rules Used To Make Decisions Describes Decision Models and Decision Requirements
  • 76. Business Processes And Decisions • Decisions are embedded in business processes • Business processes provide a context for decision-making • Automation focuses on the mechanisation of manual activities, including decisions • DMN is one of the many techniques available to describe how activities can be automated and to formally define automation work June 8, 2021 76 Decisions
  • 77. DMN Elements • Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) • Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD) • Decision Tables • Friendly Enough Expression Language (FEEL) − Simple Expression Language (S-FEEL) – subset of FEEL June 8, 2021 77
  • 78. Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) • This is a diagram that shows at a high level the requirements needed for a decision and their dependencies • The DRG is used to define and link the elements involved in making decisions: − Decision – takes inputs, applies decision logic derived from Business Knowledge Model(s) to create an output − Input Data Element – information used as input to Decision(s) − Business Knowledge Model – structure that formalises business knowledge in a format such as decision table, business rules or other − Knowledge Source – authority for Business Knowledge Model June 8, 2021 78
  • 79. A Decision involves determining an output from one or more inputs using decision logic and rules that may be derived from different sets of business knowledge. A Business Knowledge Model represents business knowledge in a form such as business rules, decision rules or executable logic Input Data represents information used in a Decision or a Business Knowledge Model A Knowledge Source is an authority for a Decision or a Business Knowledge Model Information Requirement represents input data to a Decision or the output from a Decision being used as an input to another Decision Knowledge Requirement represents the use of a Business Knowledge Model Authority Requirement represents a dependency of one design element on another element that is a source or knowledge, guidance or expertise DMN Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) And Decision Requirements Diagram (DRDs) Notation June 8, 2021 79 Decision Input Data Business Knowledge Model Knowledge Source Information Requirement Knowledge Requirement Authority Requirement
  • 80. DMN Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) And Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD) Elements • Shows the data inputs to decision processing June 8, 2021 80 Decision 1 Input Data A Input Data B Input Data C Decision 2 Input Data D Input Data E
  • 81. DMN Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) And Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD) Elements • Decisions may require business knowledge which in term may draw from knowledge sources June 8, 2021 81 Decision 1 Input Data A Compliance Business Knowledge Compliance Regulations Input Data B Compliance SOPs Compliance Legislation Compliance Special Interest Group
  • 82. DMN Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) And Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD) June 8, 2021 82 Decision 1 Input Data A Input Data B Input Data C Decision 2 Input Data D Input Data E Business Knowledge Knowledge Source Business Knowledge Knowledge Source Decision 1 Input Data A Input Data B Input Data C Business Knowledge Knowledge Source Decision 1 Decision 2 Input Data D Input Data E Business Knowledge Knowledge Source Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD) Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD)
  • 83. DMN Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) And Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD) • DRG is a view of the entire set of decisions while DRDs focus on individual decisions that take place in the context of the overall process June 8, 2021 83
  • 84. Decision Table • Decision tables are used to formally express decision logic • Contains all the inputs required to make a decision • Contains all combinations of input values • A decision can have many decision tables, the combined output of which are used to make the overall decision • Decision table elements: − Information item name – name of the Business Knowledge Model − One or more input clauses consisting of input expression and allowed values − One or more output clauses containing the allowed values − Output values − Descriptive information – rule number, description, reference June 8, 2021 84
  • 85. Decision Table June 8, 2021 85 Information Item Name: IF AND IF AND IF THEN Description Reference Rule Number Input Expression 1 Input Expression 2 Input Expression 3 Output Expression Allowed Values Allowed Values Allowed Values Allowed Values 1 Value 1.1 Value 1.2 Value 1.3 Output 1 Description 1 Reference 1 2 Value 2.1 Value 2.2 Value 2.3 Output 2 Description 2 Reference 2 3 Value 3.1 Value 3.2 Value 3.3 Output 3 Description 3 Reference 3 4 Value 4.1 Value 4.2 Value 4.3 Output 4 Description 4 Reference 4 5 Value 5.1 Value 5.2 Value 5.3 Output 5 Description 5 Reference 5 • Information Item Name – specifies what is being decided • Rule Number – specifies the sequence of rules and the order in which they are applied • Input Expression – specifies the variable who value is being assessed • Allowed Values – specifies the list of available values the Input Expression can take • Value – specifies the value of the Input Expression being looked for in the rule • Output Expression – specifies the variable who value is being set by the rule • Output – specifies the value being assigned to the Output Expression by the rule • Description and Reference – specifies optional descriptive information 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  • 86. Sample Decision Table Credit Card Financial Suitability IF AND IF AND IF AND IF AND IF THEN Rule Number Applicant Main Own Income Applicant Additional Own Income Applicant Monthly Outgoings Applicant Savings Applicant Assets Output Expression 1>=30000 ,<40000 >=0 ,<15,000 >=0 ,<1,000 >=0 ,<5,000 >=0 ,<25,000 Financially Suitable 2>=40000 ,<50000 >=15,000 ,<30,000 >=1,000 ,<2,000 >=5,000 ,<10,000 >=25,000 ,<50,000 Financially Suitable 3>=50000 ,<60000 >=30,000 ,<45,000 >=2,000 ,<3,000 >=10,000 ,<15,000 >=50,000 ,<75,000 Financially Suitable 4>=60000 ,<70000 >=45,000 ,<60,000 >=3,000 ,<4,000 >=15,000 ,<20,000 >=75,000 ,<100,000 Financially Suitable 5>=70000 ,<80000 >=60,000 ,<75,000 >=4,000 ,<5,000 >=20,000 ,<25,000 >=100,000 ,<125,000 Financially Suitable 6>=80000 ,<90000 >=75,000 ,<90,000 >=5,000 ,<6,000 >=25,000 ,<30,000 >=125,000 ,<150,000 Financially Suitable 7>=90000 ,<100000 >=90,000 ,<105,000 >=6,000 ,<7,000 >=30,000 ,<35,000 >=150,000 ,<175,000 Financially Suitable 8>=100000 >=105,000 ,<0,000 >=7,000 >=35,000 >=175,000 Financially Suitable 9>=30000 ,<40000 >=0 ,<15,000 >=3,000 ,<4,000 - - Financially Unsuitable … … … … … … … … … … … … … … June 8, 2021 86
  • 87. Sample Credit Card Decisions • There can be a network of decisions, each of which has a decision table • This breaks down the overall decision into a set of smaller decisions June 8, 2021 87 Credit Card Suitability Credit Score Financial Suitability Demographic Suitability Balance Transfer Eligibility Student Eligibility Card Type Credit Limit Over Credit Card Decision
  • 88. Friendly Enough Expression Language (FEEL) • Friendly Enough Expression Language (FEEL) can be used to define in an easily understand plain language format the information contained in a decision table June 8, 2021 88 information Item Name Context Name 1 Context_Name_1 Context Name 2 Context_Name_2 Context Name 3 Context_Name_3 Context Name 4 Context_Name_4 If Context_Name_1 = N OR Context_Name_2 = M AND Context_Name_3 > O THEN Result = YES ELSE Result + No
  • 89. Friendly Enough Expression Language (FEEL) • The approach can also be used to consolidate decision tables June 8, 2021 89 Information Item Name Applicant Existing Customer Applicant_Existing_Customer Applicant Main Own Income Applicant_Main_Own_Income Applicant Additional Own Income Applicant_Additional_Own_Inc ome Applicant Monthly Outgoings Applicant_Monthly_Outgoings Applicant Savings Applicant_Savings Applicant Assets Applicant__Assets Rule Applicant Existing Customer Applicant Main Own Income Applicant Additional Own Income Applicant Monthly Outgoings Applicant Savings Applicant Assets Credit Card Financial Suitability 1 Yes Income Value Range 1 Additional Own Income Range 1 Monthly Outgoings Range 1 Savings Range 1 Assets Value Range 1 Suitable 2 3 Monthly Outgoings Range 2 Savings Range 2 4 Assets Value Range 2 5 Savings Range 3 6 Additional Own Income Range 2 Monthly Outgoings Range 3 7 Savings Range 4 8 Monthly Outgoings Range 4 Assets Value Range 5 9 Savings Range 5 10 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …
  • 90. State Machines • State machines are a technique to model the behaviour of a system based on inputs that trigger state changes • Approach can be used to model and design processes and decision-making systems by identifying the states the system can be in, what inputs or events trigger state transitions and how the system behaves in each state • This can be a very useful technique to define rules • This approach allow all input, events, actions and states to be identified and defined rigorously • Provides a common language that allows all parties understand rules and processing • State machines can get very large with hundreds of states that are complex to represent graphically June 8, 2021 90 State State Event/Input Event/Input
  • 91. Finite State Machine (FSM) Characteristics • The system has a finite set of states • The system has a defined initial state • There is a finite set of events and/or inputs that trigger transitions between states • System behaviour at a given point in time depends upon the current state and the input or event that occurs at that point in time • The behaviour of the system in defined for each state and for each possible input or event in that state June 8, 2021 91
  • 92. FSM Example • Vending machine that can accept 20, 50 and 100 cent coins • Can dispense items valued at 150, 200 and 250 cents • Machine can accept the following inputs: − 20 cent coin − 50 cent coin − 100 cent coin − Unrecognised coin − Return Button to return coins − Dispense 150 cent item − Dispense 200 cent item − Dispense 250 cent item June 8, 2021 92
  • 93. FSM Example • The machine will only return 20, 50 and 100 coins if an excess amount has been entered after an item has been dispensed − 3 x 20 cent, 2 x 50 cent = 160 cent and 150 cent item selected – no money returned − 2 x 100 cent = 260 cent and 150 cent item selected – 50 cent returned • A maximum of 340 cents can be accumulated before any subsequent coins are rejected − Could have entered two 20 cent and four 50 cent coins = 240 and then one 100 cent coin − 240 cents is the largest amount that can be accumulated that is smaller than the most expensive item June 8, 2021 93
  • 94. FSM Example – State Transition Diagram • State transition diagrams can get very complex very quickly even as the number of states and events is quite small June 8, 2021 94 Start 20 20 Cent Coin Deposited 50 100 50 Cent Coin Deposited 100 Cent Coin Deposited 40 20 Cent Coin Deposited 70 120 50 Cent Coin Deposited 100 Cent Coin Deposited 20 Cent Coin Deposited 100 150 100 Cent Coin Deposited 20 Cent Coin Deposited 50 Cent Coin Deposited 50 Cent Coin Deposited 200 100 Cent Coin Deposited
  • 95. FSM Example – State Transition Table June 8, 2021 95 Input Return Dispense 150 Item Dispense 200 Item Dispense 250 Item 20 Cent Coin 50 Cent Coin 100 Cent Coin Unrecognised Coin State 0 0 0 0 0 20 50 100 Return Coin, 0 20 Return coins, 0 20 20 20 40 70 120 Return Coin, 20 40 Return coins, 0 40 40 40 60 90 140 Return Coin, 40 50 Return coins, 0 50 50 50 70 100 150 Return Coin, 50 60 Return coins, 0 60 60 60 80 110 160 Return Coin, 60 70 Return coins, 0 70 70 70 90 120 170 Return Coin, 70 80 Return coins, 0 80 80 80 100 130 180 Return Coin, 80 90 Return coins, 0 90 90 90 110 140 190 Return Coin, 90 100 Return coins, 0 100 100 100 120 150 200 Return Coin, 100 110 Return coins, 0 110 110 110 130 160 210 Return Coin, 110 120 Return coins, 0 120 120 120 140 170 220 Return Coin, 120 130 Return coins, 0 130 130 130 150 180 230 Return Coin, 130 140 Return coins, 0 140 140 140 160 190 240 Return Coin, 140 150 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, 0 150 150 170 200 250 Return Coin, 150 160 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, 0 160 160 180 210 260 Return Coin, 160 170 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20 cent, 0 170 170 190 220 270 Return Coin, 170 180 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20 cent, 0 180 180 200 230 280 Return Coin, 180 190 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20 cent, 0 190 190 210 240 290 Return Coin, 190 200 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, 0 200 220 250 300 Return Coin, 200 220 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20, 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20 cent, 0 220 240 270 320 Return Coin, 220 240 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20, 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20 cent, 0 240 260 290 340 Return Coin, 240 260 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 3 x 20, 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 3 x 20 cent, 0 Dispense Item, 0 260 260 260 Return Coin, 260 290 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20, 2 x 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20, 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20 cent, 0 290 290 290 Return Coin, 290 340 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 50 cent, Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20, 2 x 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20, 50 cent, 0 340 340 340 Return Coin, 340
  • 96. FSM Example – State Transition Table June 8, 2021 96 Input Return Dispense 150 Item Dispense 200 Item Dispense 250 Item 20 Cent Coin 50 Cent Coin 100 Cent Coin Unrecognised Coin State 0 0 0 0 0 20 50 100 Return Coin, 0 20 Return coins, 0 20 20 20 40 70 120 Return Coin, 20 40 Return coins, 0 40 40 40 60 90 140 Return Coin, 40 50 Return coins, 0 50 50 50 70 100 150 Return Coin, 50 60 Return coins, 0 60 60 60 80 110 160 Return Coin, 60 70 Return coins, 0 70 70 70 90 120 170 Return Coin, 70 80 Return coins, 0 80 80 80 100 130 180 Return Coin, 80 90 Return coins, 0 90 90 90 110 140 190 Return Coin, 90 100 Return coins, 0 100 100 100 120 150 200 Return Coin, 100 110 Return coins, 0 110 110 110 130 160 210 Return Coin, 110 120 Return coins, 0 120 120 120 140 170 220 Return Coin, 120 130 Return coins, 0 130 130 130 150 180 230 Return Coin, 130 140 Return coins, 0 140 140 140 160 190 240 Return Coin, 140 150 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, 0 150 150 170 200 250 Return Coin, 150 160 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, 0 160 160 180 210 260 Return Coin, 160 170 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20 cent, 0 170 170 190 220 270 Return Coin, 170 180 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20 cent, 0 180 180 200 230 280 Return Coin, 180 190 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20 cent, 0 190 190 210 240 290 Return Coin, 190 200 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, 0 200 220 250 300 Return Coin, 200 220 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20, 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20 cent, 0 220 240 270 320 Return Coin, 220 240 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20, 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20 cent, 0 240 260 290 340 Return Coin, 240 260 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 3 x 20, 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 3 x 20 cent, 0 Dispense Item, 0 260 260 260 Return Coin, 260 290 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20, 2 x 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20, 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20 cent, 0 290 290 290 Return Coin, 290 340 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 50 cent, Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20, 2 x 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20, 50 cent, 0 340 340 340 Return Coin, 340 Shows the New State Dispense 150 Cent Item But No Change Remains in 260 State and Coin Returned
  • 97. FSM Example – State Transition Table • This table shows the complete set of inputs for all states showing new states and actions taken • All inputs in all states, all actions and all state transitions can be defined and understood • Tabular format allows a large amount of information to be represented in a small space • Gaps can be identified • Allows rules to be implemented with precision, accuracy and reliability • FSMs are similar to Decision Tables in DMN June 8, 2021 97
  • 98. UML State Machine • State − Activity represent processing that can occur while the system is in a given state but that does not cause a transition from that state • State Transition has three elements: − Event – an occurrence that causes a state change − Guard – a logical condition that can governs if a transition can actually take place − Action – some processing that takes place in the act of moving from one state to another June 8, 2021 98 State Activity State Activity State Transition Event / Guard / Action
  • 99. Other State Representations • There are many other state machine representation types − Harel State Diagrams − Mealy Machine − Moore Machine • These are all useful rules representation techniques June 8, 2021 99
  • 100. Process Automation – Designing The Application • This can involve designing a meta application that controls one or more existing applications to automate, fully or partially, the interactions with those applications and thus enable the successful operation of the process June 8, 2021 100
  • 101. Designing The Meta Application June 8, 2021 101 Task 1 Task 3 Task 2 Decide Start Wait Task 4 Task 5 Task 7 Task 6 Decide Task 8 Task 8 Wait Task 9 Notify End
  • 102. Meta Process Is A Representation Of The Compressed/Collapsed Operational Process(es) • When unnecessary and replicated activities in the operational processes have been removed, you are left with necessary activities that must be incorporated into the meta-process June 8, 2021 102 Collapse Compress
  • 103. 9. Sample Business Process – Order To Cash June 8, 2021 103
  • 104. Sample Business Process – Order To Cash • Most organisation have some form of customer ordering process – from simple, single-item single-price purchase with shipping delivered by an online solution to complex multi- product purchases with recurring payments and servicing requirements • The apparently simple act of receiving and handling an order can trigger a large number of business processes that may be provided by a number of separate solutions and be operated by different business functions • Order to Cash process provides an example for process analysis and for process automation − Order to Cash process described here is just for illustration • Even when organisations have an ERP application that provides integrated Order To Cash process, there will still be functional and process elements outside this June 8, 2021 104
  • 105. Order To Cash Sub-Processes And Related Processes June 8, 2021 105 Marketing, Lead, Opportunity Management Sales Quotation Management Customer Loyalty Customer Relationship Management Product Management Customer Service Support Debt Collection Logistics and Order Fulfilment Distribution Workforce Management Invoicing, Billing, Credit and Hare Financial Management Warranty
  • 106. Process Automation To Link Order To Cash Sub- Processes June 8, 2021 106 Marketing, Lead, Opportunity Management Sales Quotation Management Customer Loyalty Customer Relationship Management Product Management Customer Service Support Debt Collection Logistics and Order Fulfilment Distribution Workforce Management Invoicing, Billing and Financial Management Warranty
  • 107. Process Automation To Link Order To Cash Processes • Where one or more of the sub-processes associated with the Order To Cash process are provided by separate systems and/or business functions, some form of automation may be useful to provide integration with no or limited manual activity • This may be a reflection of a pragmatic reality associated with having multiple legacy applications June 8, 2021 107
  • 108. Order To Cash Process Can Cross Organisational Functions June 8, 2021 108
  • 109. Order to Cash Process And Related Sub-Processes June 8, 2021 109 Buy Product/ Service Provide Quotation Collect and Validate Requirements Qualify Opportunity and Make Decision To Proceed Process Information and Create Quotation and Handle Internal Review and Approval, if Needed Create Solution and Approach to Delivery and Implementation Identify And Perform Cross- Sell/Up-Sell Activities Identify Resource Requirements Develop Cost and Schedule Estimates Identify and Cost Components Identify Third Party Elements and Costs Contact Third Party Agree Cost Apply Discounts Determine Customer Loyalty Discounts Determine Other Discounts Determine Overall Cost Determine Profitability and Review Costs Manage Internal Review and Approval Process Issue Quotation Follow-up on Quotation, Handle Feedback and Provide Clarification Sell Solution Manage Negotiations, Finalise Purchase Details Manage Sales Outcome Agree Delivery Process and Schedule Process Sales Order Handle Back Orders Handle and Fulfil Order Review Any Third- Party Involvement Schedule Third Party Involvement Determine Order Component Availability Determine Order Fulfillment Process and Schedule Schedule Product and Solution Creation/Assembly Confirm Creation/ Assembly Scope Schedule Creation/ Assembly Resources Perform Creation/ Assembly Validate Creation/ Assembly Complete Creation/ Assembly Plan and Schedule Logistics Verify Delivery Contents Plan, Transport and Deliver Solution Product Components Pack Products Collect Products Track Delivery Handle Delivery Issues Handle Delivery Data and Documentation Plan and Schedule Service Delivery Review and Confirm Service Delivery Scope Confirm Delivery Approach, Roles, Responsibilities, Resources and Pre- Requisites Confirm Scope with Customer Schedule Resources Schedule Third Party Involvement Perform Site/Environment Survey and Ensure Readiness and Suitability Decide on nd Create Service Delivery Plan Confirm Schedule with Customer Initiate Service Delivery Deploy Solution Including Services and Product Validate Service Confirm Service with Customer and Get Signoff Complete Service Delivery Conduct Service Delivery/Project Review and Assess Success Archive Service Delivery Data and Documentation Process Returns Receive and Handle Return Request Authorise Return Process Return Schedule Return Logistics Validate Return Close and Document Return Handle Customer Queries and Service Request Receive Customer Query Problem and Service Request Analyse Customer Query Problem and Service Request Resolve Customer Query Problem and Service Request Respond Customer Query Problem and Service Request Close and Document Customer Query Problem and Service Request Handle Customer Complaints Receive Customer Complaint Route Customer Complaint Resolve/Escalate Customer Complaint Respond to Customer Complaint Close and Document Customer Complaint Billing Setup Customer Billing Setup Payment Schedule Setup Once-off Billing Setup Recurring Billing Setup Direct Debit/Credit Card Payments Bill Invoicing Generate Invoices Transmit Invoices Schedule Payment Processing Bill Payments and Receivables Management Receive Payments/ Deposits/ Transfer Handle and Reconcile Payments Manage Failed and Overdue Payments Bill Inquiry Handling Receive Customer Bill Inquiry Assess Customer Bill Inquiry Authorise Customer Bill Invoice Adjustment Track and Manage Customer Bill Inquiry Resolution Analyse Detailed Bill Inquiry Determine Appropriate Bill Adjustment Record Customer Bill Invoice Adjustment Issue Adjusted Bill Report Customer Bill Inquiry Close and Document Customer Bill Inquiry Handle Warranty Claims Receive Warranty Claim Collect Warranty Claim Details Validate and Respond to Warranty Claim Investigate and Define Warranty Issue Schedule Service Activity Analyse Defect and Determine Cause Determine Corrective Action Determine Responsible Party and Manage Recovery Approve or Reject Warranty Claim Perform Corrective Action Close and Document Customer Warranty Claim Service Receive/ Schedule Service Request/ Requirement Confirm Service Requirements Schedule Service and Resource Requirements Generate Service Order Perform Service Close and Document Service Activity
  • 110. Order to Cash High Level Partial Process View June 8, 2021 110
  • 111. Order to Cash High Level Process Partial View • This is a partial view of the sub-processes in the overall sample OTC process showing the interactions between different participants • A process view allows the context of specific automations to be shown • One of the objectives of introducing automation into the process is to optimise it: − Collapse – reduce the number of participants, handoffs between participants and replicated activities − Compress – reduce the number of steps in the process − Automate – eliminate manual involvement in process steps to accelerate processing and reduce or eliminate queueing of work June 8, 2021 111 Collapse Compress
  • 112. Multiple Decisions Across Extended Order To Cash Process June 8, 2021 112 Buy Product/ Service Provide Quotation Collect and Validate Requirements Qualify Opportunity and Make Decision To Proceed Process Information and Create Quotation and Handle Internal Review and Approval, if Needed Create Solution and Approach to Delivery and Implementation Identify And Perform Cross- Sell/Up-Sell Activities Identify Resource Requirements Develop Cost and Schedule Estimates Identify and Cost Components Identify Third Party Elements and Costs Contact Third Party Agree Cost Apply Discounts Determine Customer Loyalty Discounts Determine Other Discounts Determine Overall Cost Determine Profitability and Review Costs Manage Internal Review and Approval Process Issue Quotation Follow-up on Quotation, Handle Feedback and Provide Clarification Sell Solution Manage Negotiations, Finalise Purchase Details Manage Sales Outcome Agree Delivery Process and Schedule Process Sales Order Handle Back Orders Handle and Fulfil Order Review Any Third- Party Involvement Schedule Third Party Involvement Determine Order Component Availability Determine Order Fulfillment Process and Schedule Schedule Product and Solution Creation/Assembly Confirm Creation/ Assembly Scope Schedule Creation/ Assembly Resources Perform Creation/ Assembly Validate Creation/ Assembly Complete Creation/ Assembly Plan and Schedule Logistics Verify Delivery Contents Plan, Transport and Deliver Solution Product Components Pack Products Collect Products Track Delivery Handle Delivery Issues Handle Delivery Data and Documentation Plan and Schedule Service Delivery Review and Confirm Service Delivery Scope Confirm Delivery Approach, Roles, Responsibilities, Resources and Pre- Requisites Confirm Scope with Customer Schedule Resources Schedule Third Party Involvement Perform Site/Environment Survey and Ensure Readiness and Suitability Decide on and Create Service Delivery Plan Confirm Schedule with Customer Initiate Service Delivery Deploy Solution Including Services and Product Validate Service Confirm Service with Customer and Get Signoff Complete Service Delivery Conduct Service Delivery/Project Review and Assess Success Archive Service Delivery Data and Documentation Process Returns Receive and Handle Return Request Authorise Return Process Return Schedule Return Logistics Validate Return Close and Document Return Handle Customer Queries and Service Request Receive Customer Query Problem and Service Request Analyse Customer Query Problem and Service Request Resolve Customer Query Problem and Service Request Respond Customer Query Problem and Service Request Close and Document Customer Query Problem and Service Request Handle Customer Complaints Receive Customer Complaint Route Customer Complaint Resolve/Escalate Customer Complaint Respond to Customer Complaint Close and Document Customer Complaint Billing Setup Customer Billing Setup Payment Schedule Setup Once-off Billing Setup Recurring Billing Setup Direct Debit/Credit Card Payments Bill Invoicing Generate Invoices Transmit Invoices Schedule Payment Processing Bill Payments and Receivables Management Receive Payments/ Deposits/ Transfer Handle and Reconcile Payments Manage Failed and Overdue Payments Bill Inquiry Handling Receive Customer Bill Inquiry Assess Customer Bill Inquiry Authorise Customer Bill Invoice Adjustment Track and Manage Customer Bill Inquiry Resolution Analyse Detailed Bill Inquiry Determine Appropriate Bill Adjustment Record Customer Bill Invoice Adjustment Issue Adjusted Bill Report Customer Bill Inquiry Close and Document Customer Bill Inquiry Handle Warranty Claims Receive Warranty Claim Collect Warranty Claim Details Validate and Respond to Warranty Claim Investigate and Define Warranty Issue Schedule Service Activity Analyse Defect and Determine Cause Determine Corrective Action Determine Responsible Party and Manage Recovery Approve or Reject Warranty Claim Perform Corrective Action Close and Document Customer Warranty Claim Service Receive/ Schedule Service Request/ Requirement Confirm Service Requirements Schedule Service and Resource Requirements Generate Service Order Perform Service Close and Document Service Activity
  • 113. Decisions Within Sample Partial Process View June 8, 2021 113
  • 114. Multiple Decisions Across Extended Order To Cash Process • The extended Order To Cash processes contains many decisions that can have the potential to be automated including: − Provide Quotation − Qualify Opportunity and Make Decision To Proceed − Identify And Perform Cross-Sell/Up-Sell Activities − Develop Cost and Schedule Estimates − Apply Discounts − Decide on and Create Service Delivery Plan − Authorise Return − Resolve/Escalate Customer Complaint − Authorise Customer Bill Invoice Adjustment − Determine Appropriate Bill Adjustment − Determine Corrective Action − Confirm Service Requirements June 8, 2021 114
  • 115. Sample Decision – Identify And Perform Cross- Sell/Up-Sell Activities June 8, 2021 115 Create Up- sell/Cross-sell Offers Specific Customer Order History Customer Offers Identification Model Discounting Policies Specific Customer Payment History Specific Customer Loyalty Information General Customer Order Information Stock Information Current Discounted Product Information Related Product Information General Offers Identification Model Customer Information Excess Stock Policies
  • 116. Sample Decision – Identify And Perform Cross- Sell/Up-Sell Activities • This sample Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) contains the following elements − Input Data • Specific Customer Order History – the customer’s order history will provide details on wat they have previously bought and so what they may or may not be likely to buy in addition to the specific order contents • Specific Customer Payment History – the customer’s payment history will indicate the value of previous orders and likely maximum value of an order that will be likely to be accepted • General Customer Order Information – orders placed by other customers that are similar but include additional products will be an indicator of what additional products might be bought • Specific Customer Loyalty Information – this consists of the customer’s membership or and participation in any loyalty scheme and any additional rewards that might apply to additional purchases or use of accumulated rewards for additional purchases • Stock Information – additional purchase suggestions may be driven by excess stock in related products • Current Discounted Product Information – additional purchase suggestions may be driven by discounts available on products • Related Product Information – the product database may contain information on product relationships − Business Knowledge Model • General Offers Identification Model – this identifies generalised related products based on all past customer behaviours and policies on discounts and handling of excess stock • Customer Offers Identification Model – this identifies specific related products based on information about the specific customer − Knowledge Source • Discounting Policies – this contains details on how discounts should be calculated and applied • Excess Stock Policies – this contains details on how excess stock should be handled − Decision • Create Up-sell/Cross-sell Offers – this generates a set of recommended additional products that are presented to the customer June 8, 2021 116
  • 117. 8. Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) June 8, 2021 117
  • 118. June 8, 2021 118 BPMN As A Common Process Description And Specification Language • Two layers of complexity for business process design − Core set of BPMN process representation diagram elements − Extended set of BPMN process representation diagram elements • What BPMN is not: − Organisation structure design language − Data model and data flow design language – does contain some data modelling elements − System functional flow design language • BPMN diagrams can be complex − BPMN V2.0 (latest version) has a lot of elements − Keep it simple and easy to understand − Add appropriate complexity through refinement and drill-down − Focus on getting the process description right − Complexity and rigour of BPMN is related to the ability to create Business Process Execution Language (BPEL - BPEL4WS) – you probably do not intend to use this feature
  • 119. June 8, 2021 119 Types Of Process • Standard Process (Orchestration Process) defines the flow of activities between participants • Choreography - exchange of information (Messages) between participants
  • 120. June 8, 2021 120 BPMN Language Structure BPMN Flow Objects Connectors Artifacts Swimlanes Activities Events Gateways Sequence Flows Message Flows Associations Text Annotation Group Pool Lane Data Data Objects Data Inputs Data Outputs Data Stores Data Associations
  • 121. June 8, 2021 121 Swimlanes And Pools • Swim lanes are a visual means for organising and categorising process activities • Used to demonstrate hand-offs between functions/roles/business units • Show process sequence • Show cross-functional process flow − Pool – represents major participants in a process with separate pools for different organisations or major business units − Lane – contained within pools • Organise and categorise process activities within a pool according to function or role − All other BPMN diagram elements are placed within swimlanes and pools
  • 122. June 8, 2021 122 Swimlanes And Pools • Good at showing who does what, when and in response to what • Adds a dimension not available in standard flow-charting • Shows responsibilities • Allows identification and elimination of duplicate tasks
  • 123. June 8, 2021 123 Flow Objects Flow Objects Activities Events Gateways Task Sub-Process Transaction Start End Intermediate Exclusive Inclusive Parallel Complex
  • 124. June 8, 2021 124 Flow Objects • Define the flow of the process − Activities - work performed within a business process • Task – unit of work • Sub-Process – a set of self-contained activities collapsed within process representation for ease of understanding • Transaction – a sub-process that must be completed or undone if not completed − Events - something that happens • Start – acts as a trigger for a process/sub-process and takes an input only • End – represents the result of a process/sub-process and generates an output only • Intermediate - represents something that happens between the start and end events − Gateways - determine splitting and merging of paths within process depending on the conditions • Exclusive – where the sequence slow can take only one of two or more alternative paths • Inclusive – where the sequence slow can take one, more than one or all of two or more alternative paths and results from paths must be subsequently merged • Parallel – multiple parallel paths are defined • Complex – complex behaviours can be defined
  • 125. June 8, 2021 125 Flow Objects – Graphics Task Sub-Process Transaction Start End Intermediate Exclusive Inclusive Parallel Complex
  • 126. June 8, 2021 126 Activities – Detailed Specification • Classified by − Task Type • Service – automated application • Send – send a message to an external participant • Receive – wait for a Message to arrive from an external Participant • User – human performs the task with the assistance of an application and scheduled through a task manager • Script – executed by a business process engine • Manual – not managed by any business process engine. • Business Rule – provide input to a Business Rules Engine and get the output of calculations − Process or Sub-Process • Embedded – sub-process embedded within a process • Event – triggered by an event • Called – pre-defined process that can be called − Looping • Simple • Multiple in Parallel • Multiple in Sequence − Calling – External Sub-Process − Transaction Backout (“Compensation”)
  • 127. June 8, 2021 127 Activities Looping Symbol Task Border Shows if Called/Sub- Process Top Left Symbol Identifies Task Type Rewind Symbol Used to Indicate Transaction Backout (“Compensation”)
  • 128. June 8, 2021 128 Activities – Graphics For Combinations Of Task Type And Loop Type No Loop Simple Loop Multiple in Parallel Multiple in Sequence Simple/Not Specified Service Send Receive User Script Manual Business Rule
  • 129. June 8, 2021 129 Activities – Graphics For Sub-Processes Embedded Sub- Process Embedded Transaction Sub- Process Embedded Sub- Process Triggered by Event Embedded Called Sub-Process No Event Specified Message Error Escalation Compensation (Backout of Transaction) Conditional Signal Multiple
  • 130. June 8, 2021 130 Events • Simple − Start − Intermediate − End • Triggered − Start − Intermediate • Inward Direction “Catching” • Outward Direction “Throwing” − End • Triggers (Not All Apply to All Events) − Message − Timer − Conditional − Signal − Multiple − Multiple in Parallel − Error − Escalation − Compensation (Backout of Transaction) − Link − Cancel − Terminate
  • 131. June 8, 2021 131 Events Single Light Border Indicates Start Event Double Light Border and Hollow Symbol Indicates Intermediate Inwardly Directed Event Single Dark Border Indicates End Event Symbol Indicates Trigger Type Double Light Border and Filled Symbol Indicates Intermediate Outwardly Directed Event
  • 132. June 8, 2021 132 Events – Graphics For Combinations Of Type, Direction And Trigger Start Intermediate (Inward Direction “Catching”) Intermediate (Outward Direction “Throwing”) End No Trigger Message Timer Conditional Signal Multiple Multiple in Parallel Error Escalation Compensation (Backout of Transaction) Link Cancel Terminate
  • 133. June 8, 2021 133 Gateways • Control the execution of the process • Do not represent work being done • Gateways represent decisions/branching (exclusive, inclusive, and complex), merging, forking and joining • Parallel gateways synchronise/combine and create parallel flows • Event-based gateways represents a branching point in the process where the alternative paths that follow the gateway are based on events that occur
  • 134. June 8, 2021 134 Gateways – Graphics For Types Inclusive (AND) Exclusive (OR) or Complex Parallel Exclusive Event Start Exclusive Event Start Parallel Event
  • 135. June 8, 2021 135 Sample Parallel Gateway
  • 136. June 8, 2021 136 Artifacts • Used to add information into the process model/diagram • Make the process model/diagram more readable − Data Object – shows which data is required by or produced in an activity − Group – used to group different activities to highlight sections − Annotation – adds text to a diagram
  • 137. June 8, 2021 137 Artifacts Grouping of Process Elements Annotation Comment
  • 138. June 8, 2021 138 Data • One requirement of process design/modelling is to be able to model the items (physical or information items) that are created, manipulated, and used during the execution of a process − Data inputs − Data outputs − Data stores – persistent − Collections – set of data, input or outputs
  • 139. June 8, 2021 139 Data Data Data Collection Data Input Data Collection Input Data Output Data Collection Output Data Store
  • 140. June 8, 2021 140 Extended BPMN Attributes • BPMN diagram elements have many extended attributes that are not part of the core process definition • These are used when creating a process repository • Used when exporting BPMN process to XML • Activity attributes − isForCompensation − loopCharacteristics − Resources − SequenceFlow − InputOutputSpecification − Properties − BoundaryEventRefs − DataInputAssociations − DataOutputAssociations − StartQuantity − CompletionQuantity − …
  • 141. June 8, 2021 141 BPMN Usage Options Consistent Approach to Business Process Analysis and Description Complete Automated Business Process Management Implementation Time, Cost, Resource Requirements, Complexity, Difficulty, Risks Low High Basic BPMN Process Diagramming Allows You to Start Here BPMN Can Grow to Enable This
  • 142. 10. Process Automation Architecture June 8, 2021 142
  • 143. (Robotic) Process Automation • RPA is concerned with (partially or completely) automating processes • Involves outcome and decision automation • The process is the glue that links the decision-making activities together • Automation needs to focus on processes and their decisions and how to make them consistent, repeatable and autonomous and be able to be performed in (near) real time • Existing applications implement or are used in (operational) processes • RPA is concerned with abstracting the details of these operational processes into partially or fully automated meta- processes June 8, 2021 143
  • 144. Goals Of Process Automation • Allow existing set of applications be interacted with and controlled • Map complexity to existing applications to simplicity of requesting applications • Single platform for all automation initiatives • Provide an interface to allow interactions be initiated and results obtained • Automate (some of) the interactions with the controlling applications June 8, 2021 144 Process Automation Existing Applications Requesting Applications
  • 145. Why Process Automation? − Process Automation can just be a decorative skin hiding the ugliness of what lies below − Process Automation just masks inefficiencies of existing applications/organisation structures/processes − Process Automation just makes a bad situation less bad • All true but the cost of application and organisation transformation and time to achieve it may be too great and too long − Organisation needs a solution now − Tactical vs. Strategic balance required • Process Automation enables quick deployment of efficient, (semi) automated solutions while longer-term transformational changes are effected • There is always a risk that these long-term changes never happen − Interim solution frequently endure long after their intended expiry June 8, 2021 145
  • 146. June 8, 2021 146 Key Business Drivers For Process Automation • Save money – do things better with optimised processes − Build better new processes faster − Know what you are doing (right or wrong) through current process understanding − Get control of parallel processes by consolidating to core processes − Eliminate non-value added work through automation of manual processes − Business process outsourcing • Implement large systems better • Stay ahead of compliance and regulation • Process Automation is an opportunity to create value through savings and improvements
  • 147. Why Implement Process Automation? • Reduce manuals errors, improve quality, accuracy and ensure consistency − Automation creates a repeatable process that encapsulates best practices − Avoids manual errors that cause problems and require resolution and rework − Reduced cycle times • Reduce manual effort − Processes operate automatically without the need for manual effort − Increase productivity − Increase throughput • Always available − Process is always ready for work − Respond more quickly − Greater scalability • Collect information − Automated solution captures process information for reporting, analysis and process improvement − Information gives the opportunity for process insight − Greater visibility and control − Reduce risk June 8, 2021 147
  • 148. Characteristics And Requirements Of Process Automation • A workflow-oriented approach to process and decision automation • A repeatable work process involving people and systems with defined and documented activities − Repeatable and repeated consistency • Joins multiple isolated and disconnected applications • Handle and insulate complexity − Systems and process knowledge dispersed throughout the organisation − Not always documented − Documentation not always up-to-date • Processes cross functions and teams − Automation captures this cross-functional knowledge June 8, 2021 148
  • 149. Processes And Applications • Process uses application(s) and applications embody processes defined within their processing logic and sequence • Operational processes may be contained entirely within/be implemented by an application or they may exist outside the application June 8, 2021 149 Application Process Application Process Application Process
  • 150. Application Automation Interface Options June 8, 2021 150 Application Databases Applications Application Presentation Pages/Screens Process And Decision Automation, Request Management Application Interface Layer 1 2 4 5 3 Requests and Responses
  • 151. Application Automation Interface And Control Options 1. Interface with existing applications through its presentation layer, simulating keystrokes and screen navigation 2. Avail of APIs/service interfaces provided by applications 3. Use existing service integration/API management layer (SOA/Service Bus or similar) 4. Use scripts to control calling and sequencing of applications 5. Directly update underlying application database • Process Automation implementations will mix available interface and control options as appropriate • Process Automation environment provides facilities to enable the use of all available interface options June 8, 2021 151
  • 152. Automation Scenarios/Use Cases • Front-end Application to Back-end Application(s) – consolidate interactions with back-end application(s) providing partial automation • Application to Application Automation – automate interactions between applications • Automate Manual Activity – automate set of tasks performed outside application • Data Transfer and Transformation – move data from source to target • Data Extraction/Scraping – screen-scraping data from application, navigating front-end • API Wrapper – build API or service layer to existing application • Build Meta Application – create an application that controls other applications June 8, 2021 152
  • 153. Front-end Application To Back-end Application(s) • Allow front-end application interact with back-end application in a semi-automated way June 8, 2021 153
  • 154. Application To Application Automation • Automate interactions between two application June 8, 2021 154
  • 155. Automate Manual Activity • Build application that automates manual activities performed outside existing application June 8, 2021 155
  • 156. Data Transfer And Transformation • Automate movement of data from a source to a target, performing any required data transformation June 8, 2021 156 Data Source Data Target
  • 157. Data Extraction/Scraping • Automate the extraction of data from the user interface of any application June 8, 2021 157
  • 158. Automation Scenarios – API/Service Wrapper • Automation layer exposes APIs or services that provide for integration with source application(s) June 8, 2021 158 c
  • 159. Build Meta Application • Build a meta-application that consolidates interactions with a back-end application June 8, 2021 159
  • 160. Application Interface Sources And Targets • Automation may involve a single application being controlled or it may involve a source controlled and target controlling application June 8, 2021 160 Automation Source Application Target Application
  • 161. Application Interface Sources And Targets June 8, 2021 161 June 8, 2021 Application Databases Applications Application Presentation Pages/Screens Application Interface Layer 1 2 4 5 3 Application Presentation Pages/Screens 1 4 3 Application Interface Layer Application Databases Process And Decision Automation, Request Management 2 Applications
  • 162. Application Interface Sources And Targets • Every automation/integration may have two halves – source and target • Source application is being controlled/automated • Target can drive automation or have results of automation pushed • Integration and automation layer sits between sources and targets managing integrations and the applications of rules June 8, 2021 162
  • 163. Application Interface Options • Not all interface options will be available for all applications being connected to and interacted with June 8, 2021 163
  • 164. Automation Dashboard/ Analytics/ Reporting June 8, 2021 164 Automation Design, Development, Deployment Management, Governance, Implementation, Execution And Operational Framework – Idealised High Level Capabilities Automation Execution Library Operational Automation Usage and Audit Data Operational Automation Scheduler, Rules Engine | Automation Design, Development and Testing Automation Templates Automation Publication/ Deployment and Version Control Internal Source/Target Interacting Applications Automation Component Library Deployed Automation Execution Automation Alerting/ Event Management Administration Interface Internal Interaction Layer External Access Layer Application Interaction Analysis and Scripting External Source/ Target Interacting Applications External to Internal Translation Access Gateway Security Access and Management 1 2 3 4 6 5 7 8 10 9 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 14
  • 165. Automation Design, Development, Deployment Management, Governance, Implementation, Execution And Operational Framework – Idealised High Level Capabilities • Describes an architecture for an automation development, deployment, execution and management solution • Set of components and facilities required to implement and operate organisation-wide scalable automation applications • Can be used to assess the capabilities of automation applications and to design an overall automation architecture June 8, 2021 165
  • 166. Automation Design, Development, Deployment Management, Governance, Implementation, Execution And Operational Framework – Idealised High Level Capabilities 1. Automation Design, Development and Testing – an environment that allows meta-processes/automation applications be developed and tested 2. Automation Templates – provides a set of automation and integration templates 3. Automation Component Library – library of automation components that can be assembled into a developed automation 4. Application Interaction Analysis and Scripting – provides facilities to analyse the operation of applications in order to develop automation scripts 5. Security Access and Management – provides support for source and target authorisation and authentication and integration with their security layers 6. Automation Publication/ Deployment and Version Control – a facility for deploying or publishing developed automations to an operational execution environment 7. Automation Execution Library – the library of deployed automations 8. Operational Automation – an automation deployed in production and available for automation 9. Scheduler, Rules Engine – manages the definition and operation automation schedules and the actioning of automation based on triggering events 10. Internal Interaction Layer – manages interactions with internal applications being automated or controlled 11. External Access Layer – manages interactions with external applications being automated or controlled 12. External to Internal Translation - translates external requests to internal addresses to provide an additional level of security 13. Access Gateway – provides communications channels to external application sources and targets 14. External Source/ Target Interacting Applications – the set of external applications being controlled or connected with or that are interacting with the automations/meta-processes 15. Internal Source/ Target Interacting Applications – the set of internal applications being controlled or connected with or that are interacting with the automations/meta-processes Administration Interface 16. Administration Interface – facility to manage the operational and executing automation environment 17. Operational Automation Usage Data – the set of automation execution data collected on executed automations 18. Automation Alerting/ Event Management – facility to generate alerts and handle events from executing automations 19. Automation Dashboard/ Analytics/ Reporting – facility to present, report on and analyse automation performance and usage data June 8, 2021 166
  • 167. Summary • Automation is a technology trend IT architects should be aware of and know how to respond to business requests as well as recommend automation technologies and solutions where appropriate • Automation is a bigger topic than just RPA • Change to digital operations means that internal processes are exposed – the potentially inefficient and manual processes must be made efficient and external interactions must be masked from the internal complexity • Moving the organisation from one that is internally focussed around its siloed structures to one that is focussed on customer (external interacting party) straight-through interactions • Automating existing processes requires a structured approach to process analysis • A structured approach to designing new optimised processes is important to successful RPA implementation June 8, 2021 167