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Solution Architecture And (Robotic) Process Automation Solutions

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Automation is a technology trend IT architects should be aware of and know how to respond to business requests as well as recommend automation technologies and solutions where appropriate. Automation is a bigger topic than just RPA (Robotic Process Automation).

Automation solutions, like all other technology solutions, should be subject to an architecture and design process. There are many approaches to and options for the automation of business activities. Too often automation solutions are tactical applications layered over existing business systems
The objective of all IT solutions is to automate manual business processes and their activities to a certain extent. The requirement for RPA-type applications arises in part because of automation failures within existing applications or the need to automate the interactions with or integrations between separate, possibly legacy, applications.

One of the roles of IT architecture is to always seek to take the wider architectural view and to ensure that solutions are designed and delivered within a strategic framework to avoid, as much as is practical and realistic, short-term tactical solutions and approaches that lead to an accumulation of design, operations and support debt. Tactical solutions will always play a part in the organisation’s solution landscape.

The objective of these notes is to put automation into its wider and larger IT architecture context while accepting the need for tactical approaches in some instances.

These notes cover the following topics:

• Solution And Process Automation – The Wider Technology And Approach Landscape
• Business Processes, Business Solutions And Automation
• Organisation Process Model
• Strategic And Tactical Automation
• Deciding On The Scope Of Automation
• Digital Strategy, Digital Transformation And Automation
• Specifying The Automation Solution
• Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN)
• Sample Business Process – Order To Cash
• RPA (Robotic Process Automation)

Automation is a technology trend IT architects should be aware of and know how to respond to business requests as well as recommend automation technologies and solutions where appropriate. Automation is a bigger topic than just RPA (Robotic Process Automation).

Automation solutions, like all other technology solutions, should be subject to an architecture and design process. There are many approaches to and options for the automation of business activities. Too often automation solutions are tactical applications layered over existing business systems
The objective of all IT solutions is to automate manual business processes and their activities to a certain extent. The requirement for RPA-type applications arises in part because of automation failures within existing applications or the need to automate the interactions with or integrations between separate, possibly legacy, applications.

One of the roles of IT architecture is to always seek to take the wider architectural view and to ensure that solutions are designed and delivered within a strategic framework to avoid, as much as is practical and realistic, short-term tactical solutions and approaches that lead to an accumulation of design, operations and support debt. Tactical solutions will always play a part in the organisation’s solution landscape.

The objective of these notes is to put automation into its wider and larger IT architecture context while accepting the need for tactical approaches in some instances.

These notes cover the following topics:

• Solution And Process Automation – The Wider Technology And Approach Landscape
• Business Processes, Business Solutions And Automation
• Organisation Process Model
• Strategic And Tactical Automation
• Deciding On The Scope Of Automation
• Digital Strategy, Digital Transformation And Automation
• Specifying The Automation Solution
• Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN)
• Sample Business Process – Order To Cash
• RPA (Robotic Process Automation)

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Solution Architecture And (Robotic) Process Automation Solutions

  1. 1. Solution Architecture And (Robotic) Process Automation Solutions Alan McSweeney http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney https://www.amazon.com/dp/1797567616
  2. 2. Solution Architecture And RPA (Robotic Process Automation) Solutions • Automation solutions, like all other technology solutions, should be subject to an architecture and design process • There are many approaches to and options for the automation of business activities • Too often automation solutions are tactical applications layered over existing business systems • The objective of all IT solutions is to automate manual business processes and their activities to a certain extent • The requirement for RPA-type applications arises in part because of automation failures within existing applications or the need to automate the interactions with or integrations between separate, possibly legacy, applications June 8, 2021 2
  3. 3. Solution Automation – The Wider Context • One of the roles of IT architecture is to always seek to take the wider architectural view • Ensure that solutions are designed and delivered within a strategic framework to avoid, as much as is practical and realistic, short-term tactical solutions and approaches that lead to an accumulation of design, operations and support debt − Tactical solutions will always play a part in the organisation’s solution landscape • Confirm that any process automation initiative happens within a sustainable long-term approach that maximises value delivered • The objective of these notes is to put automation into its wider and larger IT architecture context while accepting the need for tactical approaches in some instances June 8, 2021 3
  4. 4. Topics 1. Solution And Process Automation – The Wider Technology And Approach Landscape 2. Business Processes, Business Solutions And Automation 3. Organisation Process Model 4. Strategic And Tactical Automation 5. Deciding On The Scope Of Automation 6. Digital Strategy, Digital Transformation And Automation 7. Specifying The Automation Solution 8. Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) 9. Sample Business Process – Order To Cash 10. RPA (Robotic Process Automation) June 8, 2021 4
  5. 5. 1. Solution And Process Automation – The Wider Technology And Approach Landscape June 8, 2021 5
  6. 6. Solution And Process Automation – The Wider Technology And Approach Landscape Automation Technologies And Approaches Enterprise Process and Automation Architecture Approaches Enterprise Decision Management (EDM) Business Motivation Model (BMM) Process Mining Data Integration Service Orientation API Management Solution Replacement Business Process Management (BPM) And Business Process Automation Solutions Business Process Management (BPM) Business Process Automation (BPA) BPI (Business Process Intelligence) Workflow Management (WFM) Process Description Approaches Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) Decision Model and Notation (DMN) Case Management Model and Notation (CMMN) Production Rule Representation (PRR) Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules (SBVR) RuleML Business Process Execution Approaches Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) XML Process Definition Language (XPDL) Rules Engines/Business Rules Management Tools And Systems (BRMS) BRMS Tools and Vendors Robotic Process Automation (RPA) Tools And Systems Digital Process Automation Tools and Vendors RPA Tools and Vendors Ad Hoc Automation Techniques and Technologies Screen Scraping Scripting Languages Optical Character Recognition and Intelligent Data Extraction Finite State Machines June 8, 2021 6
  7. 7. Solution And Process Automation – The Wider Technology And Approach Landscape • Enterprise Process and Automation Architecture Approaches – process and automation techniques and approaches from a top-down, strategic, standardised, organisation-wide enterprise architecture viewpoint • Business Process Management (BPM) And Business Process Automation Solutions – automation approaches and techniques and toolsets from the existing technology and process design and management area of BPM • Process Description Approaches – methodologies, standard, tools and approaches to analysing, designing and specifying processes and their rules • Business Process Execution Approaches – tools and approaches that take formally design business processes and provide platforms that allow them to be executed • Rules Engines/Business Rules Management Tools And Systems (BRMS) – these are tools that provide rules engines to allow rules be defined and executed and to be integrated within other applications • Robotic Process Automation (RPA) Tools And Systems – these are specific Robotic Process Automation tools • Ad Hoc Automation Techniques and Technologies – this refers to a variety of automation analysis, design and implementation approaches June 8, 2021 7
  8. 8. Solution And Process Automation – The Wider Technology And Approach Landscape • These categories of approaches, methodologies, standards, technologies, techniques and toolsets are not mutually exclusive • There is considerable overlap between them June 8, 2021 8 Enterprise Process and Automation Architecture Approaches Rules Engines/Business Rules Management Systems (BRMS) Business Process Management (BPM) And Business Process Automation Solutions Robotic Process Automation (RPA) Tools And Systems Business Process Execution Approaches Ad Hoc Automation Techniques and Technologies Process Description Approaches
  9. 9. Solution Automation – The Wider Technology And Approach Landscape • There are many approaches to automating the operation of solutions, from tactical to strategic, from simple to complex and from single point-to-point to compound service orientation and orchestration • These include methodologies and approaches for analysing and designing automation • RPA technologies and toolsets are just one approach to process and solution automation June 8, 2021 9
  10. 10. RPA Is Just A Subset Of Automation • The topic and scope of automation is much greater than just RPA June 8, 2021 10 Automation RPA
  11. 11. Process Automation (RPA), POA (Process Oriented Architecture) And BPM (Business Process Management) – Three Related Topics June 8, 2021 11 RPA Process automation POA Linking process areas to actual (desired) interactions – customer (external interacting party) service journeys through the organisation BPM Disciplined approach to identify, design, execute, document, measure, monitor and control both automated and non-automated business processes to achieve consistent, targeted results aligned with an organisation’s strategic goals
  12. 12. Solution Automation – The Wider Context June 8, 2021 12 Maybe Take a Look … … Before You Leap Consider the range of approaches and technologies available when evaluating automation options
  13. 13. 2. Business Processes, Business Solutions And Automation June 8, 2021 13
  14. 14. Business Processes, Business Solutions And Automation • All automation takes place within the context of business processes and the set of IT solutions and manual activities that are used to operate those processes June 8, 2021 14
  15. 15. Business Processes, Business Solutions And Automation June 8, 2021 15 Business Process Being Operated Core Business Solutions Used to Support the Business Process Ad Hoc Business Tools Supplementing Core Business Solutions Organisation Functions That Operate the Process Using the Solutions and Tools
  16. 16. Business Processes, Business Solutions And Automation – Four Layers June 8, 2021 16
  17. 17. Business Processes, Business Solutions And Automation June 8, 2021 17 Business Processes Core Business Solutions Ad Hoc Supporting Business Tools Organisation Business Functions Business Rules, Business Knowledge and Decision Rules Business Processes Should Apply Business Rules in Decision Making Business Processes Are Operated By Organisation Functions Core Business Solutions Are Designed to Implement Business Processes Core Business Solutions Are Inevitably Supplemented By Ad Hoc Tools Developed Over Time Organisation Business Functions Use Core Business Solutions to Operate Processes Organisation Business Functions Use Ad Hoc Tools to Supplement The Operation of Business Processes Organisation Business Functions Apply Knowledge Incorporated In Business Rules Business Rules and Business Knowledge Incorporated Into Ad Hoc Supporting Tools Business Processes Should Apply Business Rules in Decision Making Business Rules and Business Knowledge Incorporated Into Business Solutions
  18. 18. 3. Organisation Process Model June 8, 2021 18
  19. 19. Organisation Process Model • Automation is concerned with reducing of eliminating manual involvement in activities and tasks within business processes • Decisions performed within the context of business processes are frequently the target of automation effort • Identifying decisions and other activities within business processes that are capable of being automated is an important automation planning and analysis activity • Understanding the set of processes that are performed by the organisation provides a perspective on the opportunities and need for automation • Once an inventory of organisation processes has been created, these can be mapped to the business solutions or to the manual activities that enable and support those processes − This can identify gaps in existing business solutions that may offer opportunities for automation June 8, 2021 19
  20. 20. Organisation Generic Process Structure – Level 1 And Level 2 Processes June 8, 2021 20 Organisation Processes Develop Vision And Strategy Define The Business Concept And Long-Term Vision Develop Business Strategy Execute And Measure Strategic Initiatives Develop And Maintain Business Models Develop And Manage Products And Services Govern And Manage Product/Service Development Program Generate And Define New Product/Service Ideas Develop Products And Services Market And Sell Products And Services Understand Markets, Customers, And Capabilities Develop Marketing Strategy Develop And Manage Marketing Plans Develop Sales Strategy Develop And Manage Sales Plans Deliver Physical Products Plan For And Align Supply Chain Resources Procure Materials And Services Produce/Assemble /Test Product Manage Logistics And Warehousing Deliver Services Establish Service Delivery Governance And Strategies Manage Service Delivery Resources Deliver Service To Customer Manage Customer Service Develop Customer Care/Customer Service Strategy Plan And Manage Customer Service Contacts Service Products After Sales Manage Product Recalls And Regulatory Audits Evaluate Customer Service Operations And Customer Satisfaction Develop And Manage Human Capital Develop And Manage Human Resources Planning, Policies, And Strategies Recruit, Source, And Select Employees Manage Employee On Boarding, Development, And Training Manage Employee Relations Reward And Retain Employees Redeploy And Retire Employees Manage Employee Information And Analytics Manage Employee Communication Deliver Employee Communications Manage Information Technology Develop And Manage IT Customer Relationships Develop And Manage IT Business Strategy Develop And Manage IT Resilience And Risk Manage Information Develop And Manage Services/Solutions Deploy Services/Solutions Create And Manage Support Services/Solutions Manage Financial Resources Perform Planning And Management Accounting Perform Revenue Accounting Perform General Accounting And Reporting Manage Fixed- Asset Project Accounting Process Payroll Process Accounts Payable And Expense Reimbursements Manage Treasury Operations Manage Internal Controls Manage Taxes Manage International Funds/ Consolidation Perform Global Trade Services Acquire, Construct, And Manage Assets Plan And Acquire Assets Design And Construct Productive Assets Maintain Productive Assets Dispose Of Assets Manage Enterprise Risk, Compliance, Remediation, And Resiliency Manage Enterprise Risk Manage Compliance Manage Remediation Efforts Manage Business Resiliency Manage External Relationships Build Investor Relationships Manage Government And Industry Relationships Manage Relations With Board Of Directors Manage Legal And Ethical Issues Manage Public Relations Program Develop And Manage Business Capabilities Manage Business Processes Manage Portfolio, Program, And Project Manage Enterprise Quality Manage Change Develop And Manage Enterprise-Wide Knowledge Management Capability Measure And Benchmark Manage Environmental Health And Safety Develop, Manage, And Deliver Analytics
  21. 21. Organisation Generic Process Structure • This is one possible representation of the set of processes an organisation must implement in order to operate effectively • This shows processes to level 2 − Organisation processes can be typically decomposed to level 4 or 5 • IT systems and business knowledge underpin the successful implementation and operation of business processes • Understanding processes in important or successful automation • Grounding automation activities in a knowledge of the underlying business processes maximises success of automation initiatives June 8, 2021 21
  22. 22. Organisation Generic Process Structure June 8, 2021 22 Vision, Strategy, Business Management Operational Processes With Cross Functional Linkages Management and Support Processes Develop and Manage Products and Services Market and Sell Products and Services Deliver Products and Services Manage Customer Service Human Resource Management Information Technology Management Financial Management Acquire, Construct, and Manage Assets Manage Enterprise Risk, Compliance, Remediation, and Resiliency External Relationship Management Develop and Manage Business Capabilities Vision and Strategy Business Planning, Merger, Acquisition Governance and Compliance
  23. 23. Three Pillars Of Any Organisation Organisation Strategy, Infrastructure and Product and Service Development Develop strategy, implement governance and management, commit to the enterprise, build technology, communication and resource infrastructure that supports products and services and support functional processes, develop and manage new products and services, manage mergers, acquisitions and divestments, develop and manage strategic business partners and business relationships and the supply chain Operations Implement and operate organisation competencies and associated processes that support the customer operations and management including both day-to-day and operations support and readiness processes and sales management and supplier/partner relationship management including customer acquisition, product and service sales, product and service delivery and billing Organisation Management and Support Basic organisation competencies and associated business processes required to run any organisation - facilities, information technology, financial management, legal management, HR, regulatory management, process, cost and quality management, strategy development and planning, improvement and change and knowledge management June 8, 2021 23
  24. 24. Three Pillars Of Any Organisation • Exact organisation profile depends on many factors such as: − The type and mix of products and services the organisation provides − The nature of the customer relationship – known or anonymous − The number of different types of customer − The number and type of external parties interacted with June 8, 2021 24
  25. 25. Organisation Generic Process Structure June 8, 2021 25 Vision, Strategy, Business Management Core Operational Processes With Cross Functional Linkages Management and Support Processes External Party Facing Processes Internal and Supporting Processes
  26. 26. Organisation Process Structure, Digital Transformation And Automation • Operational processes may offer the greatest return on automation, especially in the context of any digital transformation programme, where those operational processes are extended outside the organisation • Internal and supporting processes offer opportunities for greater efficiencies and speed June 8, 2021 26
  27. 27. Organisation Generic Process Structure June 8, 2021 27 Generic process structure maps to generic process groups
  28. 28. Mapping Operational Processes To Business Systems • Mapping (operational) business processes and their activities, tasks and steps to business systems allows you to: − Identify activities currently performed manually and that have the potential to be automated − Identify business processes that use more than one business system with possible opportunities for automation at system boundaries June 8, 2021 28 Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System Business System
  29. 29. Mapping Operational Processes To Business Systems • The process to business system mapping can be performed to lower levels – processes, activities, tasks steps – to business systems, components and functions • The greater the mapping granularity and detail the more accurate the identification of automation opportunities will be June 8, 2021 29 Process Level 1 Process Level 2 Process Level 3 Process Level 4 Process Level 5 Business System Module Component Function Command
  30. 30. June 8, 2021 30 Resolve Problems With Existing Process Approach • Symptoms of poor business process management − No standard process/method for addressing how to define business requirements and when to improve business processes − When automation of processes is commissioned, “Business” says that they do not always get what they think they have asked for − The processes used to document and communicate business processes and requirements are neither easy nor documented − Our business programs frequently exist in a culture of reacting to cross-functional problems/emergencies − IT has responsibility for creating and maintaining business process flows, business requirements and business rules
  31. 31. Characteristics And Requirements Of Process Automation • A workflow-oriented approach to process and decision automation • A repeatable work process involving people and systems with defined and documented activities − Repeatable and repeated consistency • Joins multiple isolated and disconnected applications • Handle and insulate complexity − Systems and process knowledge dispersed throughout the organisation − Not always documented − Documentation not always up-to-date • Processes cross functions and teams − Automation captures this cross-functional knowledge June 8, 2021 31
  32. 32. Processes And Applications • Process uses application(s) and applications embody processes defined within their processing logic and sequence • Operational processes may be contained entirely within/be implemented by an application or they may exist outside the application June 8, 2021 32 Application Process Application Process Application Process
  33. 33. 4. Strategic And Tactical Automation June 8, 2021 33
  34. 34. Ad Hoc Business Tools Supplementing Core Business Solutions Strategic And Tactical Automation June 8, 2021 34 Business Process Being Operated Core Business Solutions Used to Support the Business Process Organisation Functions That Operate the Process Using the Tools Strategic Automation Focuses on Business Processes, Core Solutions and Organisation Business Functions
  35. 35. Strategic And Tactical Automation June 8, 2021 35 Business Process Being Operated Core Business Solutions Used to Support the Business Process Ad Hoc Business Tools Supplementing Core Business Solutions Organisation Functions That Operate the Process Using the Tools Tactical Automation Focuses on the Periphery and Bypasses the Complexity of the Core
  36. 36. Tactical And Strategic Automation June 8, 2021 36 Tactical Automation Strategic Automation • Solutions Delivered Quickly At Lower Cost • Rapid Response to Business Need • Benefits and Savings Achieved Quickly + - + - • Solutions Difficult to Support • Solutions May Not Scale • Solutions May Be Unstable and Error-Prone • Solutions May Make Costly Mistakes • Could Lead to Many Separate Tools and Approaches to Automation • Robust, Scalable, Supportable Automation Platform • Platform and Approach Designed to Meet All Automation Requirements • Potential Significant Benefits and Returns • Potentially Long Time to Make Decision on Strategic Tool • Potentially Long Solution Delivery Time • Solutions May Be More Costly To Develop
  37. 37. Tactical And Strategic Automation • Tactical automation is not always bad and strategic automation is not always good June 8, 2021 37
  38. 38. Evolution Of Automation June 8, 2021 38 • Disparate, disconnected individual automation activities • No overall automation programme • Script-like automation approaches and technologies • Automation is seen as a targeted solution to process and integration inefficiencies • Specific automation projects initiated • Tools being evaluated and selected • Organisation-wide investment in automation • Business process focussed automation activities • Automation viewed as valid approach to drive organisation inefficiencies to deliver solutions • Investment in automation tools and skills • Automation is viewed as a normal and natural solution implementation activity • Automation is implemented pervasively across the organisation • Process measurement is implemented widely and consistently • The organisation uses automation in all its forms automatically • The operation of automation is continually assessed to determine options for improvement and optimisation Initial Automation Efforts Tactical Automation Systematic Automation Strategic Automation Automated Automation
  39. 39. June 8, 2021 39 Performance Metrics • Performance issues can be defined as gaps between how a process is currently performing in relation to how it should be performing • A methodical analysis can help to understand the nature of the gaps, why they exist and how the situation can be rectified • Key element of this understanding is the identification of actionable and auditable metrics that accurately indicate process performance − Metrics will provide indicators as to where and how a process should be adjusted
  40. 40. June 8, 2021 40 Performance Metrics • Is the process meeting its performance goals? • Does the process take too long and if so, why and what is the measurement of “too long”? • What could happen to make it worse? • How would we know if the process has improved, i.e., if time is the measurement of the process, can cost be ignored or if cost is the measurement of the process, can time be ignored? • How is data reported about the process, who views this data and what do they do with it? • Where should performance points be recorded so the process is accurately measured and monitored? • Would entering these performance points affect the performance of the process?
  41. 41. Process Measurement – KPIs And KRIs June 8, 2021 41 • KPI = Key Performance Indicator • Not financial • Measures of actions and activities (for example, calls handled, work done) • Linked directly to performance • Can be measured frequently (weekly, monthly) • KRI = Key Results Indicator • Financial and non-financial • Measure the outcomes and results achieved (for example, user satisfaction • Measured less frequently (monthly, quarterly)
  42. 42. Process Measurements And Actions • If you automate processes you really need to know how the automation is working • There needs to be a consistent KPI/KRI generation framework, from initial data collection to actions to be performed based on KPI/KRI values • There is no point in collecting data and generating metrics unless action will be taken if metrics indicate this is warranted June 8, 2021 42 Process Collected Measurement Data Performance Indicators Measures Metrics Results Indicators Actions Process Measurement Framework Process Operation
  43. 43. Process And Automation Metrics Hierarchy June 8, 2021 43 KPI Process Metrics Results Metrics Operational Metrics Process Metrics – Roll-up of Operational Metrics High-Level Metrics Which Measure Progress Toward Strategic Service Objectives Align Metrics to Allow Roll- up
  44. 44. Process And Automation Performance Metrics • Need to define set of metrics that capture what is important to the service delivery • Balance between too few and too many • Metrics need to tell you when the performance standards have been met • Need to assess that the definition of metrics will cause supplier to take actions to optimise their value which may lead to undesirable consequences • Define tiered metrics to match tiered reporting: operational and strategic • Define measurement framework that measures performance and interactions across process and automation landscape • Measure what is important and what has an impact • Measure outcomes – the what rather than the how − However, the how is useful for process and automation problem determination and resolution June 8, 2021 44
  45. 45. Tactical Solutions Can Create Externalities • Costs imposed on other parts of the organisation that did not agree to incur and were not involved in the any decision about those costs − Support costs − Costs of errors − Cost to secondary consequences of errors • Automation solutions can be just another set of UDA (User Developed Applications) that contribute to the growth of shadow IT within the organisation June 8, 2021 45
  46. 46. Automation Solutions And Shadow IT • The desire for automation can arise from a business need to resolve perceived or actual problems with existing business systems and/or the failure of the IT function to deliver required functionality: − Multiple legacy systems not integrated with manual handoffs between them − Automate data capture/data entry − Automate initial data processing and escalate for manual actions − Developing wrappers around existing applications − Connecting a new application to existing applications − Automating manual elements of business processes − Automating decision making − Automating data exchanges and transfers − Automating reporting − Automating service management self-service • Automation is a classic vector for the introduction of shadow IT into the organisation June 8, 2021 46
  47. 47. Automation, Shadow IT And Innovation • Business-lead IT automation solutions can represent innovative ways to do business, work smarter, add value and achieve results − Improve employee experience and empowers employees • Shadow IT represents latent demand for solutions not being provided by the IT function − Represents an insight into what the IT solutions the business need • The IT function needs to engage with the business to encourage innovative solution ideas and bring them into formal IT support earlier June 8, 2021 47
  48. 48. Automation, Shadow IT And Productivity • Business caught between loss of productivity due to the absence of the desired solutions or the loss of productivity due to having to use transfer data between multiple separate solutions • Initial productivity gains from shadow IT can diminish over time • Shadow IT solutions supported within the business functions − Uncosted unplanned peer support • Accumulating backlog of solutions that have to be brought into formal support and/or need to migrate shadow IT solution and its data to a supported platform June 8, 2021 48
  49. 49. June 8, 2021 49 Automation, Shadow IT And Productivity • Short term productivity gains • Long-term productivity gap
  50. 50. IT Architecture IT Architecture Failing Business Relationships 8 June 2021 50 IT Function Business IT Responds and Delivers Slowly Business Want Rapid Response to Need and Changes IT Does Not Understand or Invest in and Develop IT Architecture IT Architecture Does Not Provide Technology Leadership Business Does Not View IT Architecture As Provider of Technology Consulting Services IT Architecture Is Inwardly and Backwardly Focussed Rather Than Being Business Lead
  51. 51. Breaking The Flow From Business Strategy To IT Solutions June 8, 2021 51 Business Objectives Business Operational Model Solution Portfolio Realisation And Delivery Solution Usage, Management , Support And Operations Business Strategy Business IT Strategy Solution Portfolio Design And Specification Business shadow IT expenditure External Suppliers and Service Providers External Suppliers and Service Providers Business-perceived or actual barriers to solution delivery by internal IT organisation Shadow IT solutions ultimately may be passed to the support function At least 40% of technology spending is diverted from IT Over 30% of CIOs routinely not consulted on IT solution acquisition and expenditure Them Us Them and Us Mentality
  52. 52. Core Solution Business Processing Stages And Shadow IT For Application And Process Automation • Use of shadow IT solutions occurs routinely at multiple stages throughout the use of business systems, extending and enhancing their functionality or providing features not available or that area easier to use June 8, 2021 52 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 Step 9 Step 10 Step 11 Step 12 Extract Data and Analyse Outside Solution Extract and Exchange Data With Other Party Reporting Using Separate Solution Use Separate Tool To Perform Work Extract and Send Data Outside Party Manually Enter Output from External Solution Perform Additional Steps Using Separate Solution Reporting and Analysis Shadow IT Occurs Pervasively Throughout the Use of Core IT Solutions System 1 System 2 System 3 System 4
  53. 53. Core Solution Business Processing Stages And Shadow IT For Application And Process Automation June 8, 2021 53 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 Step 9 Step 10 Step 11 Step 12 Extract Data and Analyse Outside Solution Extract and Exchange Data With Other Party Reporting Using Separate Solution Use Separate Tool To Perform Work Extract and Send Data Outside Party Manually Enter Output from External Solution Perform Additional Steps Using Separate Solution Reporting and Analysis • Shadow IT in the form of tactical automation is frequently needed to make up for gaps and shortfalls in core business solutions, supplementing incomplete solutions and providing omitted functionality • Linking business solutions together into a practical operational reality
  54. 54. Shadow IT, Automation And Solution Architecture • The potential problem of automation-driven shadow IT gives IT architecture the opportunity show leadership • Develop model for IT as a solution and service broker − Service Oriented IT – SOIT • Enable a balance between the strategic needs of the IT function and the immediate and tactical solution requirements of the business • IT architecture can bridge the sometimes wide gap between the business and the IT function in providing leadership in the area of automation June 8, 2021 54
  55. 55. 5. Deciding On The Scope Of Automation June 8, 2021 55
  56. 56. Deciding On The Scope Of Automation June 8, 2021 56 What To Automate And How Automated? What Approach Do You Intend to Take? Decision Automation Data Automation Application Automation and Integration Process Automation Action Automation Low (Manual Intervention, Review, Supervision) High (Fully Automated and Autonomous) Complex, Advanced – High Levels of Automation, High Action Volumes, Many Automation Points Simple, Tactical – Low Levels of Automation, Low Action Volumes, Few Automation Points User Adoption, Use Risk Evaluate Solution Approach and Make Decision to Proceed Technology Risk Automation Failure/Error Risk Process Automation Risk Implementation Risk Autonomous Operation Risk Loss of Business Knowledge What Is the Desired Level of Automation? What Type of Automation Technology is Applicable? What Are the Risks of Automation?
  57. 57. Review The Automation Technology Options And Approaches Automation Technologies And Approaches Enterprise Process and Automation Architecture Approaches Enterprise Decision Management (EDM) Business Motivation Model (BMM) Process Mining Data Integration Service Orientation API Management Solution Replacement Business Process Management (BPM) And Business Process Automation Solutions Business Process Management (BPM) Business Process Automation (BPA) BPI (Business Process Intelligence) Workflow Management (WFM) Process Description Approaches Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) Decision Model and Notation (DMN) Case Management Model and Notation (CMMN) Production Rule Representation (PRR) Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules (SBVR) RuleML Business Process Execution Approaches Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) XML Process Definition Language (XPDL) Rules Engines/Business Rules Management Tools And Systems (BRMS) BRMS Tools and Vendors Robotic Process Automation (RPA) Tools And Systems Digital Process Automation Tools and Vendors RPA Tools and Vendors Ad Hoc Automation Techniques and Technologies Screen Scraping Scripting Languages Optical Character Recognition and Intelligent Data Extraction Finite State Machines June 8, 2021 57
  58. 58. Automation Solution And Technology Risks • All IT solutions have implementation and operation risks • There are specific risks related to automation solution that need to be considered, managed, addressed, mitigated or circumvented − User Adoption, Use Risk – the target users might reject the automation because of fears such as losing control or being replaced − Technology Risk – the high expectations of the selected automation technology may not be realised − Automation Failure/Error Risk – the automated solution may operate in error − Process Automation Risk – the underlying business process may be automated badly − Implementation Risk – the solution may be implemented badly or inefficiently − Autonomous Operation Risk – the autonomous operation of the process may lead to a lack of awareness and knowledge of automation operations and/or there could be excessive trust in the accuracy of the automation − Loss of Business Knowledge – automation might lead to a lack of knowledge of the underlying business rules, activities and decision-making rules June 8, 2021 58
  59. 59. Automation Implementation Options • Ultimately long-term organisation-wide success and results will require a strategic top-down approach June 8, 2021 59 Option Advantages Disadvantages Bottom Up • See results quickly at low cost • Limited investment in tools • Gain knowledge and experience • Validate approach • Solutions implemented fragile and not efficient, scalable or robust • Not a basis for large-scale operations Top Down • Scalable, robust solutions • Reusable components • Takes a strategic and organisation- wide view of automation • Manage entire application development and deployment lifecycle • Manage processes in execution • Large investment before results obtained • Strategic approach may mean solution implementation loses flexibility and agility
  60. 60. Success Measurement Framework – Three Es June 8, 2021 60 Success Efficacy Efficiency Effectiveness
  61. 61. Success Measurement Framework • Efficacy − Are the automation solutions working? − Are they producing the correct outcomes? − Are they secure? − Are they reliable? − Metrics • Cost of automation project(s) and cost of operation of replaced processes vs cost of existing processes • Efficiency − Are the automation solutions operating with the minimum of resources? − Are the automation supportable and maintainable? − Metrics • Staff reduction • Productivity increase • Throughput increase • Effectiveness − Are the automation solutions contributing to longer-term objectives? − Metrics • Accuracy improvement • Cycle time reduction • Customer satisfaction • Number of automated controls • Assessment of risk reduction June 8, 2021 61
  62. 62. 6. Digital Strategy, Digital Transformation And Automation June 8, 2021 62
  63. 63. Digital Strategy, Digital Transformation And Automation • Digital transformation is concerned with moving the organisation from its current state to one that involves extending and exposing business processes outside the organisation along the dimensions of: − External Parties Participating in Digital Interaction/Collaboration – who of the many parties in your organisation landscape do you interact with digitally − Numbers and Types of Interactions/ Collaborations and Business Processes Included in Digital Strategy – which types of interactions and associated business processes do you digitally implement − Channels Included in Digital Strategy – what digital channels do you interact over June 8, 2021 63
  64. 64. Solution Automation And Digital Transformation • The exposure of business processes outside the organisation to enable external interaction can give rise to the need for process automation • Inefficient processes that involve multiple business systems, multiple handoffs and manual activities are not suitable for external deployment June 8, 2021 64
  65. 65. Digital Strategy And Business Processes June 8, 2021 65 Business Processes Within The Organisation Digital Means Extending and Exposing Business Processes Outside the Organisation – The Organisation Is being Opened-Up
  66. 66. Digital Transformation And Enablement Is About … June 8, 2021 66 Moving the organisation from one that is internally focussed around its siloed structures: To one that is focussed on customer (external interacting party) straight-through interactions: Automation can accelerate this by enabling reuse of existing business systems in new ways
  67. 67. Interactions Between Organisation Processes June 8, 2021 67 Core Processes Supporting Processes Management Processes Defines Strategy and Approach for Implementing and Operating Core Operational Processes Defines Strategy and Approach for Implementing and Operating Core Operational Processes External Interacting Parties and Experience Journeys What They Interact With
  68. 68. Core Processes Interactions Between Organisation Processes June 8, 2021 68 Business Customer Retail Customer Public Service Provider Dealer Sub- Contractor Agent Regulator Supplier
  69. 69. External Interactions And Internal Organisation Reality June 8, 2021 69 Apparent External Organisation Interactions – Sample Order To Case Process Internal Organisation Actual Reality
  70. 70. Customer Experiences And External Interactions And Internal Organisation Reality June 8, 2021 70 Internal Organisation Users External users expect to experience seamless end-to-end interactions External users also interact with internal users Internal users frequently experience disconnected processes and systems/ solutions Automation Automation Can Be The Glue to Join External and Internal Processes
  71. 71. Digital Creates User Expectations • Understand, manage, control and deliver on the expectations • Automation can assist with linking activities and tasks within the business process and may be a practical enabler of digital transformation June 8, 2021 71             • Interaction over digital channels reduces the expected and tolerated latency and the asynchronicity of communications between the organisation and external parties                                Response Time Expected and Tolerated Across Channels Channel
  72. 72. Digital User Expectations June 8, 2021 72 First time problem resolution or response to request Support is available whenever it is needed All information is accurate and available online all the time Products and services can be ordered and their delivery tracked Access is available from anywhere at any time Proactive notifications Range of channels and functions affects decision to do business Demand multi-channel experience Simple, consistent, easy to use Provide advice and assistance Loyalty and rewards Immediate access and response
  73. 73. 7. Specifying The Automation Solution June 8, 2021 73
  74. 74. Specifying The Automation Solution • There are various approaches to specifying the automation solution including: − Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) - https://www.omg.org/spec/BPMN/2.0/ − Decision Model and Notation (DMN) - https://www.omg.org/spec/DMN/1.2/About-DMN/ − Case Management Model and Notation (CMMN) - https://www.omg.org/spec/CMMN/1.1/About-CMMN/ − Production Rule Representation (PRR) - https://www.omg.org/spec/PRR/About-PRR/ − Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules (SBVR) - https://www.omg.org/spec/SBVR/1.4/About-SBVR/ − RuleML - http://wiki.ruleml.org/index.php/RuleML_Home • These can be used to create an unambiguous understanding of the decision and how it can and will be automated • Combination of these techniques can be used: − BPMN to represent the process − DMN to represent the automated decision-making June 8, 2021 74
  75. 75. Decision Model And Notation (DMN) • The aim of DMN is to provide a decision modelling representation language that can accurately describe the process by which decisions are made and that can understood by all stakeholders – business users, business analysts and solution designers and developers • DMN includes both the definition of decision requirements and the modelling of the logic of decision making June 8, 2021 75 Decision Modelling and Representation Business Process Business Rules and Decision Logic Describes the Co- ordination of Business Activities and Tasks Where Decisions Occur Describes the Detailed Logic and Rules Used To Make Decisions Describes Decision Models and Decision Requirements
  76. 76. Business Processes And Decisions • Decisions are embedded in business processes • Business processes provide a context for decision-making • Automation focuses on the mechanisation of manual activities, including decisions • DMN is one of the many techniques available to describe how activities can be automated and to formally define automation work June 8, 2021 76 Decisions
  77. 77. DMN Elements • Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) • Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD) • Decision Tables • Friendly Enough Expression Language (FEEL) − Simple Expression Language (S-FEEL) – subset of FEEL June 8, 2021 77
  78. 78. Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) • This is a diagram that shows at a high level the requirements needed for a decision and their dependencies • The DRG is used to define and link the elements involved in making decisions: − Decision – takes inputs, applies decision logic derived from Business Knowledge Model(s) to create an output − Input Data Element – information used as input to Decision(s) − Business Knowledge Model – structure that formalises business knowledge in a format such as decision table, business rules or other − Knowledge Source – authority for Business Knowledge Model June 8, 2021 78
  79. 79. A Decision involves determining an output from one or more inputs using decision logic and rules that may be derived from different sets of business knowledge. A Business Knowledge Model represents business knowledge in a form such as business rules, decision rules or executable logic Input Data represents information used in a Decision or a Business Knowledge Model A Knowledge Source is an authority for a Decision or a Business Knowledge Model Information Requirement represents input data to a Decision or the output from a Decision being used as an input to another Decision Knowledge Requirement represents the use of a Business Knowledge Model Authority Requirement represents a dependency of one design element on another element that is a source or knowledge, guidance or expertise DMN Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) And Decision Requirements Diagram (DRDs) Notation June 8, 2021 79 Decision Input Data Business Knowledge Model Knowledge Source Information Requirement Knowledge Requirement Authority Requirement
  80. 80. DMN Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) And Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD) Elements • Shows the data inputs to decision processing June 8, 2021 80 Decision 1 Input Data A Input Data B Input Data C Decision 2 Input Data D Input Data E
  81. 81. DMN Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) And Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD) Elements • Decisions may require business knowledge which in term may draw from knowledge sources June 8, 2021 81 Decision 1 Input Data A Compliance Business Knowledge Compliance Regulations Input Data B Compliance SOPs Compliance Legislation Compliance Special Interest Group
  82. 82. DMN Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) And Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD) June 8, 2021 82 Decision 1 Input Data A Input Data B Input Data C Decision 2 Input Data D Input Data E Business Knowledge Knowledge Source Business Knowledge Knowledge Source Decision 1 Input Data A Input Data B Input Data C Business Knowledge Knowledge Source Decision 1 Decision 2 Input Data D Input Data E Business Knowledge Knowledge Source Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD) Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD)
  83. 83. DMN Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) And Decision Requirements Diagram (DRD) • DRG is a view of the entire set of decisions while DRDs focus on individual decisions that take place in the context of the overall process June 8, 2021 83
  84. 84. Decision Table • Decision tables are used to formally express decision logic • Contains all the inputs required to make a decision • Contains all combinations of input values • A decision can have many decision tables, the combined output of which are used to make the overall decision • Decision table elements: − Information item name – name of the Business Knowledge Model − One or more input clauses consisting of input expression and allowed values − One or more output clauses containing the allowed values − Output values − Descriptive information – rule number, description, reference June 8, 2021 84
  85. 85. Decision Table June 8, 2021 85 Information Item Name: IF AND IF AND IF THEN Description Reference Rule Number Input Expression 1 Input Expression 2 Input Expression 3 Output Expression Allowed Values Allowed Values Allowed Values Allowed Values 1 Value 1.1 Value 1.2 Value 1.3 Output 1 Description 1 Reference 1 2 Value 2.1 Value 2.2 Value 2.3 Output 2 Description 2 Reference 2 3 Value 3.1 Value 3.2 Value 3.3 Output 3 Description 3 Reference 3 4 Value 4.1 Value 4.2 Value 4.3 Output 4 Description 4 Reference 4 5 Value 5.1 Value 5.2 Value 5.3 Output 5 Description 5 Reference 5 • Information Item Name – specifies what is being decided • Rule Number – specifies the sequence of rules and the order in which they are applied • Input Expression – specifies the variable who value is being assessed • Allowed Values – specifies the list of available values the Input Expression can take • Value – specifies the value of the Input Expression being looked for in the rule • Output Expression – specifies the variable who value is being set by the rule • Output – specifies the value being assigned to the Output Expression by the rule • Description and Reference – specifies optional descriptive information 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  86. 86. Sample Decision Table Credit Card Financial Suitability IF AND IF AND IF AND IF AND IF THEN Rule Number Applicant Main Own Income Applicant Additional Own Income Applicant Monthly Outgoings Applicant Savings Applicant Assets Output Expression 1>=30000 ,<40000 >=0 ,<15,000 >=0 ,<1,000 >=0 ,<5,000 >=0 ,<25,000 Financially Suitable 2>=40000 ,<50000 >=15,000 ,<30,000 >=1,000 ,<2,000 >=5,000 ,<10,000 >=25,000 ,<50,000 Financially Suitable 3>=50000 ,<60000 >=30,000 ,<45,000 >=2,000 ,<3,000 >=10,000 ,<15,000 >=50,000 ,<75,000 Financially Suitable 4>=60000 ,<70000 >=45,000 ,<60,000 >=3,000 ,<4,000 >=15,000 ,<20,000 >=75,000 ,<100,000 Financially Suitable 5>=70000 ,<80000 >=60,000 ,<75,000 >=4,000 ,<5,000 >=20,000 ,<25,000 >=100,000 ,<125,000 Financially Suitable 6>=80000 ,<90000 >=75,000 ,<90,000 >=5,000 ,<6,000 >=25,000 ,<30,000 >=125,000 ,<150,000 Financially Suitable 7>=90000 ,<100000 >=90,000 ,<105,000 >=6,000 ,<7,000 >=30,000 ,<35,000 >=150,000 ,<175,000 Financially Suitable 8>=100000 >=105,000 ,<0,000 >=7,000 >=35,000 >=175,000 Financially Suitable 9>=30000 ,<40000 >=0 ,<15,000 >=3,000 ,<4,000 - - Financially Unsuitable … … … … … … … … … … … … … … June 8, 2021 86
  87. 87. Sample Credit Card Decisions • There can be a network of decisions, each of which has a decision table • This breaks down the overall decision into a set of smaller decisions June 8, 2021 87 Credit Card Suitability Credit Score Financial Suitability Demographic Suitability Balance Transfer Eligibility Student Eligibility Card Type Credit Limit Over Credit Card Decision
  88. 88. Friendly Enough Expression Language (FEEL) • Friendly Enough Expression Language (FEEL) can be used to define in an easily understand plain language format the information contained in a decision table June 8, 2021 88 information Item Name Context Name 1 Context_Name_1 Context Name 2 Context_Name_2 Context Name 3 Context_Name_3 Context Name 4 Context_Name_4 If Context_Name_1 = N OR Context_Name_2 = M AND Context_Name_3 > O THEN Result = YES ELSE Result + No
  89. 89. Friendly Enough Expression Language (FEEL) • The approach can also be used to consolidate decision tables June 8, 2021 89 Information Item Name Applicant Existing Customer Applicant_Existing_Customer Applicant Main Own Income Applicant_Main_Own_Income Applicant Additional Own Income Applicant_Additional_Own_Inc ome Applicant Monthly Outgoings Applicant_Monthly_Outgoings Applicant Savings Applicant_Savings Applicant Assets Applicant__Assets Rule Applicant Existing Customer Applicant Main Own Income Applicant Additional Own Income Applicant Monthly Outgoings Applicant Savings Applicant Assets Credit Card Financial Suitability 1 Yes Income Value Range 1 Additional Own Income Range 1 Monthly Outgoings Range 1 Savings Range 1 Assets Value Range 1 Suitable 2 3 Monthly Outgoings Range 2 Savings Range 2 4 Assets Value Range 2 5 Savings Range 3 6 Additional Own Income Range 2 Monthly Outgoings Range 3 7 Savings Range 4 8 Monthly Outgoings Range 4 Assets Value Range 5 9 Savings Range 5 10 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …
  90. 90. State Machines • State machines are a technique to model the behaviour of a system based on inputs that trigger state changes • Approach can be used to model and design processes and decision-making systems by identifying the states the system can be in, what inputs or events trigger state transitions and how the system behaves in each state • This can be a very useful technique to define rules • This approach allow all input, events, actions and states to be identified and defined rigorously • Provides a common language that allows all parties understand rules and processing • State machines can get very large with hundreds of states that are complex to represent graphically June 8, 2021 90 State State Event/Input Event/Input
  91. 91. Finite State Machine (FSM) Characteristics • The system has a finite set of states • The system has a defined initial state • There is a finite set of events and/or inputs that trigger transitions between states • System behaviour at a given point in time depends upon the current state and the input or event that occurs at that point in time • The behaviour of the system in defined for each state and for each possible input or event in that state June 8, 2021 91
  92. 92. FSM Example • Vending machine that can accept 20, 50 and 100 cent coins • Can dispense items valued at 150, 200 and 250 cents • Machine can accept the following inputs: − 20 cent coin − 50 cent coin − 100 cent coin − Unrecognised coin − Return Button to return coins − Dispense 150 cent item − Dispense 200 cent item − Dispense 250 cent item June 8, 2021 92
  93. 93. FSM Example • The machine will only return 20, 50 and 100 coins if an excess amount has been entered after an item has been dispensed − 3 x 20 cent, 2 x 50 cent = 160 cent and 150 cent item selected – no money returned − 2 x 100 cent = 260 cent and 150 cent item selected – 50 cent returned • A maximum of 340 cents can be accumulated before any subsequent coins are rejected − Could have entered two 20 cent and four 50 cent coins = 240 and then one 100 cent coin − 240 cents is the largest amount that can be accumulated that is smaller than the most expensive item June 8, 2021 93
  94. 94. FSM Example – State Transition Diagram • State transition diagrams can get very complex very quickly even as the number of states and events is quite small June 8, 2021 94 Start 20 20 Cent Coin Deposited 50 100 50 Cent Coin Deposited 100 Cent Coin Deposited 40 20 Cent Coin Deposited 70 120 50 Cent Coin Deposited 100 Cent Coin Deposited 20 Cent Coin Deposited 100 150 100 Cent Coin Deposited 20 Cent Coin Deposited 50 Cent Coin Deposited 50 Cent Coin Deposited 200 100 Cent Coin Deposited
  95. 95. FSM Example – State Transition Table June 8, 2021 95 Input Return Dispense 150 Item Dispense 200 Item Dispense 250 Item 20 Cent Coin 50 Cent Coin 100 Cent Coin Unrecognised Coin State 0 0 0 0 0 20 50 100 Return Coin, 0 20 Return coins, 0 20 20 20 40 70 120 Return Coin, 20 40 Return coins, 0 40 40 40 60 90 140 Return Coin, 40 50 Return coins, 0 50 50 50 70 100 150 Return Coin, 50 60 Return coins, 0 60 60 60 80 110 160 Return Coin, 60 70 Return coins, 0 70 70 70 90 120 170 Return Coin, 70 80 Return coins, 0 80 80 80 100 130 180 Return Coin, 80 90 Return coins, 0 90 90 90 110 140 190 Return Coin, 90 100 Return coins, 0 100 100 100 120 150 200 Return Coin, 100 110 Return coins, 0 110 110 110 130 160 210 Return Coin, 110 120 Return coins, 0 120 120 120 140 170 220 Return Coin, 120 130 Return coins, 0 130 130 130 150 180 230 Return Coin, 130 140 Return coins, 0 140 140 140 160 190 240 Return Coin, 140 150 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, 0 150 150 170 200 250 Return Coin, 150 160 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, 0 160 160 180 210 260 Return Coin, 160 170 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20 cent, 0 170 170 190 220 270 Return Coin, 170 180 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20 cent, 0 180 180 200 230 280 Return Coin, 180 190 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20 cent, 0 190 190 210 240 290 Return Coin, 190 200 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, 0 200 220 250 300 Return Coin, 200 220 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20, 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20 cent, 0 220 240 270 320 Return Coin, 220 240 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20, 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20 cent, 0 240 260 290 340 Return Coin, 240 260 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 3 x 20, 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 3 x 20 cent, 0 Dispense Item, 0 260 260 260 Return Coin, 260 290 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20, 2 x 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20, 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20 cent, 0 290 290 290 Return Coin, 290 340 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 50 cent, Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20, 2 x 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20, 50 cent, 0 340 340 340 Return Coin, 340
  96. 96. FSM Example – State Transition Table June 8, 2021 96 Input Return Dispense 150 Item Dispense 200 Item Dispense 250 Item 20 Cent Coin 50 Cent Coin 100 Cent Coin Unrecognised Coin State 0 0 0 0 0 20 50 100 Return Coin, 0 20 Return coins, 0 20 20 20 40 70 120 Return Coin, 20 40 Return coins, 0 40 40 40 60 90 140 Return Coin, 40 50 Return coins, 0 50 50 50 70 100 150 Return Coin, 50 60 Return coins, 0 60 60 60 80 110 160 Return Coin, 60 70 Return coins, 0 70 70 70 90 120 170 Return Coin, 70 80 Return coins, 0 80 80 80 100 130 180 Return Coin, 80 90 Return coins, 0 90 90 90 110 140 190 Return Coin, 90 100 Return coins, 0 100 100 100 120 150 200 Return Coin, 100 110 Return coins, 0 110 110 110 130 160 210 Return Coin, 110 120 Return coins, 0 120 120 120 140 170 220 Return Coin, 120 130 Return coins, 0 130 130 130 150 180 230 Return Coin, 130 140 Return coins, 0 140 140 140 160 190 240 Return Coin, 140 150 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, 0 150 150 170 200 250 Return Coin, 150 160 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, 0 160 160 180 210 260 Return Coin, 160 170 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20 cent, 0 170 170 190 220 270 Return Coin, 170 180 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20 cent, 0 180 180 200 230 280 Return Coin, 180 190 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20 cent, 0 190 190 210 240 290 Return Coin, 190 200 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, 0 200 220 250 300 Return Coin, 200 220 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20, 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 20 cent, 0 220 240 270 320 Return Coin, 220 240 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20, 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20 cent, 0 240 260 290 340 Return Coin, 240 260 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 3 x 20, 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 3 x 20 cent, 0 Dispense Item, 0 260 260 260 Return Coin, 260 290 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20, 2 x 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20, 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20 cent, 0 290 290 290 Return Coin, 290 340 Return coins, 0 Dispense Item, Return 50 cent, Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20, 2 x 50 cent, 0 Dispense Item, Return 2 x 20, 50 cent, 0 340 340 340 Return Coin, 340 Shows the New State Dispense 150 Cent Item But No Change Remains in 260 State and Coin Returned
  97. 97. FSM Example – State Transition Table • This table shows the complete set of inputs for all states showing new states and actions taken • All inputs in all states, all actions and all state transitions can be defined and understood • Tabular format allows a large amount of information to be represented in a small space • Gaps can be identified • Allows rules to be implemented with precision, accuracy and reliability • FSMs are similar to Decision Tables in DMN June 8, 2021 97
  98. 98. UML State Machine • State − Activity represent processing that can occur while the system is in a given state but that does not cause a transition from that state • State Transition has three elements: − Event – an occurrence that causes a state change − Guard – a logical condition that can governs if a transition can actually take place − Action – some processing that takes place in the act of moving from one state to another June 8, 2021 98 State Activity State Activity State Transition Event / Guard / Action
  99. 99. Other State Representations • There are many other state machine representation types − Harel State Diagrams − Mealy Machine − Moore Machine • These are all useful rules representation techniques June 8, 2021 99
  100. 100. Process Automation – Designing The Application • This can involve designing a meta application that controls one or more existing applications to automate, fully or partially, the interactions with those applications and thus enable the successful operation of the process June 8, 2021 100
  101. 101. Designing The Meta Application June 8, 2021 101 Task 1 Task 3 Task 2 Decide Start Wait Task 4 Task 5 Task 7 Task 6 Decide Task 8 Task 8 Wait Task 9 Notify End
  102. 102. Meta Process Is A Representation Of The Compressed/Collapsed Operational Process(es) • When unnecessary and replicated activities in the operational processes have been removed, you are left with necessary activities that must be incorporated into the meta-process June 8, 2021 102 Collapse Compress
  103. 103. 9. Sample Business Process – Order To Cash June 8, 2021 103
  104. 104. Sample Business Process – Order To Cash • Most organisation have some form of customer ordering process – from simple, single-item single-price purchase with shipping delivered by an online solution to complex multi- product purchases with recurring payments and servicing requirements • The apparently simple act of receiving and handling an order can trigger a large number of business processes that may be provided by a number of separate solutions and be operated by different business functions • Order to Cash process provides an example for process analysis and for process automation − Order to Cash process described here is just for illustration • Even when organisations have an ERP application that provides integrated Order To Cash process, there will still be functional and process elements outside this June 8, 2021 104
  105. 105. Order To Cash Sub-Processes And Related Processes June 8, 2021 105 Marketing, Lead, Opportunity Management Sales Quotation Management Customer Loyalty Customer Relationship Management Product Management Customer Service Support Debt Collection Logistics and Order Fulfilment Distribution Workforce Management Invoicing, Billing, Credit and Hare Financial Management Warranty
  106. 106. Process Automation To Link Order To Cash Sub- Processes June 8, 2021 106 Marketing, Lead, Opportunity Management Sales Quotation Management Customer Loyalty Customer Relationship Management Product Management Customer Service Support Debt Collection Logistics and Order Fulfilment Distribution Workforce Management Invoicing, Billing and Financial Management Warranty
  107. 107. Process Automation To Link Order To Cash Processes • Where one or more of the sub-processes associated with the Order To Cash process are provided by separate systems and/or business functions, some form of automation may be useful to provide integration with no or limited manual activity • This may be a reflection of a pragmatic reality associated with having multiple legacy applications June 8, 2021 107
  108. 108. Order To Cash Process Can Cross Organisational Functions June 8, 2021 108
  109. 109. Order to Cash Process And Related Sub-Processes June 8, 2021 109 Buy Product/ Service Provide Quotation Collect and Validate Requirements Qualify Opportunity and Make Decision To Proceed Process Information and Create Quotation and Handle Internal Review and Approval, if Needed Create Solution and Approach to Delivery and Implementation Identify And Perform Cross- Sell/Up-Sell Activities Identify Resource Requirements Develop Cost and Schedule Estimates Identify and Cost Components Identify Third Party Elements and Costs Contact Third Party Agree Cost Apply Discounts Determine Customer Loyalty Discounts Determine Other Discounts Determine Overall Cost Determine Profitability and Review Costs Manage Internal Review and Approval Process Issue Quotation Follow-up on Quotation, Handle Feedback and Provide Clarification Sell Solution Manage Negotiations, Finalise Purchase Details Manage Sales Outcome Agree Delivery Process and Schedule Process Sales Order Handle Back Orders Handle and Fulfil Order Review Any Third- Party Involvement Schedule Third Party Involvement Determine Order Component Availability Determine Order Fulfillment Process and Schedule Schedule Product and Solution Creation/Assembly Confirm Creation/ Assembly Scope Schedule Creation/ Assembly Resources Perform Creation/ Assembly Validate Creation/ Assembly Complete Creation/ Assembly Plan and Schedule Logistics Verify Delivery Contents Plan, Transport and Deliver Solution Product Components Pack Products Collect Products Track Delivery Handle Delivery Issues Handle Delivery Data and Documentation Plan and Schedule Service Delivery Review and Confirm Service Delivery Scope Confirm Delivery Approach, Roles, Responsibilities, Resources and Pre- Requisites Confirm Scope with Customer Schedule Resources Schedule Third Party Involvement Perform Site/Environment Survey and Ensure Readiness and Suitability Decide on nd Create Service Delivery Plan Confirm Schedule with Customer Initiate Service Delivery Deploy Solution Including Services and Product Validate Service Confirm Service with Customer and Get Signoff Complete Service Delivery Conduct Service Delivery/Project Review and Assess Success Archive Service Delivery Data and Documentation Process Returns Receive and Handle Return Request Authorise Return Process Return Schedule Return Logistics Validate Return Close and Document Return Handle Customer Queries and Service Request Receive Customer Query Problem and Service Request Analyse Customer Query Problem and Service Request Resolve Customer Query Problem and Service Request Respond Customer Query Problem and Service Request Close and Document Customer Query Problem and Service Request Handle Customer Complaints Receive Customer Complaint Route Customer Complaint Resolve/Escalate Customer Complaint Respond to Customer Complaint Close and Document Customer Complaint Billing Setup Customer Billing Setup Payment Schedule Setup Once-off Billing Setup Recurring Billing Setup Direct Debit/Credit Card Payments Bill Invoicing Generate Invoices Transmit Invoices Schedule Payment Processing Bill Payments and Receivables Management Receive Payments/ Deposits/ Transfer Handle and Reconcile Payments Manage Failed and Overdue Payments Bill Inquiry Handling Receive Customer Bill Inquiry Assess Customer Bill Inquiry Authorise Customer Bill Invoice Adjustment Track and Manage Customer Bill Inquiry Resolution Analyse Detailed Bill Inquiry Determine Appropriate Bill Adjustment Record Customer Bill Invoice Adjustment Issue Adjusted Bill Report Customer Bill Inquiry Close and Document Customer Bill Inquiry Handle Warranty Claims Receive Warranty Claim Collect Warranty Claim Details Validate and Respond to Warranty Claim Investigate and Define Warranty Issue Schedule Service Activity Analyse Defect and Determine Cause Determine Corrective Action Determine Responsible Party and Manage Recovery Approve or Reject Warranty Claim Perform Corrective Action Close and Document Customer Warranty Claim Service Receive/ Schedule Service Request/ Requirement Confirm Service Requirements Schedule Service and Resource Requirements Generate Service Order Perform Service Close and Document Service Activity
  110. 110. Order to Cash High Level Partial Process View June 8, 2021 110
  111. 111. Order to Cash High Level Process Partial View • This is a partial view of the sub-processes in the overall sample OTC process showing the interactions between different participants • A process view allows the context of specific automations to be shown • One of the objectives of introducing automation into the process is to optimise it: − Collapse – reduce the number of participants, handoffs between participants and replicated activities − Compress – reduce the number of steps in the process − Automate – eliminate manual involvement in process steps to accelerate processing and reduce or eliminate queueing of work June 8, 2021 111 Collapse Compress
  112. 112. Multiple Decisions Across Extended Order To Cash Process June 8, 2021 112 Buy Product/ Service Provide Quotation Collect and Validate Requirements Qualify Opportunity and Make Decision To Proceed Process Information and Create Quotation and Handle Internal Review and Approval, if Needed Create Solution and Approach to Delivery and Implementation Identify And Perform Cross- Sell/Up-Sell Activities Identify Resource Requirements Develop Cost and Schedule Estimates Identify and Cost Components Identify Third Party Elements and Costs Contact Third Party Agree Cost Apply Discounts Determine Customer Loyalty Discounts Determine Other Discounts Determine Overall Cost Determine Profitability and Review Costs Manage Internal Review and Approval Process Issue Quotation Follow-up on Quotation, Handle Feedback and Provide Clarification Sell Solution Manage Negotiations, Finalise Purchase Details Manage Sales Outcome Agree Delivery Process and Schedule Process Sales Order Handle Back Orders Handle and Fulfil Order Review Any Third- Party Involvement Schedule Third Party Involvement Determine Order Component Availability Determine Order Fulfillment Process and Schedule Schedule Product and Solution Creation/Assembly Confirm Creation/ Assembly Scope Schedule Creation/ Assembly Resources Perform Creation/ Assembly Validate Creation/ Assembly Complete Creation/ Assembly Plan and Schedule Logistics Verify Delivery Contents Plan, Transport and Deliver Solution Product Components Pack Products Collect Products Track Delivery Handle Delivery Issues Handle Delivery Data and Documentation Plan and Schedule Service Delivery Review and Confirm Service Delivery Scope Confirm Delivery Approach, Roles, Responsibilities, Resources and Pre- Requisites Confirm Scope with Customer Schedule Resources Schedule Third Party Involvement Perform Site/Environment Survey and Ensure Readiness and Suitability Decide on and Create Service Delivery Plan Confirm Schedule with Customer Initiate Service Delivery Deploy Solution Including Services and Product Validate Service Confirm Service with Customer and Get Signoff Complete Service Delivery Conduct Service Delivery/Project Review and Assess Success Archive Service Delivery Data and Documentation Process Returns Receive and Handle Return Request Authorise Return Process Return Schedule Return Logistics Validate Return Close and Document Return Handle Customer Queries and Service Request Receive Customer Query Problem and Service Request Analyse Customer Query Problem and Service Request Resolve Customer Query Problem and Service Request Respond Customer Query Problem and Service Request Close and Document Customer Query Problem and Service Request Handle Customer Complaints Receive Customer Complaint Route Customer Complaint Resolve/Escalate Customer Complaint Respond to Customer Complaint Close and Document Customer Complaint Billing Setup Customer Billing Setup Payment Schedule Setup Once-off Billing Setup Recurring Billing Setup Direct Debit/Credit Card Payments Bill Invoicing Generate Invoices Transmit Invoices Schedule Payment Processing Bill Payments and Receivables Management Receive Payments/ Deposits/ Transfer Handle and Reconcile Payments Manage Failed and Overdue Payments Bill Inquiry Handling Receive Customer Bill Inquiry Assess Customer Bill Inquiry Authorise Customer Bill Invoice Adjustment Track and Manage Customer Bill Inquiry Resolution Analyse Detailed Bill Inquiry Determine Appropriate Bill Adjustment Record Customer Bill Invoice Adjustment Issue Adjusted Bill Report Customer Bill Inquiry Close and Document Customer Bill Inquiry Handle Warranty Claims Receive Warranty Claim Collect Warranty Claim Details Validate and Respond to Warranty Claim Investigate and Define Warranty Issue Schedule Service Activity Analyse Defect and Determine Cause Determine Corrective Action Determine Responsible Party and Manage Recovery Approve or Reject Warranty Claim Perform Corrective Action Close and Document Customer Warranty Claim Service Receive/ Schedule Service Request/ Requirement Confirm Service Requirements Schedule Service and Resource Requirements Generate Service Order Perform Service Close and Document Service Activity
  113. 113. Decisions Within Sample Partial Process View June 8, 2021 113
  114. 114. Multiple Decisions Across Extended Order To Cash Process • The extended Order To Cash processes contains many decisions that can have the potential to be automated including: − Provide Quotation − Qualify Opportunity and Make Decision To Proceed − Identify And Perform Cross-Sell/Up-Sell Activities − Develop Cost and Schedule Estimates − Apply Discounts − Decide on and Create Service Delivery Plan − Authorise Return − Resolve/Escalate Customer Complaint − Authorise Customer Bill Invoice Adjustment − Determine Appropriate Bill Adjustment − Determine Corrective Action − Confirm Service Requirements June 8, 2021 114
  115. 115. Sample Decision – Identify And Perform Cross- Sell/Up-Sell Activities June 8, 2021 115 Create Up- sell/Cross-sell Offers Specific Customer Order History Customer Offers Identification Model Discounting Policies Specific Customer Payment History Specific Customer Loyalty Information General Customer Order Information Stock Information Current Discounted Product Information Related Product Information General Offers Identification Model Customer Information Excess Stock Policies
  116. 116. Sample Decision – Identify And Perform Cross- Sell/Up-Sell Activities • This sample Decision Requirements Graph (DRG) contains the following elements − Input Data • Specific Customer Order History – the customer’s order history will provide details on wat they have previously bought and so what they may or may not be likely to buy in addition to the specific order contents • Specific Customer Payment History – the customer’s payment history will indicate the value of previous orders and likely maximum value of an order that will be likely to be accepted • General Customer Order Information – orders placed by other customers that are similar but include additional products will be an indicator of what additional products might be bought • Specific Customer Loyalty Information – this consists of the customer’s membership or and participation in any loyalty scheme and any additional rewards that might apply to additional purchases or use of accumulated rewards for additional purchases • Stock Information – additional purchase suggestions may be driven by excess stock in related products • Current Discounted Product Information – additional purchase suggestions may be driven by discounts available on products • Related Product Information – the product database may contain information on product relationships − Business Knowledge Model • General Offers Identification Model – this identifies generalised related products based on all past customer behaviours and policies on discounts and handling of excess stock • Customer Offers Identification Model – this identifies specific related products based on information about the specific customer − Knowledge Source • Discounting Policies – this contains details on how discounts should be calculated and applied • Excess Stock Policies – this contains details on how excess stock should be handled − Decision • Create Up-sell/Cross-sell Offers – this generates a set of recommended additional products that are presented to the customer June 8, 2021 116
  117. 117. 8. Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) June 8, 2021 117
  118. 118. June 8, 2021 118 BPMN As A Common Process Description And Specification Language • Two layers of complexity for business process design − Core set of BPMN process representation diagram elements − Extended set of BPMN process representation diagram elements • What BPMN is not: − Organisation structure design language − Data model and data flow design language – does contain some data modelling elements − System functional flow design language • BPMN diagrams can be complex − BPMN V2.0 (latest version) has a lot of elements − Keep it simple and easy to understand − Add appropriate complexity through refinement and drill-down − Focus on getting the process description right − Complexity and rigour of BPMN is related to the ability to create Business Process Execution Language (BPEL - BPEL4WS) – you probably do not intend to use this feature
  119. 119. June 8, 2021 119 Types Of Process • Standard Process (Orchestration Process) defines the flow of activities between participants • Choreography - exchange of information (Messages) between participants
  120. 120. June 8, 2021 120 BPMN Language Structure BPMN Flow Objects Connectors Artifacts Swimlanes Activities Events Gateways Sequence Flows Message Flows Associations Text Annotation Group Pool Lane Data Data Objects Data Inputs Data Outputs Data Stores Data Associations
  121. 121. June 8, 2021 121 Swimlanes And Pools • Swim lanes are a visual means for organising and categorising process activities • Used to demonstrate hand-offs between functions/roles/business units • Show process sequence • Show cross-functional process flow − Pool – represents major participants in a process with separate pools for different organisations or major business units − Lane – contained within pools • Organise and categorise process activities within a pool according to function or role − All other BPMN diagram elements are placed within swimlanes and pools
  122. 122. June 8, 2021 122 Swimlanes And Pools • Good at showing who does what, when and in response to what • Adds a dimension not available in standard flow-charting • Shows responsibilities • Allows identification and elimination of duplicate tasks
  123. 123. June 8, 2021 123 Flow Objects Flow Objects Activities Events Gateways Task Sub-Process Transaction Start End Intermediate Exclusive Inclusive Parallel Complex
  124. 124. June 8, 2021 124 Flow Objects • Define the flow of the process − Activities - work performed within a business process • Task – unit of work • Sub-Process – a set of self-contained activities collapsed within process representation for ease of understanding • Transaction – a sub-process that must be completed or undone if not completed − Events - something that happens • Start – acts as a trigger for a process/sub-process and takes an input only • End – represents the result of a process/sub-process and generates an output only • Intermediate - represents something that happens between the start and end events − Gateways - determine splitting and merging of paths within process depending on the conditions • Exclusive – where the sequence slow can take only one of two or more alternative paths • Inclusive – where the sequence slow can take one, more than one or all of two or more alternative paths and results from paths must be subsequently merged • Parallel – multiple parallel paths are defined • Complex – complex behaviours can be defined
  125. 125. June 8, 2021 125 Flow Objects – Graphics Task Sub-Process Transaction Start End Intermediate Exclusive Inclusive Parallel Complex
  126. 126. June 8, 2021 126 Activities – Detailed Specification • Classified by − Task Type • Service – automated application • Send – send a message to an external participant • Receive – wait for a Message to arrive from an external Participant • User – human performs the task with the assistance of an application and scheduled through a task manager • Script – executed by a business process engine • Manual – not managed by any business process engine. • Business Rule – provide input to a Business Rules Engine and get the output of calculations − Process or Sub-Process • Embedded – sub-process embedded within a process • Event – triggered by an event • Called – pre-defined process that can be called − Looping • Simple • Multiple in Parallel • Multiple in Sequence − Calling – External Sub-Process − Transaction Backout (“Compensation”)
  127. 127. June 8, 2021 127 Activities Looping Symbol Task Border Shows if Called/Sub- Process Top Left Symbol Identifies Task Type Rewind Symbol Used to Indicate Transaction Backout (“Compensation”)
  128. 128. June 8, 2021 128 Activities – Graphics For Combinations Of Task Type And Loop Type No Loop Simple Loop Multiple in Parallel Multiple in Sequence Simple/Not Specified Service Send Receive User Script Manual Business Rule
  129. 129. June 8, 2021 129 Activities – Graphics For Sub-Processes Embedded Sub- Process Embedded Transaction Sub- Process Embedded Sub- Process Triggered by Event Embedded Called Sub-Process No Event Specified Message Error Escalation Compensation (Backout of Transaction) Conditional Signal Multiple
  130. 130. June 8, 2021 130 Events • Simple − Start − Intermediate − End • Triggered − Start − Intermediate • Inward Direction “Catching” • Outward Direction “Throwing” − End • Triggers (Not All Apply to All Events) − Message − Timer − Conditional − Signal − Multiple − Multiple in Parallel − Error − Escalation − Compensation (Backout of Transaction) − Link − Cancel − Terminate
  131. 131. June 8, 2021 131 Events Single Light Border Indicates Start Event Double Light Border and Hollow Symbol Indicates Intermediate Inwardly Directed Event Single Dark Border Indicates End Event Symbol Indicates Trigger Type Double Light Border and Filled Symbol Indicates Intermediate Outwardly Directed Event
  132. 132. June 8, 2021 132 Events – Graphics For Combinations Of Type, Direction And Trigger Start Intermediate (Inward Direction “Catching”) Intermediate (Outward Direction “Throwing”) End No Trigger Message Timer Conditional Signal Multiple Multiple in Parallel Error Escalation Compensation (Backout of Transaction) Link Cancel Terminate
  133. 133. June 8, 2021 133 Gateways • Control the execution of the process • Do not represent work being done • Gateways represent decisions/branching (exclusive, inclusive, and complex), merging, forking and joining • Parallel gateways synchronise/combine and create parallel flows • Event-based gateways represents a branching point in the process where the alternative paths that follow the gateway are based on events that occur
  134. 134. June 8, 2021 134 Gateways – Graphics For Types Inclusive (AND) Exclusive (OR) or Complex Parallel Exclusive Event Start Exclusive Event Start Parallel Event
  135. 135. June 8, 2021 135 Sample Parallel Gateway
  136. 136. June 8, 2021 136 Artifacts • Used to add information into the process model/diagram • Make the process model/diagram more readable − Data Object – shows which data is required by or produced in an activity − Group – used to group different activities to highlight sections − Annotation – adds text to a diagram
  137. 137. June 8, 2021 137 Artifacts Grouping of Process Elements Annotation Comment
  138. 138. June 8, 2021 138 Data • One requirement of process design/modelling is to be able to model the items (physical or information items) that are created, manipulated, and used during the execution of a process − Data inputs − Data outputs − Data stores – persistent − Collections – set of data, input or outputs
  139. 139. June 8, 2021 139 Data Data Data Collection Data Input Data Collection Input Data Output Data Collection Output Data Store
  140. 140. June 8, 2021 140 Extended BPMN Attributes • BPMN diagram elements have many extended attributes that are not part of the core process definition • These are used when creating a process repository • Used when exporting BPMN process to XML • Activity attributes − isForCompensation − loopCharacteristics − Resources − SequenceFlow − InputOutputSpecification − Properties − BoundaryEventRefs − DataInputAssociations − DataOutputAssociations − StartQuantity − CompletionQuantity − …
  141. 141. June 8, 2021 141 BPMN Usage Options Consistent Approach to Business Process Analysis and Description Complete Automated Business Process Management Implementation Time, Cost, Resource Requirements, Complexity, Difficulty, Risks Low High Basic BPMN Process Diagramming Allows You to Start Here BPMN Can Grow to Enable This
  142. 142. 10. Process Automation Architecture June 8, 2021 142
  143. 143. (Robotic) Process Automation • RPA is concerned with (partially or completely) automating processes • Involves outcome and decision automation • The process is the glue that links the decision-making activities together • Automation needs to focus on processes and their decisions and how to make them consistent, repeatable and autonomous and be able to be performed in (near) real time • Existing applications implement or are used in (operational) processes • RPA is concerned with abstracting the details of these operational processes into partially or fully automated meta- processes June 8, 2021 143
  144. 144. Goals Of Process Automation • Allow existing set of applications be interacted with and controlled • Map complexity to existing applications to simplicity of requesting applications • Single platform for all automation initiatives • Provide an interface to allow interactions be initiated and results obtained • Automate (some of) the interactions with the controlling applications June 8, 2021 144 Process Automation Existing Applications Requesting Applications
  145. 145. Why Process Automation? − Process Automation can just be a decorative skin hiding the ugliness of what lies below − Process Automation just masks inefficiencies of existing applications/organisation structures/processes − Process Automation just makes a bad situation less bad • All true but the cost of application and organisation transformation and time to achieve it may be too great and too long − Organisation needs a solution now − Tactical vs. Strategic balance required • Process Automation enables quick deployment of efficient, (semi) automated solutions while longer-term transformational changes are effected • There is always a risk that these long-term changes never happen − Interim solution frequently endure long after their intended expiry June 8, 2021 145
  146. 146. June 8, 2021 146 Key Business Drivers For Process Automation • Save money – do things better with optimised processes − Build better new processes faster − Know what you are doing (right or wrong) through current process understanding − Get control of parallel processes by consolidating to core processes − Eliminate non-value added work through automation of manual processes − Business process outsourcing • Implement large systems better • Stay ahead of compliance and regulation • Process Automation is an opportunity to create value through savings and improvements
  147. 147. Why Implement Process Automation? • Reduce manuals errors, improve quality, accuracy and ensure consistency − Automation creates a repeatable process that encapsulates best practices − Avoids manual errors that cause problems and require resolution and rework − Reduced cycle times • Reduce manual effort − Processes operate automatically without the need for manual effort − Increase productivity − Increase throughput • Always available − Process is always ready for work − Respond more quickly − Greater scalability • Collect information − Automated solution captures process information for reporting, analysis and process improvement − Information gives the opportunity for process insight − Greater visibility and control − Reduce risk June 8, 2021 147
  148. 148. Characteristics And Requirements Of Process Automation • A workflow-oriented approach to process and decision automation • A repeatable work process involving people and systems with defined and documented activities − Repeatable and repeated consistency • Joins multiple isolated and disconnected applications • Handle and insulate complexity − Systems and process knowledge dispersed throughout the organisation − Not always documented − Documentation not always up-to-date • Processes cross functions and teams − Automation captures this cross-functional knowledge June 8, 2021 148
  149. 149. Processes And Applications • Process uses application(s) and applications embody processes defined within their processing logic and sequence • Operational processes may be contained entirely within/be implemented by an application or they may exist outside the application June 8, 2021 149 Application Process Application Process Application Process
  150. 150. Application Automation Interface Options June 8, 2021 150 Application Databases Applications Application Presentation Pages/Screens Process And Decision Automation, Request Management Application Interface Layer 1 2 4 5 3 Requests and Responses
  151. 151. Application Automation Interface And Control Options 1. Interface with existing applications through its presentation layer, simulating keystrokes and screen navigation 2. Avail of APIs/service interfaces provided by applications 3. Use existing service integration/API management layer (SOA/Service Bus or similar) 4. Use scripts to control calling and sequencing of applications 5. Directly update underlying application database • Process Automation implementations will mix available interface and control options as appropriate • Process Automation environment provides facilities to enable the use of all available interface options June 8, 2021 151
  152. 152. Automation Scenarios/Use Cases • Front-end Application to Back-end Application(s) – consolidate interactions with back-end application(s) providing partial automation • Application to Application Automation – automate interactions between applications • Automate Manual Activity – automate set of tasks performed outside application • Data Transfer and Transformation – move data from source to target • Data Extraction/Scraping – screen-scraping data from application, navigating front-end • API Wrapper – build API or service layer to existing application • Build Meta Application – create an application that controls other applications June 8, 2021 152
  153. 153. Front-end Application To Back-end Application(s) • Allow front-end application interact with back-end application in a semi-automated way June 8, 2021 153
  154. 154. Application To Application Automation • Automate interactions between two application June 8, 2021 154
  155. 155. Automate Manual Activity • Build application that automates manual activities performed outside existing application June 8, 2021 155
  156. 156. Data Transfer And Transformation • Automate movement of data from a source to a target, performing any required data transformation June 8, 2021 156 Data Source Data Target
  157. 157. Data Extraction/Scraping • Automate the extraction of data from the user interface of any application June 8, 2021 157
  158. 158. Automation Scenarios – API/Service Wrapper • Automation layer exposes APIs or services that provide for integration with source application(s) June 8, 2021 158 c
  159. 159. Build Meta Application • Build a meta-application that consolidates interactions with a back-end application June 8, 2021 159
  160. 160. Application Interface Sources And Targets • Automation may involve a single application being controlled or it may involve a source controlled and target controlling application June 8, 2021 160 Automation Source Application Target Application
  161. 161. Application Interface Sources And Targets June 8, 2021 161 June 8, 2021 Application Databases Applications Application Presentation Pages/Screens Application Interface Layer 1 2 4 5 3 Application Presentation Pages/Screens 1 4 3 Application Interface Layer Application Databases Process And Decision Automation, Request Management 2 Applications
  162. 162. Application Interface Sources And Targets • Every automation/integration may have two halves – source and target • Source application is being controlled/automated • Target can drive automation or have results of automation pushed • Integration and automation layer sits between sources and targets managing integrations and the applications of rules June 8, 2021 162
  163. 163. Application Interface Options • Not all interface options will be available for all applications being connected to and interacted with June 8, 2021 163
  164. 164. Automation Dashboard/ Analytics/ Reporting June 8, 2021 164 Automation Design, Development, Deployment Management, Governance, Implementation, Execution And Operational Framework – Idealised High Level Capabilities Automation Execution Library Operational Automation Usage and Audit Data Operational Automation Scheduler, Rules Engine | Automation Design, Development and Testing Automation Templates Automation Publication/ Deployment and Version Control Internal Source/Target Interacting Applications Automation Component Library Deployed Automation Execution Automation Alerting/ Event Management Administration Interface Internal Interaction Layer External Access Layer Application Interaction Analysis and Scripting External Source/ Target Interacting Applications External to Internal Translation Access Gateway Security Access and Management 1 2 3 4 6 5 7 8 10 9 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 14
  165. 165. Automation Design, Development, Deployment Management, Governance, Implementation, Execution And Operational Framework – Idealised High Level Capabilities • Describes an architecture for an automation development, deployment, execution and management solution • Set of components and facilities required to implement and operate organisation-wide scalable automation applications • Can be used to assess the capabilities of automation applications and to design an overall automation architecture June 8, 2021 165
  166. 166. Automation Design, Development, Deployment Management, Governance, Implementation, Execution And Operational Framework – Idealised High Level Capabilities 1. Automation Design, Development and Testing – an environment that allows meta-processes/automation applications be developed and tested 2. Automation Templates – provides a set of automation and integration templates 3. Automation Component Library – library of automation components that can be assembled into a developed automation 4. Application Interaction Analysis and Scripting – provides facilities to analyse the operation of applications in order to develop automation scripts 5. Security Access and Management – provides support for source and target authorisation and authentication and integration with their security layers 6. Automation Publication/ Deployment and Version Control – a facility for deploying or publishing developed automations to an operational execution environment 7. Automation Execution Library – the library of deployed automations 8. Operational Automation – an automation deployed in production and available for automation 9. Scheduler, Rules Engine – manages the definition and operation automation schedules and the actioning of automation based on triggering events 10. Internal Interaction Layer – manages interactions with internal applications being automated or controlled 11. External Access Layer – manages interactions with external applications being automated or controlled 12. External to Internal Translation - translates external requests to internal addresses to provide an additional level of security 13. Access Gateway – provides communications channels to external application sources and targets 14. External Source/ Target Interacting Applications – the set of external applications being controlled or connected with or that are interacting with the automations/meta-processes 15. Internal Source/ Target Interacting Applications – the set of internal applications being controlled or connected with or that are interacting with the automations/meta-processes Administration Interface 16. Administration Interface – facility to manage the operational and executing automation environment 17. Operational Automation Usage Data – the set of automation execution data collected on executed automations 18. Automation Alerting/ Event Management – facility to generate alerts and handle events from executing automations 19. Automation Dashboard/ Analytics/ Reporting – facility to present, report on and analyse automation performance and usage data June 8, 2021 166
  167. 167. Summary • Automation is a technology trend IT architects should be aware of and know how to respond to business requests as well as recommend automation technologies and solutions where appropriate • Automation is a bigger topic than just RPA • Change to digital operations means that internal processes are exposed – the potentially inefficient and manual processes must be made efficient and external interactions must be masked from the internal complexity • Moving the organisation from one that is internally focussed around its siloed structures to one that is focussed on customer (external interacting party) straight-through interactions • Automating existing processes requires a structured approach to process analysis • A structured approach to designing new optimised processes is important to successful RPA implementation June 8, 2021 167
  168. 168. More Information Alan McSweeney http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney https://www.amazon.com/dp/1797567616 8 June 2021 168

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