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Introduction to Solution Architecture Book

  1. 1. Paperback - https://www.amazon.com/dp/1797567616 Kindle - https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07P2NCFDQ
  2. 2. Introduction to Solution Architecture Page 2 of 538 Copyright © 2019 Alan McSweeney All rights reserved. ISBN-13: 9781797567617
  3. 3. Introduction to Solution Architecture Page 3 of 538 Contents Chapter 1. Introduction, Purpose and Scope .................................................................................17 1.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................................17 1.2 Who This Book Is Aimed At...........................................................................................................................................................19 1.3 Terminology......................................................................................................................................................................................20 1.4 Structure and Contents of This Book ............................................................................................................................................20 1.5 Checklists...........................................................................................................................................................................................23 Chapter 2. Solution Architecture and Solution Design..................................................................26 2.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................................26 2.2 Solution Architecture – A Lesson From History .........................................................................................................................30 2.3 Evolution of Solution Architecture and Solution Architect Role..............................................................................................31 2.4 What Is a Solution?...........................................................................................................................................................................34 2.4.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................................................................34 2.4.2 Scope of Complete Solution ............................................................................................................................................................................34 2.4.3 Solutions and Organisation Change ..............................................................................................................................................................41 2.4.4 Solution Components and Organisation Change........................................................................................................................................42 2.4.5 Solution Decomposition ..................................................................................................................................................................................43 2.4.6 Solution Cost .....................................................................................................................................................................................................45 2.4.7 Solution Options, Boundaries and Constraints............................................................................................................................................49 2.5 Getting the Solution Design Right .................................................................................................................................................51 2.6 The Solution Delivery Process in Context ....................................................................................................................................51 Chapter 3. Business Strategy, Architecture Strategy and Solution Design and Delivery..............58 3.1 Why Solutions Fail ...........................................................................................................................................................................58 3.1.1 The Business Value of Solution Architecture...............................................................................................................................................72 3.2 Solution Architecture and Risk Management ..............................................................................................................................72 3.3 Architecture Disciplines, Context and Interactions ....................................................................................................................76 3.3.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................................................................76 3.3.2 Run the Business and Change the Business..................................................................................................................................................81 3.3.3 IT Architecture Principles ...............................................................................................................................................................................82 3.3.4 Problems with IT Architecture Operation....................................................................................................................................................84 3.3.5 Shadow IT ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................87 Chapter 4. Solution Architecture Engagement and the Solution Design Process.........................92 4.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................................92 4.2 Problem and Solution Knowledge and Complexity ....................................................................................................................96 4.2.1 Problem and Solution Knowledge..................................................................................................................................................................96 4.2.2 Solution Complexity.......................................................................................................................................................................................101 4.3 Solution Design, Delivery and Operation Context....................................................................................................................113 4.4 Solution Architecture Interface with the Business Analysis Function, Requirements Gathering and Process Analysis.125 4.4.1 Requirements Engineering............................................................................................................................................................................130 4.4.2 Business Processes ..........................................................................................................................................................................................135 4.4.2.1 Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN).................................................................................................................................152 4.5 Solution Architecture Engagement Process................................................................................................................................159 4.6 Solution Architecture Engagements ............................................................................................................................................162
  4. 4. Introduction to Solution Architecture Page 4 of 538 4.6.1 Business Engagement.....................................................................................................................................................................................162 4.6.1.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................................................................162 4.6.1.2 Workshops ..............................................................................................................................................................................................167 4.6.1.3 High Level Activities and Their Logical Sequence............................................................................................................................168 4.6.1.4 Business Engagement Activity 0. Define And Agree Engagement Scope......................................................................................169 4.6.1.4.1 Step 0.1 Preparation and Planning..............................................................................................................................................170 4.6.1.4.2 Step 0.2 Mobilise and Present Approach to Sponsorship, Stakeholder and Core Project Team.......................................171 4.6.1.4.3 Step 0.3 Review Any Previous Work, if Any .............................................................................................................................171 4.6.1.4.4 Step 0.4 Perform Initial Informal Information Gathering ......................................................................................................172 4.6.1.4.5 Step 0.5 Review Information and Define Scope of Introductory Workshop(s)...................................................................172 4.6.1.4.6 Step 0.6 Define Team and Facilities Required...........................................................................................................................173 4.6.1.4.7 Step 0.7 Create Table of Contents (Scope) of Engagement Deliverable................................................................................174 4.6.1.4.8 Step 0.8 Conduct Introductory Workshop(s) ...........................................................................................................................175 4.6.1.4.9 Step 0.9 Update Scope of Deliverables........................................................................................................................................175 4.6.1.5 Business Engagement Activity 1. Information Collection And Assessment.................................................................................176 4.6.1.5.1 Step 1.1 Current Business Review...............................................................................................................................................176 4.6.1.5.2 Step 1.2 Assess Customer (Or External Party) Perceptions....................................................................................................178 4.6.1.5.3 Step 1.3 Review Current Industry Best Practices And Technology Changes.......................................................................179 4.6.1.5.4 Step 1.4 Analyse Current Business Systems...............................................................................................................................181 4.6.1.5.5 Step 1.5 Analyse Available Solutions And Products.................................................................................................................183 4.6.1.6 Business Engagement Activity 2. Define Vision, Business Principles And System Principles...................................................184 4.6.1.6.1 Step 2.1 Define Vision For Functional Business Area .............................................................................................................184 4.6.1.6.2 Step 2.2 Describe Functional Business Area Principles, Assumptions and Limitations.....................................................188 4.6.1.6.3 Step 2.3 Describe System Principles, Assumptions and Limitations.....................................................................................189 4.6.1.7 Business Engagement Activity 3. Document Business Processes, Entity Model, Capacity Planning And Solution Approach ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................191 4.6.1.7.1 Step 3.1 Define And Document Business Processes.................................................................................................................192 4.6.1.7.2 Step 3.2 Create Conceptual Entity Model..................................................................................................................................198 4.6.1.7.3 Step 3.3 Gather Capacity Planning Information.......................................................................................................................198 4.6.1.7.4 Step 3.4 Define Solution And System Approach ......................................................................................................................200 4.6.1.7.5 Step 3.5 Develop And Validate Feasibility Prototype(s)..........................................................................................................206 4.6.1.8 Business Engagement Activity 4. Document Solutions, Applications And Functions................................................................206 4.6.1.8.1 Step 4.1 Document Systems, Applications And Functions.....................................................................................................206 4.6.1.9 Business Engagement Activity 5. Define Organisation, Infrastructure And Data.......................................................................209 4.6.1.9.1 Step 5.1 Define Organisation And Resource Requirements And Structure.........................................................................209 4.6.1.9.2 Step 5.2 Define Application And Data Organisation...............................................................................................................210 4.6.1.9.3 Step 5.3 Define Infrastructure Requirements............................................................................................................................212 4.6.1.10 Business Engagement Activity 6. Conduct Solution And Product Evaluation And Selection.................................................213 4.6.1.10.1 Step 6.1 Conduct Solution And Product Evaluation And Selection....................................................................................214 4.6.1.11 Business Engagement Activity 7. Design Model Architecture......................................................................................................222 4.6.1.11.1 Step 7.1 Design Infrastructure Model Architecture...............................................................................................................222 4.6.1.12 Business Engagement Activity 8. Consolidate, Finalise And Review Design .............................................................................225 4.6.1.12.1 Step 8.1 Finalise Application Architecture..............................................................................................................................226 4.6.1.12.2 Step 8.2 Define Benefits And Costs...........................................................................................................................................226 4.6.1.12.3 Step 8.3 Create High Level Phased Delivery Plan...................................................................................................................226 4.6.1.12.4 Step 8.4 Review And Agree Business Architecture Engagement .........................................................................................227 4.6.2 Solution Design Process.................................................................................................................................................................................227 4.6.3 Solution Design Engagement Types ............................................................................................................................................................235 4.6.4 Early Engagement...........................................................................................................................................................................................236 4.6.4.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................................................................236 4.6.4.2 What Is A Problem?...............................................................................................................................................................................241 4.6.4.3 Early Engagement Aspects....................................................................................................................................................................243 4.6.4.4 Early Engagement Questions ...............................................................................................................................................................246 4.6.4.5 Building Activity Model Stream ..........................................................................................................................................................247 4.6.4.6 Rich Pictures ...........................................................................................................................................................................................250 4.6.4.7 Resolution Options ................................................................................................................................................................................252 4.6.4.8 Problem Resolution and Organisation Change.................................................................................................................................254 4.6.4.9 Bringing It All Together And Presenting The Results......................................................................................................................257 4.6.5 Rapid Solution Design Option Engagement ..............................................................................................................................................258 4.6.5.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................................................................259 4.6.5.2 Step 1 – Identify New and Impacted Existing Business Processes..................................................................................................261 4.6.5.3 Step 2 – Identify Key Functions...........................................................................................................................................................262
  5. 5. Introduction to Solution Architecture Page 5 of 538 4.6.5.4 Step 3 – Identify Actors .........................................................................................................................................................................265 4.6.5.5 Step 4 – Identify New and Existing Applications ..............................................................................................................................266 4.6.5.6 Step 5 – Identify Data Integrations, Transfers and Exchanges........................................................................................................267 4.6.5.7 Step 6 – Identify Actor and Application Interactions.......................................................................................................................269 4.6.5.8 Step 7 – Identify Actor/Actor Interactions.........................................................................................................................................270 4.6.5.9 Steps 1-7 – Solution on a Page..............................................................................................................................................................271 4.6.5.10 Steps 8 and 9 – Identify Data Sets, Data Impacts and Data Movements .....................................................................................271 4.6.5.11 Step 10 – Create Inventory of Solution Usage Journeys.................................................................................................................273 4.6.5.12 Summary................................................................................................................................................................................................276 4.6.6 Structured Solution Design Engagement ....................................................................................................................................................277 4.6.6.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................................................................277 4.6.6.2 Structured Solution Design Approach and TOGAF.........................................................................................................................280 4.6.6.3 Business and Process View....................................................................................................................................................................283 4.6.6.3.1 Adapting TOGAF Business Phase to the Business and Process View...................................................................................286 4.6.6.4 Functional View......................................................................................................................................................................................288 4.6.6.4.1 Adapting TOGAF Information Systems Architecture Phase to the Functional View........................................................289 4.6.6.5 Data View ................................................................................................................................................................................................292 4.6.6.5.1 Adapting TOGAF Information Systems Architecture Phase to the Data View...................................................................294 4.6.6.6 Technical View........................................................................................................................................................................................296 4.6.6.6.1 Adapting TOGAF Technology Architecture Phase to the Technical View..........................................................................298 4.6.6.7 Implementation View............................................................................................................................................................................301 4.6.6.7.1 Adapting TOGAF Technology Architecture Phase to the Implementation View...............................................................303 4.6.6.8 Management and Operations View.....................................................................................................................................................305 4.6.6.8.1 Adapting TOGAF Technology Architecture Phase to the Management and Operations View .......................................309 4.7 Solution Architecture and Solution Experience and Usability ................................................................................................312 4.8 Data Architectural Aspects of Solution Architecture................................................................................................................322 4.8.1 Data Management Book of Knowledge (DMBOK) Data Architecture Framework.............................................................................322 4.8.2 Solution Data Landscape ...............................................................................................................................................................................327 4.8.3 Solution Data Quality.....................................................................................................................................................................................337 4.8.4 Data Lifecycle...................................................................................................................................................................................................338 4.8.5 Data Integration..............................................................................................................................................................................................340 4.8.6 Data Audit and Data Profiling......................................................................................................................................................................352 4.8.6.1 Data Landscape View.............................................................................................................................................................................352 4.8.6.2 Data Supply Chain View .......................................................................................................................................................................352 4.8.6.3 Data Model View....................................................................................................................................................................................352 4.8.6.4 Data Lifecycle View................................................................................................................................................................................353 4.8.6.5 Solution Data Audit Approach.............................................................................................................................................................353 4.9 Security and Privacy.......................................................................................................................................................................353 4.9.1 Solution Security.............................................................................................................................................................................................353 4.9.2 Solution Data Privacy.....................................................................................................................................................................................364 4.9.2.1 Overview..................................................................................................................................................................................................364 4.9.2.2 Personal Information.............................................................................................................................................................................365 4.9.2.3 Personal Data Related Processes and Impact on Solution Design..................................................................................................367 4.9.2.4 GDPR Related Metadata........................................................................................................................................................................370 4.9.2.5 Solution Data Protection Impact Assessment (DPIA) .....................................................................................................................371 4.9.2.6 Data Pseudonymisation.........................................................................................................................................................................372 4.9.3 Data and Hosted Applications and XaaS/Cloud-Based Services.............................................................................................................375 4.10 Solution Architecture and Design Artefacts.............................................................................................................................378 4.11 Solution Assessment and Review ...............................................................................................................................................382 4.11.1 Solution Benefits Review..............................................................................................................................................................................382 4.11.2 Solution Design Review ...............................................................................................................................................................................384 4.11.3 Solution Architectural Review ....................................................................................................................................................................387 4.11.4 Solution Implementability Review.............................................................................................................................................................387 Chapter 5. Solution Architecture and Digital Transformation....................................................389 5.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................................................389 5.2 Digital Strategy in Business and Information Technology Context........................................................................................394
  6. 6. Introduction to Solution Architecture Page 6 of 538 5.3 Digital Target Architecture...........................................................................................................................................................397 5.4 Digital and Solution Architecture................................................................................................................................................413 5.4.1 Digital Solution Integration ..........................................................................................................................................................................414 5.4.2 Range of Solutions Within Digital Transformation..................................................................................................................................415 5.4.3 Digital Design Principles...............................................................................................................................................................................416 5.4.4 Digital Solution Architecture Interactions With Other Architecture Functions..................................................................................418 Chapter 6. Agile Solution Design and Delivery............................................................................420 6.1 Introduction....................................................................................................................................................................................420 6.2 Agile Approach to Solution Delivery ..........................................................................................................................................421 6.3 Using Agile Solution Delivery Effectively...................................................................................................................................424 6.4 Agile Solution Delivery Pillar One - Solution Delivery Selection and Validation................................................................425 6.5 Agile Solution Delivery Pillar Two - Control Components of Agile Process........................................................................429 6.6 Agile Solution Delivery Pillar Three - Agile Tools and Techniques.......................................................................................432 6.7 Agile Solution Delivery Pillar Four - Agile Solution Delivery Phases ....................................................................................433 6.7.1 Agile Solution Delivery Phase 1 - Pre-Project Phase.................................................................................................................................435 6.7.2 Agile Solution Delivery Phase 2 - Feasibility Analysis and Study Phase................................................................................................436 6.7.3 Agile Solution Delivery Phase 3 - Business Study Phase ..........................................................................................................................437 6.7.4 Agile Solution Delivery Phase 4 - Functional Model Iteration Phase.....................................................................................................439 6.7.5 Agile Solution Delivery Phase 5 - Design and Build Iteration Phase......................................................................................................440 6.7.6 Agile Solution Delivery Phase 6 - Implementation Phase........................................................................................................................442 6.7.7 Agile Solution Delivery Phase 7 - Post-Project Phase...............................................................................................................................443 Chapter 7. Solution Architecture and Solution Acquisition........................................................445 7.1 Introduction....................................................................................................................................................................................445 7.1.1 Service Planning and Initiation/Transfer Approach.................................................................................................................................450 7.1.1.1 Activities for Initiation/Transition and Service Delivery Phases....................................................................................................452 7.1.1.2 Activities for Ongoing Phases ..............................................................................................................................................................457 7.1.2 Supplier Assessment and Validation ...........................................................................................................................................................464 Chapter 8. The Solution Architecture Function...........................................................................470 8.1 Introduction....................................................................................................................................................................................470 8.2 Solution Architecture Skills, Capabilities and Experience .......................................................................................................470 8.2.1 Technical Skills................................................................................................................................................................................................472 8.2.2 Analytical Thinking and Resolution Identification...................................................................................................................................474 8.2.3 Behavioural Characteristics...........................................................................................................................................................................476 8.2.4 Business Knowledge.......................................................................................................................................................................................478 8.2.5 Collaboration Skills ........................................................................................................................................................................................481 8.2.6 Communication Skills....................................................................................................................................................................................483 8.2.7 Tools and Techniques....................................................................................................................................................................................484 8.3 Solution Architecture Function ...................................................................................................................................................485 8.3.1 Solution Architecture Function Context ....................................................................................................................................................485 8.3.2 Solution Architecture Function Structure..................................................................................................................................................487 8.3.3 Solution Architecture Centre of Excellence................................................................................................................................................490 8.3.4 Some Solution Architecture Function Issues .............................................................................................................................................502 8.3.4.1 Conway’s Law .........................................................................................................................................................................................503 8.3.4.2 Cognitive Diversity ................................................................................................................................................................................504 8.3.5 Solution Architecture Tools..........................................................................................................................................................................509 8.3.5.1 Solution Architecture Design Tools....................................................................................................................................................510 8.3.5.1.1 Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM)........................................................................................514 8.3.5.1.1.1 Solution Survey and Feasibility Study................................................................................................................................515 8.3.5.1.1.2 Structured Analysis...............................................................................................................................................................516 8.3.5.1.1.3 Structured Design..................................................................................................................................................................516 8.3.5.1.1.4 Infrastructure Configuration Study....................................................................................................................................516
  7. 7. Introduction to Solution Architecture Page 7 of 538 8.3.5.1.1.5 Solution Construction and Implementation.....................................................................................................................516 8.3.5.1.1.6 Solution Operation and Maintenance................................................................................................................................516 8.3.5.1.2 Archimate........................................................................................................................................................................................516 8.3.5.2 IT Architecture Frameworks, Methodologies and Description Languages...................................................................................526 Chapter 9. Solution Architecture and Innovation........................................................................532
  8. 8. Introduction to Solution Architecture Page 8 of 538 List of Tables Table 1 – Solution Architecture-Related Checklists Contained in the Book............................................................................................................... 25 Table 2 – Overlapping Solution Architecture Capabilities and Areas of Solution Involvement and Knowledge ................................................. 28 Table 3 – Vitruvius’ Architecture Principles .................................................................................................................................................................... 31 Table 4 – Components of Complete Solution .................................................................................................................................................................. 36 Table 5 – Mapping Solution Components to Business Change Domains ................................................................................................................... 43 Table 6 – Sources of Good and Poor Solution Delivery Estimates................................................................................................................................ 49 Table 7 – Solution Design Constraints.............................................................................................................................................................................. 50 Table 8 – High-Level Steps of Individual Discipline Solution Delivery Journeys ...................................................................................................... 54 Table 9 – Field of Solution Delivery Project Success and Failure.................................................................................................................................. 62 Table 10 – Standish Group CHAOS Report Project Outcome Results 1994-2015..................................................................................................... 64 Table 11 – Causes of Project Failure from What went wrong? Unsuccessful information technology projects ................................................... 65 Table 12 – Standish Group Project Success Factors Over Time.................................................................................................................................... 66 Table 13 – Budzier and Flyvbjerg Project Organisational Challenges.......................................................................................................................... 67 Table 14 – Solution Architecture Contribution to the Standish Group Solution Delivery Success Factors........................................................... 68 Table 15 – Solution Architecture Contribution to Budzier and Flyvbjerg Organisational Challenges................................................................... 69 Table 16 – Errors in End User Computing Applications Leading to Financial Losses.............................................................................................. 91 Table 17 – Solution Complexity Factors .........................................................................................................................................................................107 Table 18 – Sample Solution Complexity Scores.............................................................................................................................................................110 Table 19 – Complexity Scores and Resource Uplifts.....................................................................................................................................................111 Table 20 – Sample Solution Complexity Dashboard Elements ...................................................................................................................................113 Table 21 – Set of Solution Delivery Artefacts.................................................................................................................................................................123 Table 22 – Lessons Learned from Large Solutions Implementations.........................................................................................................................138 Table 23 – Applying Waste Elimination Principles to Process Optimisation...........................................................................................................140 Table 24 – Primary and Support Processes Example....................................................................................................................................................147 Table 25 – Business Process Analysis High-Level Steps ...............................................................................................................................................148 Table 26 – Process Analysis Information Structure ......................................................................................................................................................149 Table 27 – Business Process Design Success Factors.....................................................................................................................................................150 Table 28 – Business Process Design Standards and Approaches ................................................................................................................................152 Table 29 – BPMN Flow Objects........................................................................................................................................................................................155 Table 30 – BPMN Graphics for Combinations of Task Type and Loop Type ..........................................................................................................156 Table 31 – BPMN Graphics for Sub-Processes ..............................................................................................................................................................157 Table 32 – BPMN Event Modifications...........................................................................................................................................................................158 Table 33 – BPMN Gateway Symbols ...............................................................................................................................................................................158 Table 34 – BPMN Data Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................159 Table 35 – Mapping Business Need to Engagement Types..........................................................................................................................................161 Table 36 – Architecture Engagement Extended Factors...............................................................................................................................................166 Table 37 – Introductory Workshop Topics ....................................................................................................................................................................173 Table 38 – Sample Table of Contents for Architecture Engagement Main Deliverable..........................................................................................175 Table 39 – Vision Development Factors .........................................................................................................................................................................186 Table 40 – Inventory of Interfaces, Exchanges and Transfers .....................................................................................................................................208 Table 41 – High Level Steps of Product/Service Evaluation And Selection Process ................................................................................................222 Table 42 – Generalised Solution Design Process Steps.................................................................................................................................................229 Table 43 – Early Engagement Aspect Sample Questions..............................................................................................................................................246 Table 44 – Activity Model Details....................................................................................................................................................................................249 Table 45 – Elements of a Rich Picture .............................................................................................................................................................................251 Table 46 – Rapid Solution Design Core and Extended Design Elements ..................................................................................................................261 Table 47 – Sample Process and Function Breakdown – Buy a Product or Service...................................................................................................265 Table 48 – List of System Interactions.............................................................................................................................................................................268 Table 49 – Actor System Interactions..............................................................................................................................................................................269 Table 50 – Actor Actor Interactions ................................................................................................................................................................................270 Table 51 – Data Exchanges Between Systems.................................................................................................................................................................273 Table 52 – Mapping TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) Steps to Solution Design ..................................................................282 Table 53 – Business and Process View Information Structure....................................................................................................................................286 Table 54 – Adapting TOGAF Business Phase to the Business and Process View.....................................................................................................288 Table 55 – Functional View Information Structure......................................................................................................................................................289 Table 56 – Adapting TOGAF Business Phase to the Functional View.......................................................................................................................292 Table 57 – Data View Information Structure.................................................................................................................................................................293 Table 58 – Adapting TOGAF Business Phase to the Data View .................................................................................................................................296 Table 59 – Technical View Information Structure........................................................................................................................................................298 Table 60 – Adapting TOGAF Business Phase to the Technical View.........................................................................................................................301
  9. 9. Introduction to Solution Architecture Page 9 of 538 Table 61 – Implementation View Information Structure.............................................................................................................................................303 Table 62 – Adapting TOGAF Business Phase to the Implementation View .............................................................................................................305 Table 63 – Management and Operations View Information Structure......................................................................................................................308 Table 64 – Adapting TOGAF Business Phase to the Management and Operations View......................................................................................312 Table 65 – Data Management Book of Knowledge (DMBOK) Subject Areas...........................................................................................................325 Table 66 – Solution Design Data Completeness Checks...............................................................................................................................................326 Table 67 – Data Management Book of Knowledge (DMBOK) Subject Areas Solution Design Considerations.................................................327 Table 68 – Components of Conceptual Solution Design Data Landscape.................................................................................................................333 Table 69 – Solution Data Landscape Component Linkages.........................................................................................................................................335 Table 70 – Data Integration Patterns ...............................................................................................................................................................................347 Table 71 – Sample Extended Integration Specifications...............................................................................................................................................349 Table 72 – Examples of Personal Data.............................................................................................................................................................................367 Table 73 – GDPR Processes and Their Impact on Solution Design............................................................................................................................370 Table 74 – Personal Data Metadata..................................................................................................................................................................................370 Table 75 – ISO/IEC 25010 Quality Model Applied to Solution Design Reviews......................................................................................................387 Table 76 – Fallacies of Distributed Computing Applied to Digital Solutions ...........................................................................................................394 Table 77 – Linkages Between Components of Digital Target Architecture...............................................................................................................402 Table 78 – Level 2 Elements of Level 1 Component Group External Party Interaction Zones, Channels and Facilities....................................403 Table 79 – Level 2 Elements of Level 1 Component Group Security, Identity, Access and Profile Management...............................................404 Table 80 – Level 2 Elements of Level 1 Component Group Digital Specific Applications and Tools ...................................................................406 Table 81 – Level 2 Elements of Level 1 Component Group Responsive Infrastructure...........................................................................................407 Table 82 – Level 2 Elements of Level 1 Component Internal Interaction Management..........................................................................................407 Table 83 – Level 2 Elements of Level 1 Component Integration.................................................................................................................................408 Table 84 – Level 2 Elements of Level 1 Component Operational and Business Systems.........................................................................................409 Table 85 – Level 2 Elements of Level 1 Component Applications Delivery and Management Tools and Frameworks.....................................411 Table 86 – Level 2 Elements of Level 1 Component System Development, Deployment and Management .......................................................413 Table 87 – Digital Solution Common Characteristics...................................................................................................................................................418 Table 88 – Pillars of Generalised Approach to Agile Iterative Solution Delivery .....................................................................................................425 Table 89 – Solutions and Projects When to Use Agile..................................................................................................................................................427 Table 90 – Key Principles of Iterative Agile Approach .................................................................................................................................................429 Table 91 – Agile Solution Delivery Pillar Two - Control Components of Agile Process.........................................................................................432 Table 92 – Agile Solution Delivery Pillar Three - Agile Tools and Techniques........................................................................................................433 Table 93 – Activities During Initiation/Transition and Service Delivery Phases......................................................................................................457 Table 94 – Ongoing Phase Governance Focussed Activities........................................................................................................................................461 Table 95 – Ongoing Phase Competency and Change Focussed Activities.................................................................................................................463 Table 96 – Ongoing Phase Operations Focussed Activities..........................................................................................................................................464 Table 97 – Service Organisation Controls.......................................................................................................................................................................469 Table 98 – Solution Architect Technical Skills...............................................................................................................................................................474 Table 99 – Solution Architect Analytical Thinking and Resolution Identification Skills........................................................................................476 Table 100 – Solution Architect Behavioural Characteristics........................................................................................................................................478 Table 101 – Solution Architect Business Knowledge ....................................................................................................................................................481 Table 102 – Solution Architect Collaboration Skills......................................................................................................................................................483 Table 103 – Solution Architect Communication Skills.................................................................................................................................................484 Table 104 – Solution Architect Tools and Techniques Skills.......................................................................................................................................485 Table 105 – Applying the Business Function Domain Model to the Solution Architecture Function..................................................................489 Table 106 – SACOE Functions..........................................................................................................................................................................................492 Table 107 – Possible Solution Architecture Maturity Model.......................................................................................................................................494 Table 108 – Knowledge Type and Application Classification......................................................................................................................................495 Table 109 – Knowledge Types Applied to Solution Architecture................................................................................................................................496 Table 110 – Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA) Skill Level and Attribute Matrix..........................................................................497 Table 111 – SFIA Skills Categories and Individual Skills..............................................................................................................................................499 Table 112 – SFIA Skill Levels 4 to 6 Specification for Solution Architecture ............................................................................................................500 Table 113 – SFIA Skill Attributes for Solution Architecture Skill Level 4..................................................................................................................501 Table 114 – SFIA Skill Attributes for Solution Architecture Skill Level 5..................................................................................................................502 Table 115 – SFIA Skill Attributes for Solution Architecture Skill Level 6..................................................................................................................502 Table 116 – Partial List of Solution Architecture Description Languages..................................................................................................................514 Table 117 – Archimate Layers...........................................................................................................................................................................................518 Table 118 – Archimate Strategy Layer Elements............................................................................................................................................................519 Table 119 – Archimate Business Layer Elements...........................................................................................................................................................520 Table 120 – Archimate Application Layer Elements.....................................................................................................................................................521 Table 121 – Archimate Technology Layer Elements .....................................................................................................................................................523 Table 122 – Archimate Physical Layer Elements............................................................................................................................................................523
  10. 10. Introduction to Solution Architecture Page 10 of 538 Table 123 – Archimate Motivation Aspect Elements....................................................................................................................................................524 Table 124 – Enterprise Architecture Frameworks and Languages..............................................................................................................................531 Table 125 – Areas To Look For Innovation....................................................................................................................................................................537
  11. 11. Introduction to Solution Architecture Page 11 of 538 List of Figures Figure 1 – Solution Architecture Focus of the Book........................................................................................................................................................19 Figure 2 – Summary Structure of this Book......................................................................................................................................................................21 Figure 3 – Overlapping Solution Architecture Capabilities and Areas of Solution Involvement and Knowledge................................................27 Figure 4 – High Level Context of Solution Design ..........................................................................................................................................................29 Figure 5 – Vitruvius’ Architecture Principles...................................................................................................................................................................30 Figure 6 – High-Level Logical Mainframe IT Architecture............................................................................................................................................32 Figure 7 – Scope of Complete Solution..............................................................................................................................................................................37 Figure 8 – Scope of Partial and Incomplete Solution ......................................................................................................................................................38 Figure 9 – Solution Delivery Externalities.........................................................................................................................................................................39 Figure 10 – Omission of Components from Solution Design Scope ............................................................................................................................39 Figure 11 – Convergence of Solution Components to Create Complete Operational Solution...............................................................................40 Figure 12 – Staged Delivery of Solution Components ....................................................................................................................................................40 Figure 13 – Organisation Core Change Domains............................................................................................................................................................41 Figure 14 – Extended Organisation Change Domain .....................................................................................................................................................42 Figure 15 – Solution Components Mapped to Organisation Change Domains .........................................................................................................42 Figure 16 – Solution Component Levels ...........................................................................................................................................................................44 Figure 17 – Sample Level 1 to Level 4 Solution Breakdown...........................................................................................................................................45 Figure 18 – Solution Components Contributing to Solution Delivery and Operation Costs...................................................................................46 Figure 19 – Total Solution Lifetime Costs.........................................................................................................................................................................46 Figure 20 – Solution Acquisition and Lifetime Operating Costs...................................................................................................................................47 Figure 21 – Sample Solution Lifetime Cumulative Cost Profile ....................................................................................................................................47 Figure 22 – Sources of Good and Poor Solution Delivery Estimates............................................................................................................................48 Figure 23 – Solution Design Boundaries...........................................................................................................................................................................49 Figure 24 – Solution Design Constraints...........................................................................................................................................................................50 Figure 25 – Solution Delivery Journey...............................................................................................................................................................................51 Figure 26 – IT Function as a Lens Focussing Business Needs On To Solutions .........................................................................................................52 Figure 27 – Multiple Partially Overlapping Solution Delivery Journeys......................................................................................................................53 Figure 28 – Overall Solution Delivery Journey.................................................................................................................................................................55 Figure 29 – Solution Delivery Failure ................................................................................................................................................................................55 Figure 30 – Information Loss Due to Multiple Handoffs During Solution Delivery .................................................................................................56 Figure 31 – Siloed Operation of Solution Delivery Disciplines .....................................................................................................................................56 Figure 32 – Goal of Solution Delivery – the Right Solution Implemented Successfully............................................................................................59 Figure 33 – Right Solution Delivered Successfully is in the Minority of all Solution Delivery Outcomes..............................................................59 Figure 34 – Field of Solution Delivery Project Success and Failure ..............................................................................................................................61 Figure 35 – Operational Solution Deficit – Degrees of Less for More..........................................................................................................................62 Figure 36 – Standish Group CHAOS Report Project Outcome Results 1994-2015....................................................................................................63 Figure 37 – Factors Affecting Good Solution Delivery Decisions.................................................................................................................................69 Figure 38 – Characteristics of Groupthink........................................................................................................................................................................71 Figure 39 – Scale and Complexity of Product Changes and Enhancements ...............................................................................................................74 Figure 40 – IT Architecture Disciplines.............................................................................................................................................................................76 Figure 41 – IT Architecture Two-Way Contribution to the Business ..........................................................................................................................77 Figure 42 – IT Architecture Discipline Involvement Throughout Solution Portfolio Delivery...............................................................................78 Figure 43 – Interactions Between IT Architecture Disciplines......................................................................................................................................78 Figure 44 – Solution Architecture – Bringing It All Together .......................................................................................................................................79 Figure 45 – Siloed Operation of Information Architecture Disciplines .......................................................................................................................80 Figure 46 – Nesting of Siloed Operations Within Solution Delivery and Within IT Architecture Disciplines .....................................................81 Figure 47 – Balance Between Run the Business and Change the Business Activities.................................................................................................82 Figure 48 – IT Architecture Principles ..............................................................................................................................................................................83 Figure 49 – IT Architecture Failings ..................................................................................................................................................................................84 Figure 50 – IT and Business Relationship Failings ..........................................................................................................................................................86 Figure 51 – Consequences of Failing Business and IT Relationship.............................................................................................................................86 Figure 52 – Growth of Shadow IT......................................................................................................................................................................................87 Figure 53 – Solution Design in an Outline Organisation Framework..........................................................................................................................93 Figure 54 – Organisation Context of Solution Architecture ..........................................................................................................................................94 Figure 55 – Interrelated Strategies – Business Strategy, Overall Organisation IT Strategy and Internal IT Function Strategy...........................96 Figure 56 – Problem and Solution Knowledge in the Solution Design Process..........................................................................................................97 Figure 57 – Problem and Solution Knowledge and Solution Design Complexity......................................................................................................97 Figure 58 – Problem and Solution Knowledge and Solution Design Options ............................................................................................................98 Figure 59 – Options for Problems and Solution Knowledge Options ..........................................................................................................................99 Figure 60 – Problem and Solution Knowns and Unknowns..........................................................................................................................................99
  12. 12. Introduction to Solution Architecture Page 12 of 538 Figure 61 – Maximising the Solution Knowns and Minimising the Unknowns ......................................................................................................100 Figure 62 – Solution Option Definition Steps................................................................................................................................................................100 Figure 63 – Solution Design Complexity Heatmap.......................................................................................................................................................101 Figure 64 – The Waterbed Analogy of Necessary Solution Complexity....................................................................................................................103 Figure 65 – Accumulating Solution Complexity............................................................................................................................................................104 Figure 66 – Simple and Complex Problems and Solutions ..........................................................................................................................................104 Figure 67 – Solution Complexity and Time to Deliver.................................................................................................................................................105 Figure 68 – Non-Linear Nature of Solution Delivery Complexity..............................................................................................................................108 Figure 69 – Adjusted Complexity Curve.........................................................................................................................................................................108 Figure 70 – Sample Solution Complexity Score on Solution Complexity Curve......................................................................................................111 Figure 71 – Sample Solution Complexity Dashboard ...................................................................................................................................................112 Figure 72 – Solution Complexity Dashboard With Not Applicable Complexity Factors .......................................................................................113 Figure 73 – Iterated Solution Delivery Phases................................................................................................................................................................114 Figure 74 – Expanded Set of Solution Delivery Steps....................................................................................................................................................115 Figure 75 – Solution Delivery Process with Solution Delivery Phase and Role Dimensions..................................................................................116 Figure 76 – Progress of Solution Delivery Through Phases and Roles.......................................................................................................................124 Figure 77 – Foundational Solution Delivery Activities.................................................................................................................................................125 Figure 78 – Sparse Business Stakeholder Requirements and the Complete Set of Solution Requirements..........................................................128 Figure 79 – Mapping the Requirements Space to the Solution Space.........................................................................................................................130 Figure 80 – Wider Requirements Engineering Landscape...........................................................................................................................................131 Figure 81 – Hierarchy of Information Technology, Business Processes and Value Achieved ...............................................................................136 Figure 82 – Lessons Learned from Large Solutions Implementations .......................................................................................................................138 Figure 83 – Process Optimisation Through Compression of Steps and Collapse of Handoffs ..............................................................................139 Figure 84 – Generic Representation of a Process...........................................................................................................................................................141 Figure 85 – Process Decomposition.................................................................................................................................................................................142 Figure 86 – Process Decomposition Example ................................................................................................................................................................142 Figure 87 – Identification of Fundamental Business Process Activity Sets................................................................................................................143 Figure 88 – Activity Linkage within Processes...............................................................................................................................................................144 Figure 89 – Process Inputs, Rules, Actions, Decisions and Results ............................................................................................................................144 Figure 90 – Process Groups...............................................................................................................................................................................................145 Figure 91 – Business Process Analysis High-Level Steps..............................................................................................................................................147 Figure 92 – Process Analysis Information Structure.....................................................................................................................................................148 Figure 93 – Business Process Design Success Factors...................................................................................................................................................149 Figure 94 – Business Process Design Standards and Approaches – Part 1................................................................................................................151 Figure 95 – Business Process Design Standards and Approaches – Part 2................................................................................................................151 Figure 96 – BPMN Pools and Lanes.................................................................................................................................................................................153 Figure 97 – BPMN Structure.............................................................................................................................................................................................153 Figure 98 – BPMN Flow Objects......................................................................................................................................................................................154 Figure 99 – Modifying BPMN ..........................................................................................................................................................................................155 Figure 100 – BPMN Event Modification.........................................................................................................................................................................157 Figure 101 – Solution Architecture Engagement Models.............................................................................................................................................160 Figure 102 – Mapping Business Need to Engagement Types ......................................................................................................................................161 Figure 103 – Generalised Business Engagement Structure ..........................................................................................................................................162 Figure 104 – Creating Customised Set of Activities, Roles and Deliverables ............................................................................................................163 Figure 105 – Possible Factors Driving the Need for a Business Engagement............................................................................................................164 Figure 106 – Business Engagement Change Domains..................................................................................................................................................165 Figure 107 – Architecture Engagement Extended Factors...........................................................................................................................................166 Figure 108 – Core and Extended Engagement Teams ..................................................................................................................................................167 Figure 109 – Business Engagement High Level Activities and Their Logical Sequence..........................................................................................168 Figure 110 – Business Engagement Activity Sequencing..............................................................................................................................................169 Figure 111 – Steps Within Business Engagement Activity 0. Define And Agree Engagement Scope...................................................................170 Figure 112 – Sample Table of Contents for Architecture Engagement Main Deliverable ......................................................................................175 Figure 113 – Steps Within Business Engagement Activity 1. Information Collection And Assessment..............................................................176 Figure 114 – What Customers Want...............................................................................................................................................................................179 Figure 115 – Data Relationship Diagram........................................................................................................................................................................181 Figure 116 – Business Solution Classification................................................................................................................................................................183 Figure 117 – Steps Within Business Engagement Activity 2. Define Vision, Business Principles And System Principles ................................184 Figure 118 – Business Model Canvass.............................................................................................................................................................................187 Figure 119 – Principles, Limitations and Assumptions Across Core Business Domains........................................................................................189 Figure 120 – Steps Within Business Engagement Activity 3. Document Business Processes, Entity Model, Capacity Planning And Solution Approach..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................192 Figure 121 – Right-to-Left BPI and Left-to-Right BPR.................................................................................................................................................193
  13. 13. Introduction to Solution Architecture Page 13 of 538 Figure 122 – Process Decomposition...............................................................................................................................................................................194 Figure 123 – Doing and Managing Processes.................................................................................................................................................................195 Figure 124 – Process Attributes ........................................................................................................................................................................................195 Figure 125 – Extended Process Definition......................................................................................................................................................................197 Figure 126 – Sample Entity Relationship Diagram for Conceptual Model................................................................................................................198 Figure 127 – Sample Resource Entity Model..................................................................................................................................................................200 Figure 128 – Sample Capacity Planning Model View ...................................................................................................................................................200 Figure 129 – Spectrum of Solution Component Acquisition Options .......................................................................................................................201 Figure 130 – Combinations of Options ...........................................................................................................................................................................201 Figure 131 – Cost Estimation Process..............................................................................................................................................................................203 Figure 132 – Steps Within Business Engagement Activity 4. Document Systems, Applications And Functions................................................206 Figure 133 – Inventory of Interfaces, Exchanges and Transfers..................................................................................................................................207 Figure 134 – Steps Within Business Engagement Activity 5. Define Organisation, Infrastructure And Data.....................................................209 Figure 135 – Steps Within Business Engagement Activity 6. Conduct Solution And Product Evaluation And Selection.................................214 Figure 136 – Approaches To Product and Service Evaluation And Selection...........................................................................................................215 Figure 137 – Core Elements of the Product and Service Evaluation And Selection Process...................................................................................216 Figure 138 – High Level Steps of Product/Service Evaluation And Selection Process.............................................................................................217 Figure 139 – Steps Within Business Engagement Activity 7. Design Model Architecture......................................................................................222 Figure 140 – Options for Existing Technical Infrastructure ........................................................................................................................................224 Figure 141 – Dimensions of Verification of Target Architecture................................................................................................................................225 Figure 142 – Steps Within Business Engagement Activity 8. Consolidate, Finalise And Review Design .............................................................226 Figure 143 – Generalised Solution Design Process........................................................................................................................................................227 Figure 144 – Generalised Solution Design Process Mapped to Engagement Types.................................................................................................228 Figure 145 – Function Involvement During Solution Design......................................................................................................................................230 Figure 146 – Decision Points Within the Solution Design Process.............................................................................................................................231 Figure 147 – Solution Design Work Not Proceed With During the Design Process ...............................................................................................232 Figure 148 – Iterations During Solution Design Process..............................................................................................................................................233 Figure 149 – Representation of Complete Generalised Solution Design Process.....................................................................................................233 Figure 150 – Analysis and Decision Loops......................................................................................................................................................................234 Figure 151 – Analysis Paralysis And Decision Avoidance............................................................................................................................................234 Figure 152 – Solution Design Journey and Solution Architecture Engagement Types ...........................................................................................235 Figure 153 – Path from Problematic Situation to Solution ..........................................................................................................................................237 Figure 154 – Getting the Scope of the Early Engagement Right..................................................................................................................................239 Figure 155 – Resolution Needs To Be Bridge From the As-Is Problematic Situation to a To-Be Improved Situation.......................................240 Figure 156 – Core Early Engagement Process ................................................................................................................................................................241 Figure 157 – Problem and Resolution Options ..............................................................................................................................................................242 Figure 158 – Early Engagement Information Gathering Aspects................................................................................................................................243 Figure 159 – Activity Model Layers..................................................................................................................................................................................248 Figure 160 – Layers of Detail in Activity Models...........................................................................................................................................................249 Figure 161 – Different Activity Views by Different Engagement Business Participants .........................................................................................250 Figure 162 – Sample Rich Picture.....................................................................................................................................................................................252 Figure 163 – Resolutions and Their Paths to Implementation ....................................................................................................................................254 Figure 164 – Dimensions of Internal Organisation Change.........................................................................................................................................255 Figure 165 – Different Profiles of Organisation Changes for Different Resolution Options..................................................................................256 Figure 166 – Solution Value Equation.............................................................................................................................................................................257 Figure 167 – Resolution Success Factors .........................................................................................................................................................................257 Figure 168 – Superset Of Constraints Sets Will Narrow Range Of Available, Realistic And Achievable Resolution Options..........................258 Figure 169 – Moving From The As-Is To The Target To-Be Situation......................................................................................................................258 Figure 170 – Attrition from Initial Business Concept to Operational Solution........................................................................................................259 Figure 171 – Decision Making During the Solution Design Journey .........................................................................................................................259 Figure 172 – Step 1 – Define Existing and New Business Processes ...........................................................................................................................262 Figure 173 – Step 2 – Define New and Existing Functions...........................................................................................................................................263 Figure 174 – Sample Process and Function Breakdown – Buy a Product or Service ...............................................................................................264 Figure 175 – Step 3 – Define New and Existing Actors.................................................................................................................................................265 Figure 176 – Step 4 – Existing or New Systems and Applications...............................................................................................................................266 Figure 177 – Examples of Levels of Detail of System Components.............................................................................................................................267 Figure 178 – Step 5 – List Interfaces and Data Exchanges Between System Components ......................................................................................268 Figure 179 – Step 6 – Identify Actor System Interactions.............................................................................................................................................269 Figure 180 – Step 7 – Identify Actor Actor Interactions...............................................................................................................................................270 Figure 181 – Basic Solution on a Page .............................................................................................................................................................................271 Figure 182 – Step 8 – List Data Impacts ..........................................................................................................................................................................272 Figure 183 – Step 9 – Data Exchanges Required Between Systems.............................................................................................................................273

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