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Review of Information
Technology Function Critical
Capability Models
Alan McSweeney
http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney
https://www.amazon.com/dp/1797567616
IT Function Capabilities
• These capabilities are key areas where the IT function needs to
maintain significant levels of competence, skill and experience
and practise
• There are several different IT capability frameworks
• Objective here is to assess the suitability and applicability of
these frameworks
• Use these models to identify what is important for your IT
function based on your current and desired/necessary activity
profile
• Capabilities vary across organisation – not all capabilities have
the same importance for all organisations
• Frameworks do not readily accommodate variability in the
relative importance of capabilities
October 5, 2020 2
IT Function Critical Capability Models
• Models evaluated
1. IT4IT Reference Architecture https://www.opengroup.org/it4it
contains 32 functional components
2. European e-Competence Framework (ECF)
http://www.ecompetences.eu/ contains 40 competencies
3. ITIL V4 https://www.axelos.com/best-practice-solutions/itil has 34
management practices
4. COBIT 2019 https://www.isaca.org/resources/cobit has 40
management and control processes
5. APQC Process Classification Framework -
https://www.apqc.org/process-performance-management/process-
frameworks version 7.2.1 has 44 major IT management processes
6. IT Capability Maturity Framework (IT-CMF) https://ivi.ie/critical-
capabilities/ contains 37 critical capabilities
• Model not evaluated
− Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA) - http://www.sfia-
online.org/ lists over 100 skills
October 5, 2020 3
Capabilities And Meta-Capabilities
• In the context of trends and initiatives such as outsourcing,
transition to cloud services and greater platform-based
offerings, should the IT function develop and enhance its
meta-capabilities – the management of the delivery of
capabilities?
• Is capability identification and delivery management the
most important capability?
• Outsourced service delivery in all its forms is not a fire-
and-forget activity
• You can outsource the provision of any service except the
management of the supply of that service
October 5, 2020 4
Generalised Set Of Capabilities For An IT Function
• The objective here is to identify a generalised set of capabilities
needed across the span of IT function operations, from strategy
to operations and delivery
• Generic model can then be used to assess individual
frameworks to determine their scope and coverage
• Generic model proposed here consists of five groups or
domains of major capabilities that can be organised across the
span of the IT function
1. Information Technology Strategy, Management and Governance
2. Technology and Platforms Standards Development and Management
3. Technology and Solution Consulting and Delivery
4. Operational Run The Business/Business as Usual/Service Provision
5. Change The Business/Development and Introduction of New Services
October 5, 2020 5
Five Generic Capability Domains
October 5, 2020 6
Strategy
Architecture, Standards
and Methodologies
Technology Consulting
Operational Run The
Business
New Service Change
The Business
Levels Of Generic Structure
• Level 1 – Capability Groups or Capability Domains
− Level 2 – Major Cross-Functional Capabilities
• Level 3 – Individual Areas of Skill, Expertise and Capability Within Major
Capability
• No absolute right and wrong way to classify capabilities or
to group some capabilities as level 2 rather than level 3
• Objective is to identify what is important to your
organisation and what is missing or deficient
October 5, 2020 7
Generalised IT Capability Model
October 5, 2020 8
Overarching strategy, business
alignment, management and
governance capabilities establishing
and defining the principles of
operation of the IT function
Common standards and
delivery capabilities across
all operational areas
Information
Technology
Strategy,
Management
and Governance
Technology and
Platforms
Standards
Development
and
Management
Technology and
Solution
Consulting and
Delivery
Operational Run
The Business/
Business as
Usual/Service
Provision
Change The
Business/
Development
and
Introduction of
New Services
Capabilities relating to
the delivery of services
and solutions
Capabilities relating to
running and maintaining
the existing set of business
services and solutions
Capabilities relating to
the delivery of new
services and solutions
Generalised IT Function Capability Groups And Their
Capabilities
October 5, 2020 9
``
Generalised IT Function Sets Of Groups And Their
Capabilities
Generic IT Function Capabilities
Information Technology Strategy,
Management and Governance
Business Strategy Alignment and
Information Technology Strategy
Management and Planning
IT Leadership and Governance
Business Relationship Management
and Business Engagement
Sourcing and Supplier Management
and Governance
Programme Management, Portfolio
Management, Project Management
Accounting, Funding, Financing,
Budgeting and Planning
Demand and Supply Management,
Capacity Forecasting and Planning
People Resource Management and
Skills Development and Delivery
Organisation Design and Change
Management
Technology and Platforms
Standards Development and
Management
Technology Trend Analysis,
Innovation Management and
Technology Prototyping, Piloting
and Validation
Information Technology
Architecture, Portfolio, Platform,
Standards, Instrumentation and
Toolset Management
Data, Information and Knowledge
Asset Architecture and
Management, Data Protection and
Analytics
Security, Continuity and Disaster
Recovery
Solution Architecture, Analysis,
Selection, Design and Presentation
Infrastructure, Networks,
Communications and Telephony
Architecture and Design
Technology Component, Platform
and Data Integration
Technology and Solution Consulting
and Delivery
Business and Process Analysis and
Design
Solution Consumer Experience
Design
Solution Evaluation, Selection,
Acquisition/Procurement
Testing and Quality
Data Management, Design and
Administration
Knowledge and Collaboration
Management, Training,
Documentation, Training
Operational Run The
Business/Business as Usual/Service
Provision
Technology Operations
Management, Service Architecture
and Design, Delivery and Support
Solution Portfolio Management
Technology and Platform
Infrastructure and Asset
Management
Security, Continuity, Backup and
Disaster Recovery Operations
Infrastructure, Networks,
Communications and Telephony
Operations
Change The Business/Development
and Introduction of New Services
Solution Development, Delivery,
Implementation, Configuration,
Release to Production
October 5, 2020 10
Structure Of Groups Of Generic Capabilities
• The arrangement of the
generic capability groups
can be view as a funnel …
• … moving skills from the
strategic and general to
the specific along the span
of the IT function
October 5, 2020 11
Scope And Applicability Of Generic Major
Capabilities
October 5, 2020 12
Business Strategy Alignment and Information Technology Strategy Management and Planning
IT Leadership and Governance
Business Relationship Management and Business Engagement
Sourcing and Supplier Performance Assessment, Management and Governance
Programme Management, Portfolio Management, Project Management
Accounting, Funding, Financing, Budgeting and Planning
Demand and Supply Management, Capacity Forecasting and Planning
People Resource Management and Skills Development and Delivery
Organisation Design and Change Management
Technology Trend Analysis, Innovation Management and Technology Prototyping, Piloting and Validation
Information Technology Architecture, Portfolio, Platform, Standards, Instrumentation and Toolset Management
Data, Information and Knowledge Asset Architecture and Management, Data Protection and Analytics
Security, Continuity and Disaster Recovery
Solution Architecture, Analysis, Selection, Design and Presentation
Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Architecture and Design
Technology Component, Platform and Data Integration
Business and Process Analysis and Design
Solution Consumer Experience Design
Solution Evaluation, Selection, Acquisition/Procurement
Testing and Quality
Data Management, Design and Administration
Knowledge and Collaboration Management, Training, Documentation, Training
Technology Operations Management, Service Architecture and Design, Delivery and Support
Solution Portfolio Management
Technology and Platform Infrastructure and Asset Management
Security, Continuity, Backup and Disaster Recovery Operations
Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Operations
Solution Development, Delivery, Implementation, Configuration, Release to Production
Information
Technology
Strategy,
Management
and
Governance
Technology
and Solution
Consulting
and Delivery
Technology
and
Platforms
Standards
Development
and
Management
Operational
Run The
Business/
Business as
Usual/
Service
Provision
Change The
Business/
Development
and
Introduction
of New
Services
Scope And Applicability Of Generic Major
Capabilities
• Capabilities do not exist in isolation within one domain
• Capabilities have an applicability outside their core capability
domain
− That is the substance of a capability – a generalised rather than a specific
technical or other skill and expertise
• Capabilities represent important cross-functional competences and
capacities
• The exploitation and use of these capabilities has a broad relevance
and covers a range of areas across the IT function
October 5, 2020 13
Business Strategy Alignment and Information Technology Strategy Management and Planning
IT Leadership and Governance
Business Relationship Management and Business Engagement
Sourcing and Supplier Performance Assessment, Management and Governance
Programme Management, Portfolio Management, Project Management
Accounting, Funding, Financing, Budgeting and Planning
Demand and Supply Management, Capacity Forecasting and Planning
People Resource Management and Skills Development and Delivery
Organisation Design and Change Management
Home
Domain of
Capability
Applicability of Capability Across Other
Domains
Mapping Of Specific Capability Frameworks To
Generic Framework
• The approach taken is to map the major capabilities of the
individual frameworks to the generic IT function capability
framework
• The objective is to identify gaps and areas in the individual
frameworks
• The mapping is performed at a high-level only
− The extent of the similarity between the specific and generic
capabilities is not examined
− The depth of the coverage of the individual capability in each
framework is not assessed
October 5, 2020 14
APQC Process Classification Framework (PCF)
• Designed to be a set of universal and generalised business processes performed in
common by every organisation
• Aims to provide a common language to communicate and define business
processes
• Consists of 13 high-level process groups, of which the management of IT is one
1. Develop Vision and Strategy
2. Develop and Manage Products and Services
3. Market and Sell Products and Services
4. Deliver Physical Products
5. Deliver Services
6. Manage Customer Service
7. Develop and Manage Human Capital
8. Manage Information Technology (IT)
9. Manage Financial Resources
10. Acquire, Construct, and Manage Assets
11. Manage Enterprise Risk, Compliance, Remediation, and Resiliency
12. Manage External Relationships
13. Develop and Manage Business Capabilities
October 5, 2020 15
APQC Process Classification Framework (PCF) – IT
Management Structure
October 5, 2020 16
APQC PCF IT
Management
Develop And Manage IT
Customer Relationships
Understand IT Customer
Needs
Identify IT Customer
Transformation Needs
Plan And Communicate
IT Services
Provide IT
Transformation
Guidance
Develop And Manage IT
Service Levels
Manage IT Customer
Relationships
Analyze Service
Performance
Develop And Manage IT
Business Strategy
Define Business
Technology And
Governance Strategy
Manage IT Portfolio
Strategy
Define And Maintain
Enterprise Architecture
Define IT Service
Management Strategy
Control IT Management
System
Manage IT Value
Portfolio
Define And Manage
Technology Innovation
Develop IT Compliance,
Risk, And Security
Strategy
Develop IT Resilience
Strategy
Develop And Manage IT
Resilience And Risk
Control IT Risk,
Compliance, And
Security
Plan And Manage IT
Continuity
Develop And Manage IT
Security, Privacy, And
Data Protection
Conduct And Analyse IT
Compliance
Assessments
Develop And Execute IT
Resilience And
Continuity Operations
Manage IT User Identity
And Authorization
Manage Information
Define Business
Information And
Analytics Strategy
Define And Maintain
Business Information
Architecture
Define And Execute
Business Information
Lifecycle Planning And
Control
Manage Business
Information Content
Develop And Manage
Services/Solutions
Develop Service/
Solution And Integration
Strategy
Manage Service/
Solution Lifecycle
Planning
Develop And Manage
Service/Solution
Architecture
Execute IT Service/
Solution Creation And
Testing
Perform
Service/Solution
Maintenance And
Testing
Deploy
Services/Solutions
Develop And Manage
Service/ Solution
Deployment Strategy
Plan Service And
Solution
Implementation
Manage Change
Deployment Control
Implement Technology
Solutions
Perform Service And
Solution Rollout
Create And Manage
Support Services/
Solutions
Define And Establish
Service Delivery
Strategy
Define And Develop
Service Support Strategy
Plan And Manage
Service Delivery Control
Develop And Manage
Infrastructure Resource
Planning
Define Service Support
Planning
Develop And Manage
Service Delivery
Operations
Manage Infrastructure
Resource
Administration
Operate IT User Support
APQC To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping
October 5, 2020 17
APQC To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping
Summary
October 5, 2020 18
Number of Generic
Capabilities Mapped to
by More Than One
Framework Capability
8 • 1 - Business Strategy Alignment and Information Technology Strategy Management and Planning
• 9 - Organisation Design and Change Management
• 11 - Overall Information Technology Architecture, Portfolio, Platform, Standards, Methodologies,
Instrumentation and Toolset Management
• 12 - Data, Information and Knowledge Asset Management, Data Protection and Analytics
• 13 - Security, Risk Management, Continuity and Disaster Recovery
• 23 - Technology Operations Management, Service Strategy, Delivery and Support
• 24 - Solution Portfolio Management
• 28 - Solution Development, Delivery, Implementation, Configuration, Release to Production
Number of Framework
Capabilities Mapped to
More Than One Generic
Capability
2 • 25 - Develop And Execute IT Resilience And Continuity Operations
• 43 - Manage Business Information Content
Number of Generic
Capabilities Not
Mapped To
9 • 4 - Sourcing and Supplier Performance Assessment, Management and Governance
• 5 - Programme Management, Portfolio Management, Project Management
• 8 - People Resource Management and Skills Development and Delivery
• 16 - Technology Component, Platform and Data Integration
• 17 - Business and Process Analysis and Design
• 18 - Solution Consumer Experience Design
• 19 - Solution Evaluation, Selection, Acquisition/Procurement
• 22 - Knowledge and Collaboration Management, Training, Documentation
• 27 - Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Operations
APQC Capability Gaps Across The IT Function
Pipeline
• Gaps across strategic, technology and solution consulting and delivery and
operational run-the-business areas
• Gaps perhaps reflect the operational process-focussed nature of the APQC
framework
October 5, 2020 19
APQC To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping
– Potential Gaps
Major Capability Intended Purpose and Scope
Sourcing and Supplier Performance
Assessment, Management and
Governance
The IT function is becoming more and more concerned with supplier and solution identification and selection and their
subsequent management and governance, especially of strategic suppliers. The combined trends of greater outsourcing,
greater use of XaaS models across all types of cloud services and the movement from custom development to packaged
solutions means supplier sourcing is an important major core capability of the IT function.
Programme Management, Portfolio
Management, Project Management
The management of the delivery of programmes and projects is a core IT function capability
Demand and Supply Management,
Capacity Forecasting and Planning
The IT function needs to plan the workload and the required skills and experience across all workload types: strategic
planning and management, business as usual and new service introduction. The resources then need to be acquired and
formed into appropriate functioning teams.
People Resource Management and Skills
Development and Delivery
The capabilities of the IT function need to be translated into roles filled by people that have the necessary skills. These skills
have to be identified and developed. The staffing of the IT function needs to be constantly reviewed and keep current to
cater for staff turnover, development and promotion and the constant technology and skills change that affects IT.
Business and Process Analysis and Design Business analysis and business process analysis are core capabilities along the spectrum of existing solution and service
modification and new solution and service introduction. The business analyst function is core to business engagement.
Solution Consumer Experience Design Solution usability is a separate specialist skill from solution design, delivery and implementation. As organisations deploy
more solutions outside the organisation on various channels and platforms as part of digital transformation initiatives,
solution consumer usability is becoming more important.
Solution Evaluation, Selection,
Acquisition/Procurement
The operationalisation of the capability to identify solution selection factors, evaluate and select solutions and their
suppliers and manage the solution procurement and acquisition process is of increasing importance to the IT function.
Knowledge and Collaboration
Management, Training, Documentation,
Training, Training, Documentation
The management of knowledge and the implementation and management of knowledge collaboration and sharing and
training and documentation relating to system and solution usage is a major IT function capability. This ensures knowledge
availability and increases system and solution usability, usage and reduces risk of rejection.
Infrastructure, Networks,
Communications and Telephony
Operations
The ability to ensure effective operation of all aspects of IT infrastructure, both on-premises and externally located, and
organisation networks and communications to ensure reliable technical infrastructure operations needs to be a core
capability of the IT function.
October 5, 2020 20
COBIT 2019
• COBIT is a long-established framework for both the governance and management
of Information and Technology wherever they occur, aimed at the whole
organisation rather than just the IT function
• Information and Technology means all the technology and information processing
the organisation has implemented and uses to achieve its goals, regardless of
where this happens in the organisation
• Governance is concerned with defining objectives, setting a direction and
performance and compliance monitoring
• Management is concerned with the planning, building, running and monitoring
activities that are aligned with the direction set by governance
• achieve enterprise objectives.
• COBIT is concerned with IT governance and management and their controls:
− IT must implement internal controls around how it operates
− The systems IT delivers to the business and the underlying business processes these systems
actualise must be controlled – these are controls external to IT
− To govern IT effectively, COBIT defines the activities and risks within IT that need to be
managed
October 5, 2020 21
COBIT 2019 Structure
October 5, 2020 22
COBIT 2019
Evaluate, Direct and Monitor
(EDM)
EDM01 Ensure Governance
Framework Setting and
Maintenance
EDM02 Ensure Benefits Delivery
EDM03 Ensure Risk Optimisation
EDM04 Ensure Resource
Optimisation
EDM05 Ensure Stakeholder
Transparency Align, Plan and
Organise
Align, Plan and Organize (APO)
APO01 Manage the IT
Management Framework
APO02 Manage Strategy
APO03 Manage Enterprise
Architecture
APO04 Manage Innovation
APO05 Manage Portfolio
APO06 Manage Budget and Costs
APO07 Manage Human
Resources
APO08 Manage Relationships
APO09 Manage Service
Agreements
APO10 Manage Suppliers
APO11 Manage Quality
APO12 Manage Risk
APO13 Manage Security
APO14 Manage Data
Build, Acquire and Implement
(BAI)
BAI01 Manage Programmes
BAI02 Manage Requirements
Definition
BAI03 Manage Solutions
Identification and Build
BAI04 Manage Availability and
Capacity
BAI05 Manage Organisational
Change Enablement
BAI06 Manage Changes
BAI07 Manage Change
Acceptance and Transitioning
BAI08 Manage Knowledge
BAI09 Manage Assets
BAI10 Manage Configuration
BAI11 Manage Projects
Deliver, Service and Support
(DSS)
DSS01 Manage Operations
DSS02 Manage Service Requests
and Incidents
DSS03 Manage Problems
DSS04 Manage Continuity
DSS05 Manage Security Services
DSS06 Manage Business Process
Controls
Monitor, Evaluate and Assess
(MEA)
MEA01 Manage, Monitor,
Evaluate and Assess Performance
and Conformance
MEA02 Manage, Monitor,
Evaluate and Assess the System
of Internal Control
MEA03 Manage, Monitor,
Evaluate and Assess Compliance
With External Requirements
MEA04 Manage Assurance
COBIT 19 To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping
October 5, 2020 23
COBIT 19 To Generic IT Capability Framework
Mapping Summary
October 5, 2020 24
Number of Generic
Capabilities Mapped to
by More Than One
Framework Capability
8 • 1 - Business Strategy Alignment and Information Technology Strategy Management and Planning
• 3 - Business Relationship Management and Business Engagement
• 5 - Programme Management, Portfolio Management, Project Management
• 7 - Demand and Supply Management, Capacity Forecasting and Planning
• 9 - Organisation Design and Change Management
• 13 - Security, Risk Management, Continuity and Disaster Recovery
• 23 - Technology Operations Management, Service Strategy, Delivery and Support
• 25 - Technology and Platform Infrastructure and Asset Management
Number of Framework
Capabilities Mapped to
More Than One Generic
Capability
1 • 23 - BAI07 Manage Change Acceptance and Transitioning
Number of Generic
Capabilities Not
Mapped To
9 • 2 - IT Leadership and Governance
• 6 - Accounting, Funding, Financing, Budgeting and Planning
• 14 - Solution Architecture, Analysis, Selection, Design and Presentation
• 15 - Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Architecture and Design
• 16 - Technology Component, Platform and Data Integration
• 18 - Solution Consumer Experience Design
• 19 - Solution Evaluation, Selection, Acquisition/Procurement
• 21 - Data Management, Design and Administration
• 27 - Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Operations
COBIT 19 Capability Gaps Across The IT Function
Pipeline
• Gaps reflect the governance and management focus of
COBIT and its omission of some important standards and
operational capabilities
October 5, 2020 25
COBIT 19 To Generic IT Capability Framework
Mapping – Potential Gaps
Major Capability Intended Purpose and Scope
Solution Architecture, Analysis, Selection,
Design and Presentation
The capability to create effective solution designs and to analyse solution requirements, present solution options and
determine the most suitable solution is a core capability of the IT function.
Infrastructure, Networks,
Communications and Telephony
Architecture and Design
As organisations operate in an increasing diverse and connected IT infrastructure landscape and where network
connectivity represents a threat vector, specific detailed knowledge of infrastructure, network and telecommunications is
a necessary and important IT function major capability.
Technology Component, Platform and
Data Integration
As IT solutions and their data exist on multiple separate platforms and as initiatives such as digital transformation mean
that the organisation must extend its integration outside its boundaries, the capability to understand integration
requirements ad design, implement and operate integration solutions is important.
Solution Consumer Experience Design Solution usability is a separate specialist skill from solution design, delivery and implementation. As organisations deploy
more solutions outside the organisation on various channels and platforms as part of digital transformation initiatives,
solution consumer usability is becoming more important.
Solution Evaluation, Selection,
Acquisition/Procurement
The operationalisation of the capability to identify solution selection factors, evaluate and select solutions and their
suppliers and manage the solution procurement and acquisition process is of increasing importance to the IT function.
Data Management, Design and
Administration
As well as defining and implementing data architectures, the IT function needs to be good at the operationalisation of data
design and management activities. Again, in the context of the greater use of XaaS models where data is decentralised, this
is very important.
Infrastructure, Networks,
Communications and Telephony
Operations
The ability to ensure effective operation of all aspects of IT infrastructure, both on-premises and externally located, and
organisation networks and communications to ensure reliable technical infrastructure operations needs to be a core
capability of the IT function.
October 5, 2020 26
ITIL V4
• ITIL 4 is an update to the existing ITIL service management framework
• It is intended to focus on end-to-end general (rather than just IT) service management
from demand to value
• It describes an operating model for the delivery of information technology-enabled
products and services
• Framework mapping uses the ITIL V4 Practices
October 5, 2020 27
ITIL V4
Framework
Four
Dimensions
Model
Organisations
and People
Information
and
Technology
Partners and
Suppliers
Value Streams
and Processes
Service Value
System (SVS)
Guiding
Principles Governance Service Value
Chain
Continual
Improvement Practices
General
Management
Practices
Service
Management
Practices
Technical
Management
Practices
ITIL V4 Practices Structure
October 5, 2020 28
ITIL V4
General Management
Strategy Management
Portfolio Management
Architecture Management
Service Financial Management
Workforce And Talent Management
Continual Improvement
Measurement And Reporting
Risk Management
Information Security Management
Knowledge Management
Organizational Change Management
Project Management
Relationship Management
Supplier Management
Service Management
Business Analysis
Service Catalogue Management
Service Design
Service Level Management
Availability Management
Capacity And Performance Management
Service Continuity Management
Monitoring And Event Management
Service Desk
Incident Management
Service Request Management
Problem Management
Release Management
Change Enablement
Service Validation And Testing
Service Configuration Management
IT Asset Management
Technical Management
Deployment Management
Infrastructure And Platform
Management
Software Development And
Management
ITIL V4 To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping
October 5, 2020 29
ITIL V4 To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping
Summary
October 5, 2020 30
Number of Generic
Capabilities Mapped to
by More Than One
Framework Capability
8 • 1 - Business Strategy Alignment and Information Technology Strategy Management and Planning
• 9 - Organisation Design and Change Management
• 11 - Overall Information Technology Architecture, Portfolio, Platform, Standards, Methodologies,
Instrumentation and Toolset Management
• 12 - Data, Information and Knowledge Asset Management, Data Protection and Analytics
• 13 - Security, Risk Management, Continuity and Disaster Recovery
• 23 - Technology Operations Management, Service Strategy, Delivery and Support
• 24 - Solution Portfolio Management
• 28 - Solution Development, Delivery, Implementation, Configuration, Release to Production
Number of Framework
Capabilities Mapped to
More Than One Generic
Capability
2 • 25 - Develop And Execute IT Resilience And Continuity Operations
• 43 - Manage Business Information Content
Number of Generic
Capabilities Not
Mapped To
9 • 4 - Sourcing and Supplier Performance Assessment, Management and Governance
• 5 - Programme Management, Portfolio Management, Project Management
• 8 - People Resource Management and Skills Development and Delivery
• 16 - Technology Component, Platform and Data Integration
• 17 - Business and Process Analysis and Design
• 18 - Solution Consumer Experience Design
• 19 - Solution Evaluation, Selection, Acquisition/Procurement
• 22 - Knowledge and Collaboration Management, Training, Documentation
• 27 - Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Operations
ITIL V4 Capability Gaps Across The IT Function
Pipeline
• Gaps reflect the primary service management focus of ITIL
October 5, 2020 31
ITIL V4 To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping
– Potential Gaps
Major Capability Intended Purpose and Scope
IT Leadership and Governance The provision of leadership, guidance and direction and the exercising of management and control to the IT function and to
the wider business in terms of demonstrating what IT can do for the business and in building trust in the IT function is a
foundational capability.
Technology Trend Analysis, Innovation
Management and Technology
Prototyping, Piloting and Validation
The IT function needs to consistently and methodically devote time and resources to researching new technologies, trends
and initiatives to determine their potential applicability to the organisation. This needs to include trialling and prototyping
new technologies.
Solution Architecture, Analysis, Selection,
Design and Presentation
The capability to create effective solution designs and to analyse solution requirements, present solution options and
determine the most suitable solution is a core capability of the IT function.
Infrastructure, Networks,
Communications and Telephony
Architecture and Design
As organisations operate in an increasing diverse and connected IT infrastructure landscape and where network
connectivity represents a threat vector, specific detailed knowledge of infrastructure, network and telecommunications is
a necessary and important IT function major capability.
Technology Component, Platform and
Data Integration
As IT solutions and their data exist on multiple separate platforms and as initiatives such as digital transformation mean
that the organisation must extend its integration outside its boundaries, the capability to understand integration
requirements ad design, implement and operate integration solutions is important.
Solution Consumer Experience Design Solution usability is a separate specialist skill from solution design, delivery and implementation. As organisations deploy
more solutions outside the organisation on various channels and platforms as part of digital transformation initiatives,
solution consumer usability is becoming more important.
Solution Evaluation, Selection,
Acquisition/Procurement
The operationalisation of the capability to identify solution selection factors, evaluate and select solutions and their
suppliers and manage the solution procurement and acquisition process is of increasing importance to the IT function.
Data Management, Design and
Administration
As well as defining and implementing data architectures, the IT function needs to be good at the operationalisation of data
design and management activities. Again, in the context of the greater use of XaaS models where data is decentralised, this
is very important.
Infrastructure, Networks,
Communications and Telephony
Operations
The ability to ensure effective operation of all aspects of IT infrastructure, both on-premises and externally located, and
organisation networks and communications to ensure reliable technical infrastructure operations needs to be a core
capability of the IT function.
October 5, 2020 32
IT-CMF
• IT-CMF in intended to be a systematic framework aiming at
improving IT capability and identifying and prioritising opportunities,
reducing cost and optimising the business value of IT investments
• It is a proprietary framework centred on a commercial critical
capability maturity assessment
• It is can be viewed as a meta-framework that attempts to identify an
IT organisation’s maturity in its key critical practices
• It is effectively a collection of (currently) 37 individual maturity
models, one for each of its critical processes
• It seeks to identify the important areas where the IT function wants
or needs to improve to deliver business value
− Attempts to discover the critical gaps in maturity that are preventing IT
delivering business value
− Looks to determine appropriate levels of maturity for the organisation for
critical IT processes
October 5, 2020 33
IT-CMF To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping
October 5, 2020 34
IT-CMF To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping
Summary
October 5, 2020 35
Number of Generic
Capabilities Mapped to
by More Than One
Framework Capability
10 • 1 - Business Strategy Alignment and Information Technology Strategy Management and Planning
• 2 - IT Leadership and Governance
• 5 - Programme Management, Portfolio Management, Project Management
• 6 - Accounting, Funding, Financing, Budgeting and Planning
• 7 - Demand and Supply Management, Capacity Forecasting and Planning
• 9 - Organisation Design and Change Management
• 10 - Technology Trend Analysis, Innovation Management and Technology Prototyping, Piloting and Validation
• 12 - Data, Information and Knowledge Asset Management, Data Protection and Analytics
• 22 - Knowledge and Collaboration Management, Training, Documentation
• 28 - Solution Development, Delivery, Implementation, Configuration, Release to Production
Number of Framework
Capabilities Mapped to
More Than One Generic
Capability
2 • 15 - Funding and Financing
• 32 - Programme Management
Number of Generic
Capabilities Not
Mapped To
7 • 14 - Solution Architecture, Analysis, Selection, Design and Presentation
• 15 - Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Architecture and Design
• 16 - Technology Component, Platform and Data Integration
• 20 - Testing and Quality
• 21 - Data Management, Design and Administration
• 24 - Solution Portfolio Management
• 26 - Security, Continuity, Backup and Disaster Recovery Operations
IT-CMF Capability Gaps Across The IT Function
Pipeline
• Some of the gaps such as solution architecture and
testing/quality are difficult to explain given the intended
focus of IT-CMF
October 5, 2020 36
IT-CMF To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping
– Potential Gaps
Major Capability Intended Purpose and Scope
Solution Architecture, Analysis, Selection,
Design and Presentation
The capability to create effective solution designs and to analyse solution requirements, present solution options and
determine the most suitable solution is a core capability of the IT function.
Infrastructure, Networks,
Communications and Telephony
Architecture and Design
As organisations operate in an increasing diverse and connected IT infrastructure landscape and where network
connectivity represents a threat vector, specific detailed knowledge of infrastructure, network and telecommunications is
a necessary and important IT function major capability.
Technology Component, Platform and
Data Integration
As IT solutions and their data exist on multiple separate platforms and as initiatives such as digital transformation mean
that the organisation must extend its integration outside its boundaries, the capability to understand integration
requirements ad design, implement and operate integration solutions is important.
Solution Evaluation, Selection,
Acquisition/Procurement
The operationalisation of the capability to identify solution selection factors, evaluate and select solutions and their
suppliers and manage the solution procurement and acquisition process is of increasing importance to the IT function.
Testing and Quality A testing and quality competence and capacity has broad applicability across the IT function to validate the introduction of
solution, service and organisation changes to maximise their success.
Data Management, Design and
Administration
As well as defining and implementing data architectures, the IT function needs to be good at the operationalisation of data
design and management activities. Again, in the context of the greater use of XaaS models where data is decentralised, this
is very important.
Solution Portfolio Management The portfolio of existing business systems and solutions needs to be managed, changed, upgraded, enhanced, kept current
and selectively consolidated and replaced where appropriate.
October 5, 2020 37
IT4IT
• IT4IT is intended to be a reference architecture for the
management of the IT function
• It aims to take a value chain approach to create a model of the
functions that IT performs and the services it provides to assist
organisations in the identification of the activities that
contribute to business competitiveness
• It is intended to be an integrated framework for the
management of IT that emphasises IT service lifecycles
• It aims to identify what the IT function must do well
• It looks to attain efficiencies using supply chain-like approach
to IT services
• IT4IT reference architecture specifies an IT Value Chain
October 5, 2020 38
IT4IT To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping
October 5, 2020 39
IT4IT To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping
Summary
October 5, 2020 40
Number of Generic
Capabilities Mapped to
by More Than One
Framework Capability
8 • 3 - Business Relationship Management and Business Engagement
• 20 - Testing and Quality
• 23 - Technology Operations Management, Service Strategy, Delivery and Support
• 28 - Solution Development, Delivery, Implementation, Configuration, Release to Production
Number of Framework
Capabilities Mapped to
More Than One Generic
Capability
2 • 29 - Problem Management
Number of Generic
Capabilities Not
Mapped To
16 • 1 - Business Strategy Alignment and Information Technology Strategy Management and Planning
• 4 - Sourcing and Supplier Performance Assessment, Management and Governance
• 8 - People Resource Management and Skills Development and Delivery
• 9 - Organisation Design and Change Management
• 10 - Technology Trend Analysis, Innovation Management and Technology Prototyping, Piloting and Validation
• 12 - Data, Information and Knowledge Asset Management, Data Protection and Analytics
• 13 - Security, Risk Management, Continuity and Disaster Recovery
• 14 - Solution Architecture, Analysis, Selection, Design and Presentation
• 15 - Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Architecture and Design
• 16 - Technology Component, Platform and Data Integration
• 18 - Solution Consumer Experience Design
• 19 - Solution Evaluation, Selection, Acquisition/Procurement
• 21 - Data Management, Design and Administration
• 25 - Technology and Platform Infrastructure and Asset Management
• 26 - Security, Continuity, Backup and Disaster Recovery Operations
• 27 - Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Operations
IT4IT To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping –
Potential Gaps - 1
Major Capability Intended Purpose and Scope
Business Strategy Alignment and
Information Technology Strategy
Management and Planning
The IT function needs to develop its own strategy in response to the overall business strategy. The IT function strategy must
be defined to enable delivery of the business strategy. It must have an internal and external focus. The IT function must
also assist with the definition of the business strategy by identifying how technology can inform and assist the business
strategy. The business and IT strategies must be kept aligned.
IT Leadership and Governance The provision of leadership, guidance and direction and the exercising of management and control to the IT function and to
the wider business in terms of demonstrating what IT can do for the business and in building trust in the IT function is a
foundational capability.
Sourcing and Supplier Performance
Assessment, Management and
Governance
One of the key roles of the IT function is to manage its ecosystem of solution and service providers, the level of service
provided, value for money obtained and the risks associated with the over-concentration on a small number of suppliers
must be managed. Strategic suppliers must be selected, monitored and managed carefully. The overall sourcing and
supplier management direction for the organisation must be defined and communicated. In the context of outsourcing and
use of XaaS solution and service models, supplier and sourcing is of vital importance,
People Resource Management and Skills
Development and Delivery
The structuring and staffing of the IT function, the identification of the skills needed, the sourcing of personnel, the career
and succession planning and management is an essential capability.
Organisation Design and Change
Management
The IT function generally leads the introduction of new services and solutions and the associated process and organisation
change. An important factor in the success of new solutions and services is the success of the organisation and process
changes needed to ensure their successful adoption and use. The IT function needs to be capable of leading and managing
the introduction of organisation as well as technology change.
Technology Trend Analysis, Innovation
Management and Technology
Prototyping, Piloting and Validation
The IT function needs to consistently and methodically devote time and resources to researching new technologies, trends
and initiatives to determine their potential applicability to the organisation. This needs to include trialling and prototyping
new technologies.
Data, Information and Knowledge Asset
Architecture and Management, Data
Protection and Analytics
Data breathes life into technology solutions. Solutions exist to receive, process, generate and store data. Data architecture
and management along the data processing pipeline and data lifecycle is a necessary IT function capability. All too
frequently organisations are rich is raw data and poor in information, insight and value from that data. The IT function
implements and operates solutions that exist as disconnected data islands. The pace of introduction of new data
technology solutions means the IT function must possess a broad ad deep data capability. The context of the organisation
data landscape is changing through greater XaaS usage, introducing more complexity that needs to be understood and
managed.
October 5, 2020 41
IT4IT To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping –
Potential Gaps - 2
Major Capability Intended Purpose and Scope
Security, Risk Management, Continuity
and Disaster Recovery
Designing and implementing security architecture and constituent solutions across the IT technology landscape is a
fundamental IT capability. Maintaining the security of IT assets and ensuring continuity of operations is a continuous
activity. Security encompasses a wide range of activities from identifying and managing security risks, preventing security
breaches and identifying and recovering from security events.
Solution Architecture, Analysis, Selection,
Design and Presentation
The capability to create effective solution designs and to analyse solution requirements, present solution options and
determine the most suitable solution is a core capability of the IT function.
Infrastructure, Networks,
Communications and Telephony
Architecture and Design
As organisations operate in an increasing diverse and connected IT infrastructure landscape and where network
connectivity represents a threat vector, specific detailed knowledge of infrastructure, network and telecommunications is
a necessary and important IT function major capability.
Technology Component, Platform and
Data Integration
As IT solutions and their data exist on multiple separate platforms and as initiatives such as digital transformation mean
that the organisation must extend its integration outside its boundaries, the capability to understand integration
requirements ad design, implement and operate integration solutions is important.
Solution Consumer Experience Design Solution usability is a separate specialist skill from solution design, delivery and implementation. As organisations deploy
more solutions outside the organisation on various channels and platforms as part of digital transformation initiatives,
solution consumer usability is becoming more important.
Solution Evaluation, Selection,
Acquisition/Procurement
The operationalisation of the capability to identify solution selection factors, evaluate and select solutions and their
suppliers and manage the solution procurement and acquisition process is of increasing importance to the IT function.
Data Management, Design and
Administration
As well as defining and implementing data architectures, the IT function needs to be good at the operationalisation of data
design and management activities. Again, in the context of the greater use of XaaS models where data is decentralised, this
is very important.
Solution Portfolio Management The portfolio of existing business systems and solutions needs to be managed, changed, upgraded, enhanced, kept current
and selectively consolidated and replaced where appropriate.
Technology and Platform Infrastructure
and Asset Management
The landscape of IT infrastructure and technology assets, both on-premises and deployed and operates through
outsourcing and XaaS models needs to managed to ensure continuity, reliability and consistency of operations and service
delivery and the implementation of supporting processes and technologies is a central IT capability.
Security, Continuity, Backup and Disaster
Recovery Operations
The IT function needs to operationalise and industrialise security, continuity, backup and recovery activities and the
continuous monitoring of and response to events in the security, risk and threat landscape.
Infrastructure, Networks,
Communications and Telephony
Operations
The IT function needs to operationalise and industrialise the provision of networking, communications and telephony
services. This is more important in the increasing diverse and connected IT infrastructure landscape.
October 5, 2020 42
IT4IT Capability Gaps Across The IT Function Pipeline
• Significant number of gaps along the span of IT function capabilities
• Indicative of the focus on operational and service management
areas rather than on the broader end-to-end view
October 5, 2020 43
European e-Competence Framework (ECF)
• Aims to provide a reference of competences
required and applied in Information and
Communication Technology (ICT)
• Five ECF dimensions:
1. Five high-level competency areas
2. 40 competencies within competency areas
3. Required proficiency area for each
competency – five possible levels
1. Contributes, performs work and acts under
guidance
2. Acts systematically and organises work
3. Exploits specialist knowledge and applies
creativity and accounts for own and others’
actions
4. Provides leadership and takes responsibility and
exploits wide ranging specialist knowledge
5. Applies strategic thinking and organisational
leadership and makes strategic decisions
4. Knowledge required for competency
5. Skills required for competency
Dimension 1 –
Competency
Area
Dimension 2 -
Competency
Dimension 3 –
Competency
Proficiency Level
Dimension 4 –
Competency
Knowledge
Dimension 5 –
Competency
Skills
5 October 2020 44
European e-Competence Framework (ECF)
ECF Framework
A. Plan
A.1. IS and Business
Strategy Alignment
A.2. Service Level
Management
A.3. Business Plan
Development
A.4. Product / Service
Planning
A.5. Architecture Design
A.6. Application Design
A.7. Technology Trend
Monitoring
A.8. Sustainable
Development
A.9. Innovating
B. Build
B.1. Application
Development
B.2. Component
Integration
B.3. Testing
B.4. Solution
Deployment
B.5. Documentation
Production
B.6. Systems Engineering
C. Run
C.1. User Support
C.2. Change Support
C.3. Service Delivery
C.4. Problem
Management
D. Enable
D.1. Information Security
Strategy Development
D.2. ICT Quality Strategy
Development
D.3. Education and
Training Provision
D.4. Purchasing
D.5. Sales Proposal
Development
D.6. Channel
Management
D.7. Sales Management
D.8. Contract
Management
D.9. Personnel
Development
D.10. Information and
Knowledge Management
D.11. Needs
Identification
D.12. Digital Marketing
E. Manage
E.1. Forecast
Development
E.2. Project and Portfolio
Management
E.3. Risk Management
E.4. Relationship
Management
E.5. Process
Improvement
E.6. ICT Quality
Management
E.7. Business Change
Management
E.8. Information Security
Management
E.9. IS Governance
5 October 2020 45
ECF To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping
October 5, 2020 46
ECF To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping
Summary
October 5, 2020 47
Number of Generic
Capabilities Mapped to
by More Than One
Framework Capability
11 • 1 - Business Strategy Alignment and Information Technology Strategy Management and Planning
• 3 - Business Relationship Management and Business Engagement
• 10 - Technology Trend Analysis, Innovation Management and Technology Prototyping, Piloting and Validation
• 13 - Security, Risk Management, Continuity and Disaster Recovery
• 14 - Solution Architecture, Analysis, Selection, Design and Presentation
• 17 - Business and Process Analysis and Design
• 20 - Testing and Quality
• 22 - Knowledge and Collaboration Management, Training, Documentation
• 23 - Technology Operations Management, Service Strategy, Delivery and Support
• 28 - Solution Development, Delivery, Implementation, Configuration, Release to Production
Number of Framework
Capabilities Mapped to
More Than One Generic
Capability
0
Number of Generic
Capabilities Not
Mapped To
11 • 4 - Sourcing and Supplier Performance Assessment, Management and Governance
• 6 - Accounting, Funding, Financing, Budgeting and Planning
• 11 - Overall Information Technology Architecture, Portfolio, Platform, Standards, Methodologies,
Instrumentation and Toolset Management
• 12 - Data, Information and Knowledge Asset Management, Data Protection and Analytics
• 15 - Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Architecture and Design
• 18 - Solution Consumer Experience Design
• 21 - Data Management, Design and Administration
• 24 - Solution Portfolio Management
• 25 - Technology and Platform Infrastructure and Asset Management
• 26 - Security, Continuity, Backup and Disaster Recovery Operations
• 27 - Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Operations
ECF Capability Gaps Across The IT Function Pipeline
October 5, 2020 48
• There are gaps across the generic framework in areas of
data, supplier and solution sourcing, finance and
infrastructure
ECF To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping –
Potential Gaps - 1
Major Capability Intended Purpose and Scope
Sourcing and Supplier Performance
Assessment, Management and
Governance
One of the key roles of the IT function is to manage its ecosystem of solution and service providers, the level of service
provided, value for money obtained and the risks associated with the over-concentration on a small number of suppliers
must be managed. Strategic suppliers must be selected, monitored and managed carefully. The overall sourcing and
supplier management direction for the organisation must be defined and communicated. In the context of outsourcing and
use of XaaS solution and service models, supplier and sourcing is of vital importance,
Accounting, Funding, Financing,
Budgeting and Planning
The IT function needs to be able to plan and manage its budget and the subsequent spending on existing and new services.
Overall Information Technology
Architecture, Portfolio, Platform,
Standards, Methodologies,
Instrumentation and Toolset
Management
Defining the overall IT architecture, the portfolio of existing and new solutions and services and the associated
implementation, delivery and operation standards, toolsets and methodologies is a strategic IT function capability.
Data, Information and Knowledge Asset
Architecture and Management, Data
Protection and Analytics
Data breathes life into technology solutions. Solutions exist to receive, process, generate and store data. Data architecture
and management along the data processing pipeline and data lifecycle is a necessary IT function capability. All too
frequently organisations are rich is raw data and poor in information, insight and value from that data. The IT function
implements and operates solutions that exist as disconnected data islands. The pace of introduction of new data
technology solutions means the IT function must possess a broad ad deep data capability. The context of the organisation
data landscape is changing through greater XaaS usage, introducing more complexity that needs to be understood and
managed.
Infrastructure, Networks,
Communications and Telephony
Architecture and Design
As organisations operate in an increasing diverse and connected IT infrastructure landscape and where network
connectivity represents a threat vector, specific detailed knowledge of infrastructure, network and telecommunications is
a necessary and important IT function major capability.
October 5, 2020 49
ECF To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping –
Potential Gaps - 2
Major Capability Intended Purpose and Scope
Solution Consumer Experience Design Solution usability is a separate specialist skill from solution design, delivery and implementation. As organisations deploy
more solutions outside the organisation on various channels and platforms as part of digital transformation initiatives,
solution consumer usability is becoming more important.
Data Management, Design and
Administration
As well as defining and implementing data architectures, the IT function needs to be good at the operationalisation of data
design and management activities. Again, in the context of the greater use of XaaS models where data is decentralised, this
is very important.
Solution Portfolio Management The portfolio of existing business systems and solutions needs to be managed, changed, upgraded, enhanced, kept current
and selectively consolidated and replaced where appropriate.
Technology and Platform Infrastructure
and Asset Management
The landscape of IT infrastructure and technology assets, both on-premises and deployed and operates through
outsourcing and XaaS models needs to managed to ensure continuity, reliability and consistency of operations and service
delivery and the implementation of supporting processes and technologies is a central IT capability.
Security, Continuity, Backup and Disaster
Recovery Operations
The IT function needs to operationalise and industrialise security, continuity, backup and recovery activities and the
continuous monitoring of and response to events in the security, risk and threat landscape.
Infrastructure, Networks,
Communications and Telephony
Operations
The IT function needs to operationalise and industrialise the provision of networking, communications and telephony
services. This is more important in the increasing diverse and connected IT infrastructure landscape.
October 5, 2020 50
SFIA (Skills Framework For The Information Age)
• SFIA describes the skills and competencies required by professionals in
roles involved in information and communication technologies, digital
transformation and software engineering
• Not mapped here because of the large number of competencies
October 5, 2020 51
• Seven skill levels for each role area:
1. Follow
2. Assist
3. Apply
4. Enable
5. Ensure, Advise
6. Initiate, Influence
7. Set Strategy, Inspire, Mobilise
• Five attributes used to classify
each skill level
1. Autonomy
2. Influence
3. Complexity
4. Knowledge
5. Business Skills
Skill Level Attributes
Autonomy Influence Complexity Knowledge Business Skills
Follow
Assist
Apply
Enable
Ensure, Advise
Initiate, Influence
Set Strategy, Inspire,
Mobilise
SFIA – Levels 1 And 2
Strategy And Architecture
Information Strategy
Advice And Guidance
Business Strategy And Planning
Technical Strategy And Planning
Change And Transformation
Business Change Implementation
Business Change Management
Development And Implementation
Systems Development
User Experience
Installation And Integration
Delivery And Operation
Service Design
Service Transition
Service Operation
Skills And Quality
Skill Management
People Management
Quality And Conformance
Relationships And Engagement
Stakeholder Management
Sales And Marketing
5 October 2020 52
SFIA – Levels 1, 2 And 3
Strategy And
Architecture
Information
Strategy
Enterprise IT
Governance
Strategic
Planning
Information
Governance
Information
Systems
Coordination
Information
Security
Information
Assurance
Analytics
Data
Visualisation
Information
Content
Publishing
Advice And
Guidance
Consultancy
Specialist
Advice
Business
Strategy And
Planning
Demand
Management
IT
Management
Financial
Management
Innovation
Research
Business
Process
Improvement
Knowledge
Management
Enterprise
And Business
Architecture
Business Risk
Management
Sustainability
Technical
Strategy And
Planning
Emerging
Technology
Monitoring
Continuity
Management
Network
Planning
Solution
Architecture
Data
Management
Methods And
Tools
Change And
Transformation
Business
Change
Implementati
on
Portfolio
Management
Programme
Management
Project
Management
Portfolio,
Programme
And Project
Support
Business
Change
Management
Business
Analysis
Business
Modelling
Requirements
Definition And
Management
Organisational
Capability
Development
Organisation
Design And
Implementati
on
Change
Implementati
on Planning
And
Management
Business
Process
Testing
Benefits
Management
Development
And
Implementatio
n
Systems
Development
Systems
Development
Management
Systems
Design
Software
Design
Programming/
Software
Development
Real-Time/
Embedded
Systems
Development
Animation
Development
Data
Modelling And
Design
Database
Design
Network
Design
Testing
Safety
Engineering
Information
Content
Authoring
User
Experience
User Research
User
Experience
Analysis
User
Experience
Design
User
Experience
Evaluation
Installation
And
Integration
Systems
Integration
And Build
Porting/Softw
are
Configuration
Hardware
Design
Systems
Installation/
Decommission
ing
Delivery And
Operation
Service Design
Availability
Management
Service Level
Management
Service
Transition
Service
Acceptance
Configuration
Management
Asset
Management
Change
Management
Release And
Deployment
Service
Operation
System
Software
Capacity
Management
Security
Administratio
n
Penetration
Testing
Radio
Frequency
Engineering
Application
Support
IT
Infrastructure
Database
Administratio
n
Storage
Management
Network
Support
Problem
Management
Incident
Management
Facilities
Management
Skills And
Quality
Skill
Management
Learning And
Development
Management
Competency
Assessment
Learning
Design And
Development
Learning
Delivery
Teaching And
Subject
Formation
People
Management
Performance
Management
Resourcing
Professional
Development
Quality And
Conformance
Quality
Management
Quality
Assurance
Measurement
Conformance
Review
Safety
Assessment
Digital
Forensics
Relationships
And
Engagement
Stakeholder
Management
Sourcing
Supplier
Management
Contract
Management
Relationship
Management
Customer
Service
Support
Sales And
Marketing
Marketing
Selling
Sales Support
Product
Management
5 October 2020 53
Summary Of Capability Model Gaps
• Each of the IT capability frameworks has different gaps – none span the complete
range of necessary capabilities from strategy to operations and delivery
• No one framework covers all of the generic capabilities
October 5, 2020 54
APQC PCF COBIT 2019 ITIL V4 IT-CMF ECF IT4IT
Dimensions Of Capabilities
• The relative importance of capabilities
are not the same for all organisations and
they do not remain the same over time
• Organisations of different types,
operating sectors, profiles and levels of IT
maturity and expertise will have different
views of which capabilities are important
• Capability frameworks tend to be static
and do not allow for variability in
importance
October 5, 2020 55
Capabilities
Relative
Importance
Capabilities
Gaps Current
Level of
Expertise
Capabilities
Desired
Future Level
of Expertise
Effort to
Improve
Capabilities
Capability
Importance
Current Level of
Expertise and
Gaps
Desired Level of
Expertise
Effort and
Resources
Every Organisation Will Have A Different Capability
Importance Profile
October 5, 2020 56
Capability
Importance
Profile 1
Capability
Importance
Profile 2
Capability
Importance
Profile 3
Organisation Capability Importance Profile And
Improvement Activities
• In order to use a capability framework effectively you must
first understand your organisation’s capability importance
profile
• You then must quantify your capability gaps
• Importance X gaps = capabilities to focus on
• You cannot expect to improve your expertise across
capabilities at the same time
• You need to prioritise improvement efforts
• Defining those IT capabilities that are most important for
your organisation is just a starting point
• Those capabilities must then be translated into a structure and an operating
model
October 5, 2020 57
Staffing And
Roles
Operating
Model
Capabilities And IT Function Structure And
Operation
• Capabilities are just one element
of the design, structure and
operation of the IT function
− Capabilities – skills and abilities the IT
function should possess and be able
to use effectively and efficiently
− IT Function Structure – the
organisation and arrangement of the
sub-functions and their
responsibilities and relationships
− Operating Model – how the IT
function work and delivers value and
the processes it implements and
operates
− Staffing And Roles – the numbers of
people, their roles, responsibilities,
expected skills, experience and
abilities, workload, reporting
structures and expected ways of
operating
IT Function
Structure
Capabilities
5 October 2020 58
Capabilities And IT Function Structure And
Operation
IT Function
Structure
Staffing And
Roles
Capabilities
Operating
Model
Staff Must Have Skills
to Provide IT
Function Capabilities
Operating Model Defines How the
Personnel Work and the Processes
they Operate to Delivery Value
IT Function
Structure Must be
Populated with
Staff in Defined
Roles
Staff Must Have Skills
to Provide IT
Function Capabilities
Operating Model Breathes Life
into the Function Structure
Operating Model
Defines How
Capabilities are Used
5 October 2020 59
Summary
• Existing framework do not capture or cater for the end-to-
end complexity of the IT function
• Existing frameworks are static and do not explicitly handle
variability in capability profiles across organisations
• A synthesis of what is best from the existing frameworks is
required to create a complete view of necessary IT
capabilities and to define a programme of work to achieve
the necessary improvements
• Capabilities need to be mapped to a specific IT function
structure with role definitions, staffing and an operating
model
October 5, 2020 60
More Information
Alan McSweeney
http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney
https://www.amazon.com/dp/1797567616
5 October 2020 61

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Review of Information Technology Function Critical Capability Models

  • 1. Review of Information Technology Function Critical Capability Models Alan McSweeney http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney https://www.amazon.com/dp/1797567616
  • 2. IT Function Capabilities • These capabilities are key areas where the IT function needs to maintain significant levels of competence, skill and experience and practise • There are several different IT capability frameworks • Objective here is to assess the suitability and applicability of these frameworks • Use these models to identify what is important for your IT function based on your current and desired/necessary activity profile • Capabilities vary across organisation – not all capabilities have the same importance for all organisations • Frameworks do not readily accommodate variability in the relative importance of capabilities October 5, 2020 2
  • 3. IT Function Critical Capability Models • Models evaluated 1. IT4IT Reference Architecture https://www.opengroup.org/it4it contains 32 functional components 2. European e-Competence Framework (ECF) http://www.ecompetences.eu/ contains 40 competencies 3. ITIL V4 https://www.axelos.com/best-practice-solutions/itil has 34 management practices 4. COBIT 2019 https://www.isaca.org/resources/cobit has 40 management and control processes 5. APQC Process Classification Framework - https://www.apqc.org/process-performance-management/process- frameworks version 7.2.1 has 44 major IT management processes 6. IT Capability Maturity Framework (IT-CMF) https://ivi.ie/critical- capabilities/ contains 37 critical capabilities • Model not evaluated − Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA) - http://www.sfia- online.org/ lists over 100 skills October 5, 2020 3
  • 4. Capabilities And Meta-Capabilities • In the context of trends and initiatives such as outsourcing, transition to cloud services and greater platform-based offerings, should the IT function develop and enhance its meta-capabilities – the management of the delivery of capabilities? • Is capability identification and delivery management the most important capability? • Outsourced service delivery in all its forms is not a fire- and-forget activity • You can outsource the provision of any service except the management of the supply of that service October 5, 2020 4
  • 5. Generalised Set Of Capabilities For An IT Function • The objective here is to identify a generalised set of capabilities needed across the span of IT function operations, from strategy to operations and delivery • Generic model can then be used to assess individual frameworks to determine their scope and coverage • Generic model proposed here consists of five groups or domains of major capabilities that can be organised across the span of the IT function 1. Information Technology Strategy, Management and Governance 2. Technology and Platforms Standards Development and Management 3. Technology and Solution Consulting and Delivery 4. Operational Run The Business/Business as Usual/Service Provision 5. Change The Business/Development and Introduction of New Services October 5, 2020 5
  • 6. Five Generic Capability Domains October 5, 2020 6 Strategy Architecture, Standards and Methodologies Technology Consulting Operational Run The Business New Service Change The Business
  • 7. Levels Of Generic Structure • Level 1 – Capability Groups or Capability Domains − Level 2 – Major Cross-Functional Capabilities • Level 3 – Individual Areas of Skill, Expertise and Capability Within Major Capability • No absolute right and wrong way to classify capabilities or to group some capabilities as level 2 rather than level 3 • Objective is to identify what is important to your organisation and what is missing or deficient October 5, 2020 7
  • 8. Generalised IT Capability Model October 5, 2020 8 Overarching strategy, business alignment, management and governance capabilities establishing and defining the principles of operation of the IT function Common standards and delivery capabilities across all operational areas Information Technology Strategy, Management and Governance Technology and Platforms Standards Development and Management Technology and Solution Consulting and Delivery Operational Run The Business/ Business as Usual/Service Provision Change The Business/ Development and Introduction of New Services Capabilities relating to the delivery of services and solutions Capabilities relating to running and maintaining the existing set of business services and solutions Capabilities relating to the delivery of new services and solutions
  • 9. Generalised IT Function Capability Groups And Their Capabilities October 5, 2020 9 ``
  • 10. Generalised IT Function Sets Of Groups And Their Capabilities Generic IT Function Capabilities Information Technology Strategy, Management and Governance Business Strategy Alignment and Information Technology Strategy Management and Planning IT Leadership and Governance Business Relationship Management and Business Engagement Sourcing and Supplier Management and Governance Programme Management, Portfolio Management, Project Management Accounting, Funding, Financing, Budgeting and Planning Demand and Supply Management, Capacity Forecasting and Planning People Resource Management and Skills Development and Delivery Organisation Design and Change Management Technology and Platforms Standards Development and Management Technology Trend Analysis, Innovation Management and Technology Prototyping, Piloting and Validation Information Technology Architecture, Portfolio, Platform, Standards, Instrumentation and Toolset Management Data, Information and Knowledge Asset Architecture and Management, Data Protection and Analytics Security, Continuity and Disaster Recovery Solution Architecture, Analysis, Selection, Design and Presentation Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Architecture and Design Technology Component, Platform and Data Integration Technology and Solution Consulting and Delivery Business and Process Analysis and Design Solution Consumer Experience Design Solution Evaluation, Selection, Acquisition/Procurement Testing and Quality Data Management, Design and Administration Knowledge and Collaboration Management, Training, Documentation, Training Operational Run The Business/Business as Usual/Service Provision Technology Operations Management, Service Architecture and Design, Delivery and Support Solution Portfolio Management Technology and Platform Infrastructure and Asset Management Security, Continuity, Backup and Disaster Recovery Operations Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Operations Change The Business/Development and Introduction of New Services Solution Development, Delivery, Implementation, Configuration, Release to Production October 5, 2020 10
  • 11. Structure Of Groups Of Generic Capabilities • The arrangement of the generic capability groups can be view as a funnel … • … moving skills from the strategic and general to the specific along the span of the IT function October 5, 2020 11
  • 12. Scope And Applicability Of Generic Major Capabilities October 5, 2020 12 Business Strategy Alignment and Information Technology Strategy Management and Planning IT Leadership and Governance Business Relationship Management and Business Engagement Sourcing and Supplier Performance Assessment, Management and Governance Programme Management, Portfolio Management, Project Management Accounting, Funding, Financing, Budgeting and Planning Demand and Supply Management, Capacity Forecasting and Planning People Resource Management and Skills Development and Delivery Organisation Design and Change Management Technology Trend Analysis, Innovation Management and Technology Prototyping, Piloting and Validation Information Technology Architecture, Portfolio, Platform, Standards, Instrumentation and Toolset Management Data, Information and Knowledge Asset Architecture and Management, Data Protection and Analytics Security, Continuity and Disaster Recovery Solution Architecture, Analysis, Selection, Design and Presentation Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Architecture and Design Technology Component, Platform and Data Integration Business and Process Analysis and Design Solution Consumer Experience Design Solution Evaluation, Selection, Acquisition/Procurement Testing and Quality Data Management, Design and Administration Knowledge and Collaboration Management, Training, Documentation, Training Technology Operations Management, Service Architecture and Design, Delivery and Support Solution Portfolio Management Technology and Platform Infrastructure and Asset Management Security, Continuity, Backup and Disaster Recovery Operations Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Operations Solution Development, Delivery, Implementation, Configuration, Release to Production Information Technology Strategy, Management and Governance Technology and Solution Consulting and Delivery Technology and Platforms Standards Development and Management Operational Run The Business/ Business as Usual/ Service Provision Change The Business/ Development and Introduction of New Services
  • 13. Scope And Applicability Of Generic Major Capabilities • Capabilities do not exist in isolation within one domain • Capabilities have an applicability outside their core capability domain − That is the substance of a capability – a generalised rather than a specific technical or other skill and expertise • Capabilities represent important cross-functional competences and capacities • The exploitation and use of these capabilities has a broad relevance and covers a range of areas across the IT function October 5, 2020 13 Business Strategy Alignment and Information Technology Strategy Management and Planning IT Leadership and Governance Business Relationship Management and Business Engagement Sourcing and Supplier Performance Assessment, Management and Governance Programme Management, Portfolio Management, Project Management Accounting, Funding, Financing, Budgeting and Planning Demand and Supply Management, Capacity Forecasting and Planning People Resource Management and Skills Development and Delivery Organisation Design and Change Management Home Domain of Capability Applicability of Capability Across Other Domains
  • 14. Mapping Of Specific Capability Frameworks To Generic Framework • The approach taken is to map the major capabilities of the individual frameworks to the generic IT function capability framework • The objective is to identify gaps and areas in the individual frameworks • The mapping is performed at a high-level only − The extent of the similarity between the specific and generic capabilities is not examined − The depth of the coverage of the individual capability in each framework is not assessed October 5, 2020 14
  • 15. APQC Process Classification Framework (PCF) • Designed to be a set of universal and generalised business processes performed in common by every organisation • Aims to provide a common language to communicate and define business processes • Consists of 13 high-level process groups, of which the management of IT is one 1. Develop Vision and Strategy 2. Develop and Manage Products and Services 3. Market and Sell Products and Services 4. Deliver Physical Products 5. Deliver Services 6. Manage Customer Service 7. Develop and Manage Human Capital 8. Manage Information Technology (IT) 9. Manage Financial Resources 10. Acquire, Construct, and Manage Assets 11. Manage Enterprise Risk, Compliance, Remediation, and Resiliency 12. Manage External Relationships 13. Develop and Manage Business Capabilities October 5, 2020 15
  • 16. APQC Process Classification Framework (PCF) – IT Management Structure October 5, 2020 16 APQC PCF IT Management Develop And Manage IT Customer Relationships Understand IT Customer Needs Identify IT Customer Transformation Needs Plan And Communicate IT Services Provide IT Transformation Guidance Develop And Manage IT Service Levels Manage IT Customer Relationships Analyze Service Performance Develop And Manage IT Business Strategy Define Business Technology And Governance Strategy Manage IT Portfolio Strategy Define And Maintain Enterprise Architecture Define IT Service Management Strategy Control IT Management System Manage IT Value Portfolio Define And Manage Technology Innovation Develop IT Compliance, Risk, And Security Strategy Develop IT Resilience Strategy Develop And Manage IT Resilience And Risk Control IT Risk, Compliance, And Security Plan And Manage IT Continuity Develop And Manage IT Security, Privacy, And Data Protection Conduct And Analyse IT Compliance Assessments Develop And Execute IT Resilience And Continuity Operations Manage IT User Identity And Authorization Manage Information Define Business Information And Analytics Strategy Define And Maintain Business Information Architecture Define And Execute Business Information Lifecycle Planning And Control Manage Business Information Content Develop And Manage Services/Solutions Develop Service/ Solution And Integration Strategy Manage Service/ Solution Lifecycle Planning Develop And Manage Service/Solution Architecture Execute IT Service/ Solution Creation And Testing Perform Service/Solution Maintenance And Testing Deploy Services/Solutions Develop And Manage Service/ Solution Deployment Strategy Plan Service And Solution Implementation Manage Change Deployment Control Implement Technology Solutions Perform Service And Solution Rollout Create And Manage Support Services/ Solutions Define And Establish Service Delivery Strategy Define And Develop Service Support Strategy Plan And Manage Service Delivery Control Develop And Manage Infrastructure Resource Planning Define Service Support Planning Develop And Manage Service Delivery Operations Manage Infrastructure Resource Administration Operate IT User Support
  • 17. APQC To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping October 5, 2020 17
  • 18. APQC To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping Summary October 5, 2020 18 Number of Generic Capabilities Mapped to by More Than One Framework Capability 8 • 1 - Business Strategy Alignment and Information Technology Strategy Management and Planning • 9 - Organisation Design and Change Management • 11 - Overall Information Technology Architecture, Portfolio, Platform, Standards, Methodologies, Instrumentation and Toolset Management • 12 - Data, Information and Knowledge Asset Management, Data Protection and Analytics • 13 - Security, Risk Management, Continuity and Disaster Recovery • 23 - Technology Operations Management, Service Strategy, Delivery and Support • 24 - Solution Portfolio Management • 28 - Solution Development, Delivery, Implementation, Configuration, Release to Production Number of Framework Capabilities Mapped to More Than One Generic Capability 2 • 25 - Develop And Execute IT Resilience And Continuity Operations • 43 - Manage Business Information Content Number of Generic Capabilities Not Mapped To 9 • 4 - Sourcing and Supplier Performance Assessment, Management and Governance • 5 - Programme Management, Portfolio Management, Project Management • 8 - People Resource Management and Skills Development and Delivery • 16 - Technology Component, Platform and Data Integration • 17 - Business and Process Analysis and Design • 18 - Solution Consumer Experience Design • 19 - Solution Evaluation, Selection, Acquisition/Procurement • 22 - Knowledge and Collaboration Management, Training, Documentation • 27 - Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Operations
  • 19. APQC Capability Gaps Across The IT Function Pipeline • Gaps across strategic, technology and solution consulting and delivery and operational run-the-business areas • Gaps perhaps reflect the operational process-focussed nature of the APQC framework October 5, 2020 19
  • 20. APQC To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping – Potential Gaps Major Capability Intended Purpose and Scope Sourcing and Supplier Performance Assessment, Management and Governance The IT function is becoming more and more concerned with supplier and solution identification and selection and their subsequent management and governance, especially of strategic suppliers. The combined trends of greater outsourcing, greater use of XaaS models across all types of cloud services and the movement from custom development to packaged solutions means supplier sourcing is an important major core capability of the IT function. Programme Management, Portfolio Management, Project Management The management of the delivery of programmes and projects is a core IT function capability Demand and Supply Management, Capacity Forecasting and Planning The IT function needs to plan the workload and the required skills and experience across all workload types: strategic planning and management, business as usual and new service introduction. The resources then need to be acquired and formed into appropriate functioning teams. People Resource Management and Skills Development and Delivery The capabilities of the IT function need to be translated into roles filled by people that have the necessary skills. These skills have to be identified and developed. The staffing of the IT function needs to be constantly reviewed and keep current to cater for staff turnover, development and promotion and the constant technology and skills change that affects IT. Business and Process Analysis and Design Business analysis and business process analysis are core capabilities along the spectrum of existing solution and service modification and new solution and service introduction. The business analyst function is core to business engagement. Solution Consumer Experience Design Solution usability is a separate specialist skill from solution design, delivery and implementation. As organisations deploy more solutions outside the organisation on various channels and platforms as part of digital transformation initiatives, solution consumer usability is becoming more important. Solution Evaluation, Selection, Acquisition/Procurement The operationalisation of the capability to identify solution selection factors, evaluate and select solutions and their suppliers and manage the solution procurement and acquisition process is of increasing importance to the IT function. Knowledge and Collaboration Management, Training, Documentation, Training, Training, Documentation The management of knowledge and the implementation and management of knowledge collaboration and sharing and training and documentation relating to system and solution usage is a major IT function capability. This ensures knowledge availability and increases system and solution usability, usage and reduces risk of rejection. Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Operations The ability to ensure effective operation of all aspects of IT infrastructure, both on-premises and externally located, and organisation networks and communications to ensure reliable technical infrastructure operations needs to be a core capability of the IT function. October 5, 2020 20
  • 21. COBIT 2019 • COBIT is a long-established framework for both the governance and management of Information and Technology wherever they occur, aimed at the whole organisation rather than just the IT function • Information and Technology means all the technology and information processing the organisation has implemented and uses to achieve its goals, regardless of where this happens in the organisation • Governance is concerned with defining objectives, setting a direction and performance and compliance monitoring • Management is concerned with the planning, building, running and monitoring activities that are aligned with the direction set by governance • achieve enterprise objectives. • COBIT is concerned with IT governance and management and their controls: − IT must implement internal controls around how it operates − The systems IT delivers to the business and the underlying business processes these systems actualise must be controlled – these are controls external to IT − To govern IT effectively, COBIT defines the activities and risks within IT that need to be managed October 5, 2020 21
  • 22. COBIT 2019 Structure October 5, 2020 22 COBIT 2019 Evaluate, Direct and Monitor (EDM) EDM01 Ensure Governance Framework Setting and Maintenance EDM02 Ensure Benefits Delivery EDM03 Ensure Risk Optimisation EDM04 Ensure Resource Optimisation EDM05 Ensure Stakeholder Transparency Align, Plan and Organise Align, Plan and Organize (APO) APO01 Manage the IT Management Framework APO02 Manage Strategy APO03 Manage Enterprise Architecture APO04 Manage Innovation APO05 Manage Portfolio APO06 Manage Budget and Costs APO07 Manage Human Resources APO08 Manage Relationships APO09 Manage Service Agreements APO10 Manage Suppliers APO11 Manage Quality APO12 Manage Risk APO13 Manage Security APO14 Manage Data Build, Acquire and Implement (BAI) BAI01 Manage Programmes BAI02 Manage Requirements Definition BAI03 Manage Solutions Identification and Build BAI04 Manage Availability and Capacity BAI05 Manage Organisational Change Enablement BAI06 Manage Changes BAI07 Manage Change Acceptance and Transitioning BAI08 Manage Knowledge BAI09 Manage Assets BAI10 Manage Configuration BAI11 Manage Projects Deliver, Service and Support (DSS) DSS01 Manage Operations DSS02 Manage Service Requests and Incidents DSS03 Manage Problems DSS04 Manage Continuity DSS05 Manage Security Services DSS06 Manage Business Process Controls Monitor, Evaluate and Assess (MEA) MEA01 Manage, Monitor, Evaluate and Assess Performance and Conformance MEA02 Manage, Monitor, Evaluate and Assess the System of Internal Control MEA03 Manage, Monitor, Evaluate and Assess Compliance With External Requirements MEA04 Manage Assurance
  • 23. COBIT 19 To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping October 5, 2020 23
  • 24. COBIT 19 To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping Summary October 5, 2020 24 Number of Generic Capabilities Mapped to by More Than One Framework Capability 8 • 1 - Business Strategy Alignment and Information Technology Strategy Management and Planning • 3 - Business Relationship Management and Business Engagement • 5 - Programme Management, Portfolio Management, Project Management • 7 - Demand and Supply Management, Capacity Forecasting and Planning • 9 - Organisation Design and Change Management • 13 - Security, Risk Management, Continuity and Disaster Recovery • 23 - Technology Operations Management, Service Strategy, Delivery and Support • 25 - Technology and Platform Infrastructure and Asset Management Number of Framework Capabilities Mapped to More Than One Generic Capability 1 • 23 - BAI07 Manage Change Acceptance and Transitioning Number of Generic Capabilities Not Mapped To 9 • 2 - IT Leadership and Governance • 6 - Accounting, Funding, Financing, Budgeting and Planning • 14 - Solution Architecture, Analysis, Selection, Design and Presentation • 15 - Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Architecture and Design • 16 - Technology Component, Platform and Data Integration • 18 - Solution Consumer Experience Design • 19 - Solution Evaluation, Selection, Acquisition/Procurement • 21 - Data Management, Design and Administration • 27 - Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Operations
  • 25. COBIT 19 Capability Gaps Across The IT Function Pipeline • Gaps reflect the governance and management focus of COBIT and its omission of some important standards and operational capabilities October 5, 2020 25
  • 26. COBIT 19 To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping – Potential Gaps Major Capability Intended Purpose and Scope Solution Architecture, Analysis, Selection, Design and Presentation The capability to create effective solution designs and to analyse solution requirements, present solution options and determine the most suitable solution is a core capability of the IT function. Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Architecture and Design As organisations operate in an increasing diverse and connected IT infrastructure landscape and where network connectivity represents a threat vector, specific detailed knowledge of infrastructure, network and telecommunications is a necessary and important IT function major capability. Technology Component, Platform and Data Integration As IT solutions and their data exist on multiple separate platforms and as initiatives such as digital transformation mean that the organisation must extend its integration outside its boundaries, the capability to understand integration requirements ad design, implement and operate integration solutions is important. Solution Consumer Experience Design Solution usability is a separate specialist skill from solution design, delivery and implementation. As organisations deploy more solutions outside the organisation on various channels and platforms as part of digital transformation initiatives, solution consumer usability is becoming more important. Solution Evaluation, Selection, Acquisition/Procurement The operationalisation of the capability to identify solution selection factors, evaluate and select solutions and their suppliers and manage the solution procurement and acquisition process is of increasing importance to the IT function. Data Management, Design and Administration As well as defining and implementing data architectures, the IT function needs to be good at the operationalisation of data design and management activities. Again, in the context of the greater use of XaaS models where data is decentralised, this is very important. Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Operations The ability to ensure effective operation of all aspects of IT infrastructure, both on-premises and externally located, and organisation networks and communications to ensure reliable technical infrastructure operations needs to be a core capability of the IT function. October 5, 2020 26
  • 27. ITIL V4 • ITIL 4 is an update to the existing ITIL service management framework • It is intended to focus on end-to-end general (rather than just IT) service management from demand to value • It describes an operating model for the delivery of information technology-enabled products and services • Framework mapping uses the ITIL V4 Practices October 5, 2020 27 ITIL V4 Framework Four Dimensions Model Organisations and People Information and Technology Partners and Suppliers Value Streams and Processes Service Value System (SVS) Guiding Principles Governance Service Value Chain Continual Improvement Practices General Management Practices Service Management Practices Technical Management Practices
  • 28. ITIL V4 Practices Structure October 5, 2020 28 ITIL V4 General Management Strategy Management Portfolio Management Architecture Management Service Financial Management Workforce And Talent Management Continual Improvement Measurement And Reporting Risk Management Information Security Management Knowledge Management Organizational Change Management Project Management Relationship Management Supplier Management Service Management Business Analysis Service Catalogue Management Service Design Service Level Management Availability Management Capacity And Performance Management Service Continuity Management Monitoring And Event Management Service Desk Incident Management Service Request Management Problem Management Release Management Change Enablement Service Validation And Testing Service Configuration Management IT Asset Management Technical Management Deployment Management Infrastructure And Platform Management Software Development And Management
  • 29. ITIL V4 To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping October 5, 2020 29
  • 30. ITIL V4 To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping Summary October 5, 2020 30 Number of Generic Capabilities Mapped to by More Than One Framework Capability 8 • 1 - Business Strategy Alignment and Information Technology Strategy Management and Planning • 9 - Organisation Design and Change Management • 11 - Overall Information Technology Architecture, Portfolio, Platform, Standards, Methodologies, Instrumentation and Toolset Management • 12 - Data, Information and Knowledge Asset Management, Data Protection and Analytics • 13 - Security, Risk Management, Continuity and Disaster Recovery • 23 - Technology Operations Management, Service Strategy, Delivery and Support • 24 - Solution Portfolio Management • 28 - Solution Development, Delivery, Implementation, Configuration, Release to Production Number of Framework Capabilities Mapped to More Than One Generic Capability 2 • 25 - Develop And Execute IT Resilience And Continuity Operations • 43 - Manage Business Information Content Number of Generic Capabilities Not Mapped To 9 • 4 - Sourcing and Supplier Performance Assessment, Management and Governance • 5 - Programme Management, Portfolio Management, Project Management • 8 - People Resource Management and Skills Development and Delivery • 16 - Technology Component, Platform and Data Integration • 17 - Business and Process Analysis and Design • 18 - Solution Consumer Experience Design • 19 - Solution Evaluation, Selection, Acquisition/Procurement • 22 - Knowledge and Collaboration Management, Training, Documentation • 27 - Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Operations
  • 31. ITIL V4 Capability Gaps Across The IT Function Pipeline • Gaps reflect the primary service management focus of ITIL October 5, 2020 31
  • 32. ITIL V4 To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping – Potential Gaps Major Capability Intended Purpose and Scope IT Leadership and Governance The provision of leadership, guidance and direction and the exercising of management and control to the IT function and to the wider business in terms of demonstrating what IT can do for the business and in building trust in the IT function is a foundational capability. Technology Trend Analysis, Innovation Management and Technology Prototyping, Piloting and Validation The IT function needs to consistently and methodically devote time and resources to researching new technologies, trends and initiatives to determine their potential applicability to the organisation. This needs to include trialling and prototyping new technologies. Solution Architecture, Analysis, Selection, Design and Presentation The capability to create effective solution designs and to analyse solution requirements, present solution options and determine the most suitable solution is a core capability of the IT function. Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Architecture and Design As organisations operate in an increasing diverse and connected IT infrastructure landscape and where network connectivity represents a threat vector, specific detailed knowledge of infrastructure, network and telecommunications is a necessary and important IT function major capability. Technology Component, Platform and Data Integration As IT solutions and their data exist on multiple separate platforms and as initiatives such as digital transformation mean that the organisation must extend its integration outside its boundaries, the capability to understand integration requirements ad design, implement and operate integration solutions is important. Solution Consumer Experience Design Solution usability is a separate specialist skill from solution design, delivery and implementation. As organisations deploy more solutions outside the organisation on various channels and platforms as part of digital transformation initiatives, solution consumer usability is becoming more important. Solution Evaluation, Selection, Acquisition/Procurement The operationalisation of the capability to identify solution selection factors, evaluate and select solutions and their suppliers and manage the solution procurement and acquisition process is of increasing importance to the IT function. Data Management, Design and Administration As well as defining and implementing data architectures, the IT function needs to be good at the operationalisation of data design and management activities. Again, in the context of the greater use of XaaS models where data is decentralised, this is very important. Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Operations The ability to ensure effective operation of all aspects of IT infrastructure, both on-premises and externally located, and organisation networks and communications to ensure reliable technical infrastructure operations needs to be a core capability of the IT function. October 5, 2020 32
  • 33. IT-CMF • IT-CMF in intended to be a systematic framework aiming at improving IT capability and identifying and prioritising opportunities, reducing cost and optimising the business value of IT investments • It is a proprietary framework centred on a commercial critical capability maturity assessment • It is can be viewed as a meta-framework that attempts to identify an IT organisation’s maturity in its key critical practices • It is effectively a collection of (currently) 37 individual maturity models, one for each of its critical processes • It seeks to identify the important areas where the IT function wants or needs to improve to deliver business value − Attempts to discover the critical gaps in maturity that are preventing IT delivering business value − Looks to determine appropriate levels of maturity for the organisation for critical IT processes October 5, 2020 33
  • 34. IT-CMF To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping October 5, 2020 34
  • 35. IT-CMF To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping Summary October 5, 2020 35 Number of Generic Capabilities Mapped to by More Than One Framework Capability 10 • 1 - Business Strategy Alignment and Information Technology Strategy Management and Planning • 2 - IT Leadership and Governance • 5 - Programme Management, Portfolio Management, Project Management • 6 - Accounting, Funding, Financing, Budgeting and Planning • 7 - Demand and Supply Management, Capacity Forecasting and Planning • 9 - Organisation Design and Change Management • 10 - Technology Trend Analysis, Innovation Management and Technology Prototyping, Piloting and Validation • 12 - Data, Information and Knowledge Asset Management, Data Protection and Analytics • 22 - Knowledge and Collaboration Management, Training, Documentation • 28 - Solution Development, Delivery, Implementation, Configuration, Release to Production Number of Framework Capabilities Mapped to More Than One Generic Capability 2 • 15 - Funding and Financing • 32 - Programme Management Number of Generic Capabilities Not Mapped To 7 • 14 - Solution Architecture, Analysis, Selection, Design and Presentation • 15 - Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Architecture and Design • 16 - Technology Component, Platform and Data Integration • 20 - Testing and Quality • 21 - Data Management, Design and Administration • 24 - Solution Portfolio Management • 26 - Security, Continuity, Backup and Disaster Recovery Operations
  • 36. IT-CMF Capability Gaps Across The IT Function Pipeline • Some of the gaps such as solution architecture and testing/quality are difficult to explain given the intended focus of IT-CMF October 5, 2020 36
  • 37. IT-CMF To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping – Potential Gaps Major Capability Intended Purpose and Scope Solution Architecture, Analysis, Selection, Design and Presentation The capability to create effective solution designs and to analyse solution requirements, present solution options and determine the most suitable solution is a core capability of the IT function. Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Architecture and Design As organisations operate in an increasing diverse and connected IT infrastructure landscape and where network connectivity represents a threat vector, specific detailed knowledge of infrastructure, network and telecommunications is a necessary and important IT function major capability. Technology Component, Platform and Data Integration As IT solutions and their data exist on multiple separate platforms and as initiatives such as digital transformation mean that the organisation must extend its integration outside its boundaries, the capability to understand integration requirements ad design, implement and operate integration solutions is important. Solution Evaluation, Selection, Acquisition/Procurement The operationalisation of the capability to identify solution selection factors, evaluate and select solutions and their suppliers and manage the solution procurement and acquisition process is of increasing importance to the IT function. Testing and Quality A testing and quality competence and capacity has broad applicability across the IT function to validate the introduction of solution, service and organisation changes to maximise their success. Data Management, Design and Administration As well as defining and implementing data architectures, the IT function needs to be good at the operationalisation of data design and management activities. Again, in the context of the greater use of XaaS models where data is decentralised, this is very important. Solution Portfolio Management The portfolio of existing business systems and solutions needs to be managed, changed, upgraded, enhanced, kept current and selectively consolidated and replaced where appropriate. October 5, 2020 37
  • 38. IT4IT • IT4IT is intended to be a reference architecture for the management of the IT function • It aims to take a value chain approach to create a model of the functions that IT performs and the services it provides to assist organisations in the identification of the activities that contribute to business competitiveness • It is intended to be an integrated framework for the management of IT that emphasises IT service lifecycles • It aims to identify what the IT function must do well • It looks to attain efficiencies using supply chain-like approach to IT services • IT4IT reference architecture specifies an IT Value Chain October 5, 2020 38
  • 39. IT4IT To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping October 5, 2020 39
  • 40. IT4IT To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping Summary October 5, 2020 40 Number of Generic Capabilities Mapped to by More Than One Framework Capability 8 • 3 - Business Relationship Management and Business Engagement • 20 - Testing and Quality • 23 - Technology Operations Management, Service Strategy, Delivery and Support • 28 - Solution Development, Delivery, Implementation, Configuration, Release to Production Number of Framework Capabilities Mapped to More Than One Generic Capability 2 • 29 - Problem Management Number of Generic Capabilities Not Mapped To 16 • 1 - Business Strategy Alignment and Information Technology Strategy Management and Planning • 4 - Sourcing and Supplier Performance Assessment, Management and Governance • 8 - People Resource Management and Skills Development and Delivery • 9 - Organisation Design and Change Management • 10 - Technology Trend Analysis, Innovation Management and Technology Prototyping, Piloting and Validation • 12 - Data, Information and Knowledge Asset Management, Data Protection and Analytics • 13 - Security, Risk Management, Continuity and Disaster Recovery • 14 - Solution Architecture, Analysis, Selection, Design and Presentation • 15 - Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Architecture and Design • 16 - Technology Component, Platform and Data Integration • 18 - Solution Consumer Experience Design • 19 - Solution Evaluation, Selection, Acquisition/Procurement • 21 - Data Management, Design and Administration • 25 - Technology and Platform Infrastructure and Asset Management • 26 - Security, Continuity, Backup and Disaster Recovery Operations • 27 - Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Operations
  • 41. IT4IT To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping – Potential Gaps - 1 Major Capability Intended Purpose and Scope Business Strategy Alignment and Information Technology Strategy Management and Planning The IT function needs to develop its own strategy in response to the overall business strategy. The IT function strategy must be defined to enable delivery of the business strategy. It must have an internal and external focus. The IT function must also assist with the definition of the business strategy by identifying how technology can inform and assist the business strategy. The business and IT strategies must be kept aligned. IT Leadership and Governance The provision of leadership, guidance and direction and the exercising of management and control to the IT function and to the wider business in terms of demonstrating what IT can do for the business and in building trust in the IT function is a foundational capability. Sourcing and Supplier Performance Assessment, Management and Governance One of the key roles of the IT function is to manage its ecosystem of solution and service providers, the level of service provided, value for money obtained and the risks associated with the over-concentration on a small number of suppliers must be managed. Strategic suppliers must be selected, monitored and managed carefully. The overall sourcing and supplier management direction for the organisation must be defined and communicated. In the context of outsourcing and use of XaaS solution and service models, supplier and sourcing is of vital importance, People Resource Management and Skills Development and Delivery The structuring and staffing of the IT function, the identification of the skills needed, the sourcing of personnel, the career and succession planning and management is an essential capability. Organisation Design and Change Management The IT function generally leads the introduction of new services and solutions and the associated process and organisation change. An important factor in the success of new solutions and services is the success of the organisation and process changes needed to ensure their successful adoption and use. The IT function needs to be capable of leading and managing the introduction of organisation as well as technology change. Technology Trend Analysis, Innovation Management and Technology Prototyping, Piloting and Validation The IT function needs to consistently and methodically devote time and resources to researching new technologies, trends and initiatives to determine their potential applicability to the organisation. This needs to include trialling and prototyping new technologies. Data, Information and Knowledge Asset Architecture and Management, Data Protection and Analytics Data breathes life into technology solutions. Solutions exist to receive, process, generate and store data. Data architecture and management along the data processing pipeline and data lifecycle is a necessary IT function capability. All too frequently organisations are rich is raw data and poor in information, insight and value from that data. The IT function implements and operates solutions that exist as disconnected data islands. The pace of introduction of new data technology solutions means the IT function must possess a broad ad deep data capability. The context of the organisation data landscape is changing through greater XaaS usage, introducing more complexity that needs to be understood and managed. October 5, 2020 41
  • 42. IT4IT To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping – Potential Gaps - 2 Major Capability Intended Purpose and Scope Security, Risk Management, Continuity and Disaster Recovery Designing and implementing security architecture and constituent solutions across the IT technology landscape is a fundamental IT capability. Maintaining the security of IT assets and ensuring continuity of operations is a continuous activity. Security encompasses a wide range of activities from identifying and managing security risks, preventing security breaches and identifying and recovering from security events. Solution Architecture, Analysis, Selection, Design and Presentation The capability to create effective solution designs and to analyse solution requirements, present solution options and determine the most suitable solution is a core capability of the IT function. Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Architecture and Design As organisations operate in an increasing diverse and connected IT infrastructure landscape and where network connectivity represents a threat vector, specific detailed knowledge of infrastructure, network and telecommunications is a necessary and important IT function major capability. Technology Component, Platform and Data Integration As IT solutions and their data exist on multiple separate platforms and as initiatives such as digital transformation mean that the organisation must extend its integration outside its boundaries, the capability to understand integration requirements ad design, implement and operate integration solutions is important. Solution Consumer Experience Design Solution usability is a separate specialist skill from solution design, delivery and implementation. As organisations deploy more solutions outside the organisation on various channels and platforms as part of digital transformation initiatives, solution consumer usability is becoming more important. Solution Evaluation, Selection, Acquisition/Procurement The operationalisation of the capability to identify solution selection factors, evaluate and select solutions and their suppliers and manage the solution procurement and acquisition process is of increasing importance to the IT function. Data Management, Design and Administration As well as defining and implementing data architectures, the IT function needs to be good at the operationalisation of data design and management activities. Again, in the context of the greater use of XaaS models where data is decentralised, this is very important. Solution Portfolio Management The portfolio of existing business systems and solutions needs to be managed, changed, upgraded, enhanced, kept current and selectively consolidated and replaced where appropriate. Technology and Platform Infrastructure and Asset Management The landscape of IT infrastructure and technology assets, both on-premises and deployed and operates through outsourcing and XaaS models needs to managed to ensure continuity, reliability and consistency of operations and service delivery and the implementation of supporting processes and technologies is a central IT capability. Security, Continuity, Backup and Disaster Recovery Operations The IT function needs to operationalise and industrialise security, continuity, backup and recovery activities and the continuous monitoring of and response to events in the security, risk and threat landscape. Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Operations The IT function needs to operationalise and industrialise the provision of networking, communications and telephony services. This is more important in the increasing diverse and connected IT infrastructure landscape. October 5, 2020 42
  • 43. IT4IT Capability Gaps Across The IT Function Pipeline • Significant number of gaps along the span of IT function capabilities • Indicative of the focus on operational and service management areas rather than on the broader end-to-end view October 5, 2020 43
  • 44. European e-Competence Framework (ECF) • Aims to provide a reference of competences required and applied in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) • Five ECF dimensions: 1. Five high-level competency areas 2. 40 competencies within competency areas 3. Required proficiency area for each competency – five possible levels 1. Contributes, performs work and acts under guidance 2. Acts systematically and organises work 3. Exploits specialist knowledge and applies creativity and accounts for own and others’ actions 4. Provides leadership and takes responsibility and exploits wide ranging specialist knowledge 5. Applies strategic thinking and organisational leadership and makes strategic decisions 4. Knowledge required for competency 5. Skills required for competency Dimension 1 – Competency Area Dimension 2 - Competency Dimension 3 – Competency Proficiency Level Dimension 4 – Competency Knowledge Dimension 5 – Competency Skills 5 October 2020 44
  • 45. European e-Competence Framework (ECF) ECF Framework A. Plan A.1. IS and Business Strategy Alignment A.2. Service Level Management A.3. Business Plan Development A.4. Product / Service Planning A.5. Architecture Design A.6. Application Design A.7. Technology Trend Monitoring A.8. Sustainable Development A.9. Innovating B. Build B.1. Application Development B.2. Component Integration B.3. Testing B.4. Solution Deployment B.5. Documentation Production B.6. Systems Engineering C. Run C.1. User Support C.2. Change Support C.3. Service Delivery C.4. Problem Management D. Enable D.1. Information Security Strategy Development D.2. ICT Quality Strategy Development D.3. Education and Training Provision D.4. Purchasing D.5. Sales Proposal Development D.6. Channel Management D.7. Sales Management D.8. Contract Management D.9. Personnel Development D.10. Information and Knowledge Management D.11. Needs Identification D.12. Digital Marketing E. Manage E.1. Forecast Development E.2. Project and Portfolio Management E.3. Risk Management E.4. Relationship Management E.5. Process Improvement E.6. ICT Quality Management E.7. Business Change Management E.8. Information Security Management E.9. IS Governance 5 October 2020 45
  • 46. ECF To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping October 5, 2020 46
  • 47. ECF To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping Summary October 5, 2020 47 Number of Generic Capabilities Mapped to by More Than One Framework Capability 11 • 1 - Business Strategy Alignment and Information Technology Strategy Management and Planning • 3 - Business Relationship Management and Business Engagement • 10 - Technology Trend Analysis, Innovation Management and Technology Prototyping, Piloting and Validation • 13 - Security, Risk Management, Continuity and Disaster Recovery • 14 - Solution Architecture, Analysis, Selection, Design and Presentation • 17 - Business and Process Analysis and Design • 20 - Testing and Quality • 22 - Knowledge and Collaboration Management, Training, Documentation • 23 - Technology Operations Management, Service Strategy, Delivery and Support • 28 - Solution Development, Delivery, Implementation, Configuration, Release to Production Number of Framework Capabilities Mapped to More Than One Generic Capability 0 Number of Generic Capabilities Not Mapped To 11 • 4 - Sourcing and Supplier Performance Assessment, Management and Governance • 6 - Accounting, Funding, Financing, Budgeting and Planning • 11 - Overall Information Technology Architecture, Portfolio, Platform, Standards, Methodologies, Instrumentation and Toolset Management • 12 - Data, Information and Knowledge Asset Management, Data Protection and Analytics • 15 - Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Architecture and Design • 18 - Solution Consumer Experience Design • 21 - Data Management, Design and Administration • 24 - Solution Portfolio Management • 25 - Technology and Platform Infrastructure and Asset Management • 26 - Security, Continuity, Backup and Disaster Recovery Operations • 27 - Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Operations
  • 48. ECF Capability Gaps Across The IT Function Pipeline October 5, 2020 48 • There are gaps across the generic framework in areas of data, supplier and solution sourcing, finance and infrastructure
  • 49. ECF To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping – Potential Gaps - 1 Major Capability Intended Purpose and Scope Sourcing and Supplier Performance Assessment, Management and Governance One of the key roles of the IT function is to manage its ecosystem of solution and service providers, the level of service provided, value for money obtained and the risks associated with the over-concentration on a small number of suppliers must be managed. Strategic suppliers must be selected, monitored and managed carefully. The overall sourcing and supplier management direction for the organisation must be defined and communicated. In the context of outsourcing and use of XaaS solution and service models, supplier and sourcing is of vital importance, Accounting, Funding, Financing, Budgeting and Planning The IT function needs to be able to plan and manage its budget and the subsequent spending on existing and new services. Overall Information Technology Architecture, Portfolio, Platform, Standards, Methodologies, Instrumentation and Toolset Management Defining the overall IT architecture, the portfolio of existing and new solutions and services and the associated implementation, delivery and operation standards, toolsets and methodologies is a strategic IT function capability. Data, Information and Knowledge Asset Architecture and Management, Data Protection and Analytics Data breathes life into technology solutions. Solutions exist to receive, process, generate and store data. Data architecture and management along the data processing pipeline and data lifecycle is a necessary IT function capability. All too frequently organisations are rich is raw data and poor in information, insight and value from that data. The IT function implements and operates solutions that exist as disconnected data islands. The pace of introduction of new data technology solutions means the IT function must possess a broad ad deep data capability. The context of the organisation data landscape is changing through greater XaaS usage, introducing more complexity that needs to be understood and managed. Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Architecture and Design As organisations operate in an increasing diverse and connected IT infrastructure landscape and where network connectivity represents a threat vector, specific detailed knowledge of infrastructure, network and telecommunications is a necessary and important IT function major capability. October 5, 2020 49
  • 50. ECF To Generic IT Capability Framework Mapping – Potential Gaps - 2 Major Capability Intended Purpose and Scope Solution Consumer Experience Design Solution usability is a separate specialist skill from solution design, delivery and implementation. As organisations deploy more solutions outside the organisation on various channels and platforms as part of digital transformation initiatives, solution consumer usability is becoming more important. Data Management, Design and Administration As well as defining and implementing data architectures, the IT function needs to be good at the operationalisation of data design and management activities. Again, in the context of the greater use of XaaS models where data is decentralised, this is very important. Solution Portfolio Management The portfolio of existing business systems and solutions needs to be managed, changed, upgraded, enhanced, kept current and selectively consolidated and replaced where appropriate. Technology and Platform Infrastructure and Asset Management The landscape of IT infrastructure and technology assets, both on-premises and deployed and operates through outsourcing and XaaS models needs to managed to ensure continuity, reliability and consistency of operations and service delivery and the implementation of supporting processes and technologies is a central IT capability. Security, Continuity, Backup and Disaster Recovery Operations The IT function needs to operationalise and industrialise security, continuity, backup and recovery activities and the continuous monitoring of and response to events in the security, risk and threat landscape. Infrastructure, Networks, Communications and Telephony Operations The IT function needs to operationalise and industrialise the provision of networking, communications and telephony services. This is more important in the increasing diverse and connected IT infrastructure landscape. October 5, 2020 50
  • 51. SFIA (Skills Framework For The Information Age) • SFIA describes the skills and competencies required by professionals in roles involved in information and communication technologies, digital transformation and software engineering • Not mapped here because of the large number of competencies October 5, 2020 51 • Seven skill levels for each role area: 1. Follow 2. Assist 3. Apply 4. Enable 5. Ensure, Advise 6. Initiate, Influence 7. Set Strategy, Inspire, Mobilise • Five attributes used to classify each skill level 1. Autonomy 2. Influence 3. Complexity 4. Knowledge 5. Business Skills Skill Level Attributes Autonomy Influence Complexity Knowledge Business Skills Follow Assist Apply Enable Ensure, Advise Initiate, Influence Set Strategy, Inspire, Mobilise
  • 52. SFIA – Levels 1 And 2 Strategy And Architecture Information Strategy Advice And Guidance Business Strategy And Planning Technical Strategy And Planning Change And Transformation Business Change Implementation Business Change Management Development And Implementation Systems Development User Experience Installation And Integration Delivery And Operation Service Design Service Transition Service Operation Skills And Quality Skill Management People Management Quality And Conformance Relationships And Engagement Stakeholder Management Sales And Marketing 5 October 2020 52
  • 53. SFIA – Levels 1, 2 And 3 Strategy And Architecture Information Strategy Enterprise IT Governance Strategic Planning Information Governance Information Systems Coordination Information Security Information Assurance Analytics Data Visualisation Information Content Publishing Advice And Guidance Consultancy Specialist Advice Business Strategy And Planning Demand Management IT Management Financial Management Innovation Research Business Process Improvement Knowledge Management Enterprise And Business Architecture Business Risk Management Sustainability Technical Strategy And Planning Emerging Technology Monitoring Continuity Management Network Planning Solution Architecture Data Management Methods And Tools Change And Transformation Business Change Implementati on Portfolio Management Programme Management Project Management Portfolio, Programme And Project Support Business Change Management Business Analysis Business Modelling Requirements Definition And Management Organisational Capability Development Organisation Design And Implementati on Change Implementati on Planning And Management Business Process Testing Benefits Management Development And Implementatio n Systems Development Systems Development Management Systems Design Software Design Programming/ Software Development Real-Time/ Embedded Systems Development Animation Development Data Modelling And Design Database Design Network Design Testing Safety Engineering Information Content Authoring User Experience User Research User Experience Analysis User Experience Design User Experience Evaluation Installation And Integration Systems Integration And Build Porting/Softw are Configuration Hardware Design Systems Installation/ Decommission ing Delivery And Operation Service Design Availability Management Service Level Management Service Transition Service Acceptance Configuration Management Asset Management Change Management Release And Deployment Service Operation System Software Capacity Management Security Administratio n Penetration Testing Radio Frequency Engineering Application Support IT Infrastructure Database Administratio n Storage Management Network Support Problem Management Incident Management Facilities Management Skills And Quality Skill Management Learning And Development Management Competency Assessment Learning Design And Development Learning Delivery Teaching And Subject Formation People Management Performance Management Resourcing Professional Development Quality And Conformance Quality Management Quality Assurance Measurement Conformance Review Safety Assessment Digital Forensics Relationships And Engagement Stakeholder Management Sourcing Supplier Management Contract Management Relationship Management Customer Service Support Sales And Marketing Marketing Selling Sales Support Product Management 5 October 2020 53
  • 54. Summary Of Capability Model Gaps • Each of the IT capability frameworks has different gaps – none span the complete range of necessary capabilities from strategy to operations and delivery • No one framework covers all of the generic capabilities October 5, 2020 54 APQC PCF COBIT 2019 ITIL V4 IT-CMF ECF IT4IT
  • 55. Dimensions Of Capabilities • The relative importance of capabilities are not the same for all organisations and they do not remain the same over time • Organisations of different types, operating sectors, profiles and levels of IT maturity and expertise will have different views of which capabilities are important • Capability frameworks tend to be static and do not allow for variability in importance October 5, 2020 55 Capabilities Relative Importance Capabilities Gaps Current Level of Expertise Capabilities Desired Future Level of Expertise Effort to Improve Capabilities Capability Importance Current Level of Expertise and Gaps Desired Level of Expertise Effort and Resources
  • 56. Every Organisation Will Have A Different Capability Importance Profile October 5, 2020 56 Capability Importance Profile 1 Capability Importance Profile 2 Capability Importance Profile 3
  • 57. Organisation Capability Importance Profile And Improvement Activities • In order to use a capability framework effectively you must first understand your organisation’s capability importance profile • You then must quantify your capability gaps • Importance X gaps = capabilities to focus on • You cannot expect to improve your expertise across capabilities at the same time • You need to prioritise improvement efforts • Defining those IT capabilities that are most important for your organisation is just a starting point • Those capabilities must then be translated into a structure and an operating model October 5, 2020 57
  • 58. Staffing And Roles Operating Model Capabilities And IT Function Structure And Operation • Capabilities are just one element of the design, structure and operation of the IT function − Capabilities – skills and abilities the IT function should possess and be able to use effectively and efficiently − IT Function Structure – the organisation and arrangement of the sub-functions and their responsibilities and relationships − Operating Model – how the IT function work and delivers value and the processes it implements and operates − Staffing And Roles – the numbers of people, their roles, responsibilities, expected skills, experience and abilities, workload, reporting structures and expected ways of operating IT Function Structure Capabilities 5 October 2020 58
  • 59. Capabilities And IT Function Structure And Operation IT Function Structure Staffing And Roles Capabilities Operating Model Staff Must Have Skills to Provide IT Function Capabilities Operating Model Defines How the Personnel Work and the Processes they Operate to Delivery Value IT Function Structure Must be Populated with Staff in Defined Roles Staff Must Have Skills to Provide IT Function Capabilities Operating Model Breathes Life into the Function Structure Operating Model Defines How Capabilities are Used 5 October 2020 59
  • 60. Summary • Existing framework do not capture or cater for the end-to- end complexity of the IT function • Existing frameworks are static and do not explicitly handle variability in capability profiles across organisations • A synthesis of what is best from the existing frameworks is required to create a complete view of necessary IT capabilities and to define a programme of work to achieve the necessary improvements • Capabilities need to be mapped to a specific IT function structure with role definitions, staffing and an operating model October 5, 2020 60