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Introduction To Business
Architecture – Part 2
Alan McSweeney
http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney
Objectives
• Second part of Introduction to Business Architecture
− First part
https://www.slideshare.net/alanmcsweeney/introduction-to-
business-architecture-part-1
• This material describes conducting a specific business
architecture engagement
• Engagement process is generic and needs to be adapted to
each specific application and use
September 24, 2018 2
Business Architecture Engagement
• Formal process for gathering information and creating a
new business function model based on an analysis of that
information
• Formal process means information is gathered and
analysed in a structured way
• Analysis supports and justifies the new business model
• Reduces risks and increases the likelihood of success of the
implementation of the new business model
September 24, 2018 3
Business Architecture Engagement
• The objective of the engagement is to produce results:
options and recommendations
− The engagement is a means to an end and not an end in itself
− It is a process that needs to be followed to completion
September 24, 2018 4
Activities
Information
Gathered
Information
Analysed and
Discussed Conclusions,
Options and
Recommendations
Scope of Business Architecture
• Scope can be a business function or entire business
September 24, 2018 5
Organisation
Business
Function/
Business
Area
Business
Function/
Business
Area
Business
Function/
Business
Area
Business
Function/
Business
Area
Scope
• Agree the scope of the engagement with the key business
stakeholders
• Depth and breadth of engagement
• Time and resources available
• Reason for the engagement – the problem to be addressed
and resolved, the challenge to be responded to, the
opportunity to be addressed
September 24, 2018 6
Initiation Steps
• Set initial engagement objectives and scope
• Refine and elaborate engagement scope
• Define the expected benefits of the engagement
• Identify sources of business knowledge
• Prepare preliminary engagement timeline
• Determine preliminary engagement costs
• Establish business user participation
• Identify source of engagement funding/resources
• Decide whether to continue with the engagement
September 24, 2018 7
Business Architecture – Core Internal Organisation
Areas
• Business
architecture is
concerned with
changes in one or
more of these areas
and co-ordinating
changes across
these areas to
deliver the greatest
benefit
September 24, 2018 8
Business
Architecture
Location and
Offices
Business
Processes
Technology,
Infrastructure
and
Communications
Applications and
Systems
Information and
Data
Organisation and
Structure
Business Architecture – Core Internal Organisation
Areas
• Above The Line
− Concerned with the
organisation or the
business function
• Below The Line
− Concerned with the
technology and
infrastructure that
underpins and
enables the
operation of the
organisation or the
business function
September 24, 2018 9
Business
Architecture
Location and
Offices
Business
Processes
Technology,
Infrastructure
and
Communications
Applications and
Systems
Information and
Data
Organisation and
Structure
Extended View Of Information On Core Internal
Organisation Areas
• One of the objectives of the business architecture
engagement exercise is to define the target state along the
six core areas and their constituent elements
• This provides a comprehensive target structure for
information collection and analysis
• One of the purposes of business architecture is to define
the change across these six domains
September 24, 2018 10
Core Areas Of Business Architecture Changes
• Business-oriented areas
− Location and Offices – existing and new locations and facilities of the
organisation, their types and functions and the principles that govern the
selection of new locations
− Business Processes – current and future business process definitions,
requirements, characteristics, performance
− Organisation and Structure – organisation resources and arrangement,
business unit, function and team structures and composition, relationships,
reporting and management, roles and skills
• Technology-oriented areas
− Technology, Infrastructure and Communications – current and future
technical infrastructure including security, constraints, standards, technology
trends, characteristics, performance requirements
− Applications and Systems – current and future applications and systems,
characteristics, constraints, assumptions, requirements, design principles,
interface standards, connectivity to business processes
− Information and Data – data and information architecture, data integration,
master and reference data, data access and management
September 24, 2018 11
Factors Driving Business Architecture Engagement
• Organisations facing
multiple pressures
across the spectrum
of operations
• These require the
organisation to
develop new
organisation
architectures to
enable them to
respond and operate
effectively
• The objective of the
engagement is to
allow the business
develop responses
one or more of these
factors
September 24, 2018 12
Factors
Driving
Business
Architecture
Engagement
Globalisation
Transparency
Service
Focus and
Customer
Expectations
Challenging
Economic
Circumstances
Consolidation
Increased
Regulation
Business and
Technology
Changes and
New
Opportunities
Mobile and
Social
Computing
Changes
Competition
New Business
Models
Increased Pace
of Change
Core Areas Of Business Architecture Changes
• Business architecture engagements are concerned with
analysing these existing business core areas and creating a
target business architecture
September 24, 2018 13
Business
Function
Architecture
Location and
Offices
Business
Processes
Technology,
Infrastructure
and
Communications
Applications and
Systems
Information and
Data
Organisation
and Structure
Business
Function
Architecture
Location and
Offices
Business
Processes
Technology,
Infrastructure
and
Communications
Applications and
Systems
Information and
Data
Organisation
and Structure
Business Architecture – Core Internal Organisation
Areas
• Organisation will
consist of multiple
business units each
with separate,
possibly partially
overlapping core
area domains
• Business functions
may be loosely
coupled and not
well integrated
September 24, 2018 14
Business
Function
Architecture
Location and
Offices
Business
Processes
Technology,
Infrastructure
and
Communications
Applications and
Systems
Information and
Data
Organisation
and Structure
Business
Function
Architecture
Location and
Offices
Business
Processes
Technology,
Infrastructure
and
Communications
Applications and
Systems
Information and
Data
Organisation
and Structure
Business Architecture – Overall Organisation
Extended Areas
September 24, 2018 15
Overall
Organisation
Business
Strategy
Organisation
Operating
Environment
and Business
Landscape
Business
Function
Architecture
Location and
Offices
Business
Processes
Technology,
Infrastructure
and
Communications
Applications and
Systems
Information and
Data
Organisation
and Structure
Business
Function
Architecture
Location and
Offices
Business
Processes
Technology,
Infrastructure
and
Communications
Applications and
Systems
Information and
Data
Organisation
and Structure
Business
Function
Architecture
Location and
Offices
Business
Processes
Technology,
Infrastructure
and
Communications
Applications and
Systems
Information and
Data
Organisation
and Structure
Business
Function
Architecture
Location and
Offices
Business
Processes
Technology,
Infrastructure
and
Communications
Applications and
Systems
Information and
Data
Organisation
and Structure
Organisation Operating Environment and Landscape
– Extended Business Architecture Elements
BusinessExtendedPotential
AreasofChange
Objectives These are what the organisation wants to needs to achieve. Individual business function objectives must
contribute to achieving the overall organisation objectives.
Strategy and
Methods
This is what the organisation will do to achieve its objectives. Individual business function strategy and
methods must contribute to those of the organization.
Success Factors
These are the core reasons of and contributors to success and achievement of the objectives. The
organisation must focused it attention on these for the company to achieve its objectives and fulfill its
mission. Individual business function success factors must conform with those of the organisation.
Critical Concerns Identify challenges, opportunities, questions, problems, trends, threats, risks or circumstances that must be
addressed and resolved.
Measurement
Framework
Set of measurement and indicators that show the degree to which the objectives are been met and the
success factors achieved
Engagement
Justification
Why are we proposing to do this, why it is needed, what is driving the requirement and what are the
timescales by which it must be complete.
Future State This is a brief description of the ideal or desired target future state in terms of business operations and
changes to key business domains
Essential Policies
and Approaches
How the business function or organisation currently achieves what it does.
Business Rules What underlies the way the business operates and how it organises its work and make decisions.
September 24, 2018 16
Objectives Of And Outputs From Engagement
• Objective is to create a realistic, achievable implementable
and operable target business architecture, supported by
information gathered and analysed
• Artefacts created are a means to an end and exist to
support and validate the target business architecture
• Artefacts are designed to support the conclusions and to
ensure the engagement was conducted with the necessary
and appropriate rigour
• Artefacts demonstrate evidence-based decision making
September 24, 2018 17
Business Architecture Engagement Components
Generalised Engagement
Activities And Their
Sequence
Generalised Deliverables
From Activities
Generalised Engagement
Roles And Their
Involvement In The
Creation Of Deliverables
During Activities
September 24, 2018 18
Business Architecture Engagement Components
• Generalised Engagement Activities And Their Sequence –
complete set of possible activities and their groups and
sequence and flow through the engagement from which
the specific engagement can be created
• Generalised Deliverables From Activities – complete set of
possible deliverables from the possible set of activities
• Generalised Engagement Roles And Their Involvement In
The Creation Of Deliverables During Activities –
identification of possible roles and their involvement in the
possible set of activities and the generation of the possible
set of deliverables
September 24, 2018 19
Business Architecture Engagement Components
• Comprehensive and generalised set of components from
which the details of a specific engagement can be defined
• Create customised engagement from menu of options to
suit the specific needs
September 24, 2018 20
Create Specific And Customised Scope From
Available Menu Of Options
September 24, 2018 21
Generalised Engagement
Activities And Their
Sequence
Generalised Deliverables
From Activities
Generalised Engagement
Roles And Their
Involvement In The
Creation Of Deliverables
During Activities
Specific Customised
Engagement Activities
And Their Sequence
Specific Customised
Deliverables From
Activities
Specific Customised
Engagement Roles And
Their Involvement In
The Creation Of
Deliverables During
Activities
• Create customised path through
the business architecture
engagement process involves
agreeing activities to be
performed, deliverables from the
engagement and participating
roles
Business Architecture Engagement Scope
• Scope needs to be agreed and understood before
commencement
• Some of the steps can be iterated and repeated to increasing
levels of detail – but not too many iterations
− Information gathering and analysis needs to be time-limited
− Activities can occur in parallel by different sub-teams to optimise
elapsed time
− Always check for previously collected information and inventories to
avoid duplication
− Need to avoid analysis paralysis and move to a conclusion and set of
options quickly
• Intended to describe a structured and focussed engagement
• Suited to situations where detail and implementation structure
and framework are required
September 24, 2018 22
Objective Of Business Architecture Engagement
September 24, 2018 23
Organisation
and Structure
Locations and
Offices
Technology,
Infrastructure
And
Communications
Business
Processes
Organisation/
Business
Function
Landscape
Information
and Data
Applications
and Systems
Organisation and
Structure
Locations
And
Offices
Technology,
Infrastructure and
Communications
Business
Processes
Organisation/
Business
Function
Landscape
Information and Data
Applications and
Systems
From …
Current
Landscape To …
Target
Landscape
• Move from where we are now to an
agreed target of where we want to be
Objective Of Business Architecture Engagement
• Create a realistic and achievable target business
architecture to achieve the desired business change
• Business architecture is a structured approach to analysing
the operation of an existing business function or entire
organisation with a view to improving its operations or
developing a new business function, with a strong focus on
processes and technology
• Business architecture is not about business requirements –
it is about business solutions and organisation changes to
deliver business objectives
September 24, 2018 24
Where We Want To Be
September 24, 2018 25
Objective Of Business Architecture Engagement
• Define a target business architecture and a path to
transition to or transform into it across all the core
business domains
• Create a mapping from where the business is now to a
target future state
• Reason for documenting the current state is to provide a
basis for, a context and a justification of the definition of
the target state
September 24, 2018 26
Business Architecture Engagement High Level
Activities And Their Logical Sequence
September 24, 2018 27
0. Define And Agree
Engagement Scope
1. Information
Collection And
Assessment
2. Define Vision,
Business Principles And
System Principles
3. Document Business
Processes, Entity Model,
Capacity Planning And
Solution Approach
4. Document Solutions,
Applications And
Functions
5. Define Organisation,
Infrastructure And Data
6. Conduct Solution And
Product Evaluation And
Selection
7. Design Model
Architecture
8. Consolidate, Finalise
And Review Design
Business Architecture Engagement High Level
Activities And Their Logical Sequence
• The activities do not have to be performed in sequence
− The order can be agreed at the start of the engagement to suit the
available resources and time
September 24, 2018 28
0. Define And Agree
Engagement Scope
1. Information
Collection And
Assessment
2. Define Vision,
Business Principles And
System Principles
3. Document Business
Processes, Entity Model,
Capacity Planning And
Solution Approach
4. Document Solutions,
Applications And
Functions
6. Conduct Solution And
Product Evaluation And
Selection
5. Define Organisation,
Infrastructure And Data
7. Design Model
Architecture
8. Consolidate, Finalise
And Review Design
Business Architecture Engagement Activities – 1
September 24, 2018 29
0. Define And Agree Engagement
Scope
0.1 Mobilise and Present Approach
to Sponsorship and Stakeholder
Team
0.2 Review Any Previous Work, if Any
0.3 Perform Initial Informal
Information Gathering
0.4 Review Information and Define
Scope of Introductory Workshop(s)
0.5 Define Team and Facilities
Required
0.6 Create Table of Contents (Scope)
of Engagement Deliverable
0.7 Conduct Introductory
Workshop(s)
0.8 Update Scope of Deliverables
Business Architecture Engagement Activities – 2
September 24, 2018 30
1. Information Collection
And Assessment
1.1 Current Business
Review
1.2 Assess Customer (Or
External Party)
Perceptions
1.3 Review Current
Industry Best Practices
And Technology Changes
1.4 Analyse Current
Business Systems
1.5 Analyse Available
Solutions And Products
2. Define Vision,
Business Principles And
System Principles
2.1 Define Vision For
Functional Business Area
2.2 Describe Functional
Business Area Principles,
Assumptions and
Limitations
2.3 Describe System
Principles, Assumptions
and Limitations
3. Document Business
Processes, Entity Model,
Capacity Planning And
Solution Approach
3.1 Define And Document
Business Processes
3.2 Create Conceptual
Entity Model
3.3 Gather Capacity
Planning Information
3.4 Define Solution And
System Approach
3.5 Develop And Validate
Feasibility Prototype(s)
4. Document Systems,
Applications And
Functions
4.1 Document Systems,
Applications And
Functions
Business Architecture Engagement Activities – 3
September 24, 2018 31
5. Define Organisation,
Infrastructure And Data
5.1 Define Organisation
And Resource
Requirements And
Structure
5.2 Define Application
And Data Organisation
5.3 Define Infrastructure
Requirements
6. Conduct Solution And
Product Evaluation And
Selection
6.1 Conduct Solution And
Product Evaluation And
Selection
7. Design Infrastructure
Model Architecture
7.1 Design Infrastructure
Model Architecture
8. Consolidate, Finalise
And Review Design
8.1 Finalise Application
Architecture
8.2 Define Benefits And
Costs
8.3 Create High Level
Phased Delivery Plan
8.4 Review And Agree
Business Architecture
Engagement
Business Architecture Engagement Organisation And
Landscape
September 24, 2018 32
Core
Team
Extended Team –
Direct Business
Participants and
Stakeholders
Wider Organisation –
Aware Of, Communicated
About And Affected By
Engagement
Workshops
• Workshops are an effective and necessary information
gathering tool as part of the business engagement exercise
• Workshops involve the core engagement team presenting
to and learning from the extended business team and the
wider organisation
• Workshops have two sets of purposes:
− Primary – achieve the stated objective, gather and confirm
information
− Secondary – build team, get acceptance and buy-in from
extended team and wider organisation, identify potential
organisation and personnel problems and hidden agendas, assist
with communication and control the message, assist with making
decisions, uncover conflicts
September 24, 2018 33
Workshops
• The effectiveness of workshops needs to be optimised with
careful preparation, planning and delivery
• Define and communicate objectives
• Identify and profile extended and wider team participants
• Allocate roles to core team participants
• Define schedule, timescale and duration
• Deal with issues such as facilities and equipment
• Prepare, review, agree and distribute inputs
• Create tables of contents of target deliverables
• Prepare, review, agree set of topics to be covered and
presentation material
• Document results and circulate for review and feedback
September 24, 2018 34
0. Define And Agree Engagement Scope
September 24, 2018 35
0.1 Mobilise And Present Approach To Sponsorship
And Stakeholder Team
• Ensure that the composition of the team sponsoring the
engagement and the stakeholders involved in the business area
covered by the engagement are agreed
• Prepare and review summary materials
• Present high-level approach – activities, deliverables, roles – of the
engagement
• Confirm scope and objectives
• Prepare and present work plan with indicative schedule
• Present the contents of the report from the engagement
• Agree the team composition
• Allocate resources and facilities
• This is the start of the continuous communication process during the
engagement
− It sets the tone for the remainder of the engagement
September 24, 2018 36
0.2 Review Any Previous Work, If Any
• There may have been other similar or related engagements
that generated outputs, relating to strategic business change
• Analyse results to determine what can be reused, if any
• Understand the issues identified during these previous
engagement
• Review how their recommendation were implemented, if at all
• Understand the reasons for the (partial or incomplete)
implementation
• This will inform how the current engagement should proceed
and how it should address problems previously encountered
September 24, 2018 37
0.3 Perform Initial Informal Information Gathering
• Prior to the formal introductory workshop(s) have informal and
preparatory individual meetings with engagement sponsor and some of
the key stakeholders
• Understand their vision, objectives and understanding of the business
architecture engagement
• Ascertain the key underlying issues they are looking to resolve
• Identify their level of commitment
• Walk the floor of the current operation/business function
• Understand how work gets done
• Document the organisation structure and key people
• Present the likely workshop schedule
• Agree workshop participants
• Understand likely objections and resistance to the engagement process
and to any recommendations for change
September 24, 2018 38
0.4 Review Information And Define Scope Of
Introductory Workshop(s)
• Review the results of the informal meetings and
information gathered in the business area and previous
engagements
• Introductory workshop is intended to present the
engagement to those participants who will be contributing
to information gathering, issue analysis and identification
of resolutions
• The introductory workshop(s) need to be prepared
carefully to demonstrate professionalism and seriousness
September 24, 2018 39
Possible Topics To Cover In Introductory
Workshop(s)
Measurement Framework
•Key performance indicators across dimensions of:
•Service and product delivery – cost, time, quality, volume
•Financial – input costs, cost of product and service delivery, return
•Customer (external party) view – satisfaction, retention
•Organisation – ability to adopt changes and apply new ways of operating
Why The Engagement
•Why the engagement is taking place, what issues, challenges, needs are driving the
engagement – poor performance, service, loss of business, new regulations
•What is likely to happen if no action is taken
•What benefits are likely to accrue
Future Vision
•What does the future look like
Limitations
•What will constrain the range of solution options:
•Cost
•Time
The Team And Schedule
•Who will be involved in doing the work
•Who will contribute to the work
•Who will review the work
•How will the core and extended teams operate
•How long will it takeSeptember 24, 2018 40
Scope
•Business functions involved in the engagement
•Locations and jurisdictions involved in the work delivery
•Sets of products and services being provided
•Business processes, business rules
•Facilities, systems and applications used or that support service delivery
Why The Engagement
•Why the engagement is taking place, what issues, challenges, needs are driving the
engagement – poor performance, service, loss of business, new regulations
•What is likely to happen if no action is taken
•What benefits are likely to accrue
Indication Of Changes
•What are the likely changes across the core areas
Aims
•Business aims
•Success factors
Stakeholders
•Who needs to be involved
0.5 Define Team And Facilities Required
• Teams
− Core team that will do the work
− Extended team that will contribute to the work and review (some of
the) outputs
• Determine required competencies/skills/experience of core
team
• Create project delivery standards and templates
• Agree and document communication process
• Agree and document work delivery process including artefact
creation and review
• Acquire facilities
• Conduct team building and introductory round table session
September 24, 2018 41
Core Team Building And Introductory Round Table
Session
• Describe engagement, its objectives and deliverables
• Describe the known work programme and schedule
• Describe the planned work delivery process
• Describe the participants, stakeholders, organisation structure
• Define team roles, relationships and structures
• Understand team members’ experience and knowledge
• Define internal and external communication processes
• Define principles of operation such as:
− Document all interactions with extended team to avoid confusion and doubt later
− Information gathering needs to be timeboxed
• Define work delivery standards, performance, accountability and processes
• Detail internal and external meeting schedule including daily stand-ups
• Detail the team decision-making process
• Describe the boundaries:
− Between groups within the engagement team
− Between external stakeholders and participants
• Document team charter
September 24, 2018 42
0.6 Create Table Of Contents (Scope) Of
Engagement Deliverable
• Create an initial draft table of contents of the analysis and
report that will be generated from the business
architecture engagement
September 24, 2018 43
Indicative Table Of Contents Of Output From
Business Architecture Engagement
• Need to create a comprehensive deliverable that describes where the business function or
organisation wants to be and how this can be achieved
• This will be supported by the other more detailed artefacts created during the engagement
September 24, 2018 44
Summary Current State
Terms of Reference
Issues Driving Need for
Change
Current Organisation
Area Future State And
Structure
Volumetrics
Processes, Performance
and Service Levels
Business Case
Future State
Justification for Action
Target Organisation Area
Future State And
Structure
Volumetrics
Processes, Performance
and Service Levels
Impact of Change
Assumptions
Constraints
Supporting
Information
Benchmarks and Best
Practices
External and Internal
Drivers for Change
Possible Software
Products and Vendors
Cost and Benefit Analysis
Achieving The Future
State
Implementation Options
and Plans
Pilot, Phases and
Releases
Schedule and
Dependencies
Resources and People
Required
0.7 Conduct Introductory Workshop(s)
• Conduct introductory workshops with business participants aimed at
initiating the project and setting expectations
• These are designed to introduce the engagement based on the scope
agreed with the sponsor
• There are not detailed information collection sessions
• They are designed to present an overview of the envisaged end-to-end
process
• Present the proposed set of topics to be covered in subsequent
information gathering sessions
• Allow participants to comment
• Emphasise that the approach and workplan are subject to change during
the engagement
• The focus needs to be on producing quality deliverables within a
reasonable timescale and not analysing to a minute level of detail
• Produce sufficient information to allow management make an informed
decision
September 24, 2018 45
0.8 Update Scope Of Deliverables
• Based on the feedback from the introductory workshop(s),
update the deliverables produced so far
September 24, 2018 46
1. Information Collection And Assessment
September 24, 2018 47
1.1 Current Business Review
• Gather information on the structure and operation of
existing organisation or function operations including
locations, if this applies
• Objective is to have sufficient information on current
operations and business processes to understand
performance issues
• Document business processes
• Document organisation or function structure, locations
and interactions
September 24, 2018 48
Business Or Function Organisational Structure
• Create a model for the existing structure of the function being analysed
• The level of detail to be included in the model depends on the size of the
function: individual, functional group
• Classify each unit in the organisational structure:
− Roles, positions, levels/grades, functions, responsibilities, key personnel
− Decision making processes
− Work groups, work organisation, work types, work allocation and distribution, work
volumes
− Business processes operated, level and currency of documentation
− Performance, throughput, service levels, monitoring and reporting
− Technology used and staff opinion of technology
− Relationships between work groups and functions
− Interactions with other business functions
− Interactions with external product or service delivery partners
− Staff engagement, staff awareness of issues
− Issues and problems
− Planned changes
September 24, 2018 49
Support Processes And Systems
• Work allocation and planning systems
− How is work allocated, recorded and workload planned for
• Learning management
− Examine staff training processes and approaches
− How are business processes linked to training
• Time recording and management
• Performance recognition and reward
− How is good staff performance identified, recognised and rewarded
− How is poor performance handled
• Personnel development and talent management
− What is the approach to staff development and progression
• Staff communications
− Evaluate how staff are communicated with and how information is
disseminated
September 24, 2018 50
Business Or Function Locations
• Document each business or function location that comes
under the scope of the engagement
• Define location type: office, distribution, storage, service,
sales
• Describe details about the location: size, number of staff,
facilities
September 24, 2018 51
Business Process And Rule Examination
• This involves documenting existing business processes and associated rules
at a high-level – the detail may come later
• It is also not concerned with redesigning existing processes – this also
comes later
• Identify core business processes categories
• Document major processes within each process category
− What causes the process to be initiated?
− What information is required and where does it come from?
− What are the outcomes of the process?
− What are the key metrics about each process: time to complete, errors and rework,
cost, resources and skills required, systems used?
− How is process performance recorded and reported on?
− What rules and decision-making are applied to process operations?
− What restrictions, limitations and implied assumptions are applied to each process?
− Where are the manual steps and handoffs?
− What process documentation exists and how does it differ from the actual process
as performed?
September 24, 2018 52
Business Process And Rule Examination
• What work areas do not map to existing defined business
processes?
• What processes are shared between or performed at
multiple locations?
• What processes rely on external involvement and what is
that involvement?
• Where are processes and rules automated?
• Document each process category and major process within
category in a structured and common manner
September 24, 2018 53
Existing Technology And Information Systems
• Review systems and applications used
− Office support systems
− Applications
− Data structures
− Level of automation
− Manual workarounds
− Documentation and its currency
− Staff satisfaction
September 24, 2018 54
1.2 Assess Customer (Or External Party) Perceptions
• Identify some representative customers (or external parties)
that interact with the organisation or business function and
that agreed to be contacted to discuss their interactions and
experiences
− Products or services used or acquired
− How much, how frequently
− Alternatives evaluated
− Experiences of interactions and level of satisfaction
− Experiences of products or services and level of satisfaction
− Overall perception of organisation or business function
− Overall satisfaction
− Importance of organisation to customer
− Desired performance
− Views of how the organisation or business function should change or
can improve
September 24, 2018 55
Customer (External Party) Perceptions
• What products and services are used by the customer?
• How are products and services are used in customers’
businesses?
• What business issues do these customer face in using the
products and services?
• How do the products and services enable customers’
businesses succeed?
• What do customers like?
• What do customers not like?
September 24, 2018 56
What Do Customers (External Parties) Want?
• Customers (External Interacting Parties)
generally want the organisation to
demonstrate a mix of one, two or three
core values:
− Understanding and Closeness
(Enhancement) – demonstrate and act on
customer knowledge and offer customised
products and services to meet those exact
needs
− Product and Service Operational Excellence
(Efficiency/Utility) – provide reliable,
convenient, easy-to-use, cost-effective, value
for money products and services
− Product and Service Innovation and
Leadership (Transformational) – offer
products and services that are better, more
innovative, technologically advanced than
others
September 24, 2018 57
What Do Customers (External Parties) Want?
• Understand what your customers (external parties) want,
how they perceive you and what you can are capable of
September 24, 2018 58
What Issues Do Customers (External Parties)
Encounter?
• Identify issues customers encounter during business
interactions
− Access to information
− Quality of information
− Access to person
− Speed and quality of response
− Provision of response
− Ease of ordering products and services
− Order status
− Product and service delivery
− Product and service utility
− Price, billing
− Accuracy and rework
− Query and error handling and resolution
• Use process groups to identify points where problems arise
September 24, 2018 59
Sample Process For Buy Product Or Service
September 24, 2018 60
Buy Product/Service
Customer Contact
Management
Information Request
Fulfilment Response
Provide Quotation
Collect and Validate
Requirements
Process Information and
Create Quotation
Issue Quotation
Follow-up on Quotation
Manage Negotiations
Sell
Handle and Fulfil Order
Billing
Bill Invoicing
Bill Payments and
Receivables
Management
Bill Inquiry Handling
Receive Customer Bill
Inquiry
Assess Customer Bill
Inquiry
Authorise Customer Bill
Invoice Adjustment
Track and Manage
Customer Bill Inquiry
Resolution
Analyse Detailed Bill
Inquiry
Determine Appropriate
Bill Adjustment
Record Customer Bill
Invoice Adjustment
Issue Adjusted Bill
Report Customer Bill
Inquiry
Close Customer Bill
Inquiry
Handle Payment
Sample Customer Journey For Buy Product Or
Service
September 24, 2018 61
Look For
Information/
Awareness
And
Interest
Generated
Look For
Details on
Specific
Product/
Service/
Offer
Receive,
Evaluate
Offer,
Negotiate
and
Compare
Decide To
Buy
Product/
Service
Pass
Enrolment,
Buy/
Subscribe
and
Receive
Product/
Service
Receive
and Pay
Usage
Statements
and Bills
Query
Usage
Statement
and Bill,
Pay Bill
Report
Fault/
Complaint
Upgrade/
Buy
Additional
Product/
Service/
Respond to
Offer
Renew,
Evaluate
Alternatives
and
Negotiate
Decide to
Leave/
Cancel
Service
Accept
Counteroffer
Sample Customer Journey For Buy Product Or
Service – External To Internal Mapping
September 24, 2018 62
Look For
Information/
Awareness
And
Interest
Generated
Look For
Details on
Specific
Product/
Service/
Offer
Receive,
Evaluate
Offer,
Negotiate
and
Compare
Decide To
Buy
Product/
Service
Pass
Enrolment,
Buy/
Subscribe
and
Receive
Product/
Service
Receive
and Pay
Usage
Statements
and Bills
Query
Usage
Statement
and Bill,
Pay Bill
Report
Fault/
Complaint
Upgrade/
Buy
Additional
Product/
Service/
Respond to
Offer
Renew,
Evaluate
Alternatives
and
Negotiate
Decide to
Leave/
Cancel
Service
Accept
Counteroffer
Internal Processes and
Activities Needed to
Deliver Customer Journey
Customer End-to-End Journey
1.3 Review Current Industry Best Practices And
Technology Changes
• Review best practices within the industry area in which the
organisation or business operates and companies that
excel in areas of relevance
• Review what other competing organisations use and how
their performance compares
• Review business trends
• Review technologies and providers
• Review technology trends
September 24, 2018 63
Review Best Practices
• Purpose is to understand how comparable organisations achieve better performance
• Review organisations offering similar products and services
• Review organisations that excel in specific areas and that do not necessarily offer similar
products and services
− Customer service
− Brand development
− Innovation
− Cost reduction
− Sales
− Similar complexity of operation, products or services
− Supply chain management
− Efficiency, performance, throughput for numbers of staff
− Quality control, errors
− Use of technology
− Use of resources
− Organisation structure
• Look for excellence in the previously identified core process categories
• Look for how excellence was achieved and what the previous state was
• Examine the what – results and outcomes achieved – and the how
• Use the information to identify possible new approaches and options to operate the core
processes
September 24, 2018 64
Review Best Practices
• Source best practice information from:
− Search of publications and articles
− Industry experts
− Direct contacts
− Relevant industry associations
− Employees’ previous experience
− Customers’ (external party) experience
• Could consider using services of professional survey
organisation if time and budget allow and if the scope of
the work justifies it
September 24, 2018 65
Review Best Practices
• Classify the results of the best practice analysis using the previously
identified process categories and other analysis factors
− Customer service
− Brand development
− Innovation
− Cost reduction
− Sales
− Similar complexity of operation, products or services
− Supply chain management
− Efficiency, performance, throughput for numbers of staff
− Quality control, errors
− Use of technology
− Use of resources
− Organisation structure
• Identify those organisations that are achieve more and determine
gaps between the two organisation
• Quantify difference and describe the reasons for the difference
September 24, 2018 66
Review Technology Trends
• What new technologies are available?
• How commercially available are these new technologies?
• How can these new technologies be applied within the
organisation?
• How are other organisations using new technologies?
• Who are the vendors offering these new technologies?
September 24, 2018 67
1.4 Analyse Current Business Systems
• Examine the business system and technology landscape,
data and communications infrastructure
September 24, 2018 68
Review Data Stores
• Lists major data stores
− Subject area(s)
− Underlying applications
− Data source(s)
− Data types and formats
− Size, amount of data, number of transactions
− Technology and its currency
− Data quality issues
− Value and utility to the business
− Year of implementation, year of last major upgrade/update
September 24, 2018 69
Create Logical Data Topic Entity Model
• Create diagram(s) identify key data topics or classes
• Document high-level contents of each data topic
• Identify relationships and linkages between data topics
September 24, 2018 70
Data Details
Data Details
Data Details
Data Subject
Data Details
Data Details
Data Details
Data Subject
Data Details
Data Details
Data Details
Data Subject
Data Details
Data Details
Data Details
Data Subject
Data Details
Data Details
Data Details
Data Subject
Review Business Systems And Applications In Use
• Create an inventory of business systems and applications in use
• Describe their technology basis – product/custom-developed, software used,
technical infrastructure
• Detail the core functions provided by the systems and applications
• Link the business systems and applications to the core process categories and
their constituent processes
• Describe the state of these systems and applications
− Fitness for purpose and suitability for current business operations
− Value to the business
− Manual workarounds and manual handoffs to other systems
− Ease of use, usefulness
− Goodness of fit for planned and known future business changes
− Efficiency of operations
− User experiences of the system
− Level and currency of documentation and training material
− Volume of work, number of users, number of transactions
− Year of implementation, year of last major upgrade/update
− Internal or hosted
September 24, 2018 71
Review Business Systems And Applications In Use
• Evaluate the technical state of the business systems and
applications
− Reliability
− Availability
− Compliance with technical standards
− Compliance with data regulations
− Flexibility and ease of modification
− Vendor plans for packaged applications
− Version in use and current versions supported by vendor
− Issues with technical infrastructures - for example, operating system
and database versions
− Cost of operations, support and maintenance
− Fitness and appropriateness as a platform for future developments
− Compliance with organisation IT architecture standards
September 24, 2018 72
Review IT And Communications Infrastructure
• Create a diagram showing the infrastructural components,
including any network, and their relationships
• Identify major elements of the infrastructure
− External hosting and communications links
− Internal infrastructure – server operating systems, databases
− Security
− Application access
− User access devices
September 24, 2018 73
Categorise Business Systems And Applications
• Create four state
classification of reviewed
business systems and
applications based on two
factors (collected earlier
and reviewed now):
− Value to the business
− State of application and
underlying technology and
vendor
September 24, 2018 74
Value to the Business
Application
Technical
State
Retain or
Replace
Later
Retain
Replace
Now
Replace
Later
Low High
Poor
Good
Categorise Business Systems And Applications
• Application Technical State Poor Value to the Business Low =
Replace Now
− These applications need to be replaced or retired and their data converted to
new platforms
• Application Technical State Good Value to the Business Low = Retain
or Replace Later
− These applications may be considered for replacement in the future or may be
retained depending on the target business architecture, the associated
technology architecture and the systems needs to support its operation
• Application Technical State Poor Value to the Business High =
Replace Later
− These applications should be flagged for replacement in the future
• Application Technical State Good Value to the Business High =
Retain
− These applications should be retained unless there are better options readily
available that can be implemented easily and quickly with minimum disruption
September 24, 2018 75
1.5 Analyse Available Solutions And Products
• Objective is to evaluate possible options for business
systems and applications - package, in-house or hosted or
custom development - flagged for replacement now or in
the future
− High-level evaluation and sense-check that product is likely to
meet key requirements
− Not conducting a full tendering process
• Identify sources of possible sets of product information
• Prepare vendor contact approach including questionnaire
September 24, 2018 76
Production Options – Functional And Operational
Requirements
• Define high-level functional requirements based on
functionality provided by current products and likely
future business requirements
• Define high-level operational and product delivery
requirements – capacity, number of users, volume of data
September 24, 2018 77
Vendor Contact Questionnaire
• Vendor details – company size, duration in business, product
details, numbers of installations of product, maturity of
product
• Compliance with functional requirements
• Compliance with operational requirements
• Security model
• Product delivery options
• Customer satisfaction
• Implementation project resources and timescale
• Service management and support
• Outline financial analysis – initial cost, maintenance, cost of
ownership
September 24, 2018 78
Vendor Contact Summary
• Summarise information gathered from vendors, comparing
solutions across key requirement and evaluation factors
September 24, 2018 79
2. Define Vision, Business Principles And System
Principles
September 24, 2018 80
2.1 Define Initial Vision For Functional Business Area
• The vision is a high-level description of the desired future
operating model of the organisation or business function
• It is concerned with the desired future state and not how that
state can be achieved
• Vision contains:
− The expected environment in which the organisation or business
function operates:
• Products and services provided
• Customer segments supplied
• Physical distribution
• Competitors
• Economy
− The business function operating model in terms of its future core
business process groups and constituent business processes
• Structure of the business function core operating domains
• Organisation structure and operation
• Supporting and enabling technology
September 24, 2018 81
Initial Vision For Functional Business Area
• Use scenarios and process journeys to walk through the
internal and external operations for key business activities
and detail their flow
• Develop inventory of key scenarios and process journeys
• The approach breathes life into the operating model and
can be used to determine its validity
• There can be more than one vision or alternative versions
of the vision
September 24, 2018 82
Initial Vision For Functional Business Area
• Vision is the means for articulating the target of the
business architecture engagement
− Externally used to communicate what the engagement is
concerned with
− Internally used to organise and focus work effort and to define
the boundaries of the work
September 24, 2018 83
Factors To Consider When Developing Vision
September 24, 2018 84
Products and Services
• What products and services do we
supply
• How many types do we supply?
• How are they different from those of
other organisations?
• How do we deliver the products and
services ?
• How do we develop and enhance
them?
Customers
• Who do we provide products and
services to?
• How broad is the range of customers?
• Why do customers acquire our
products and services?
Suppliers and Partners
• Who are our suppliers and partners?
• How do we work with them?
• How many are there?
Competition
• Who do we compete with?
• How do we compete?
• How well do we compete?
• How are we different from our
competitors?
• How is competition changing?
Regulatory Landscape
• What is the regulatory landscape?
• How compliant are we with
regulations?
• How is it changing?
Business Processes
• How well defined are our business
processes?
• How optimised, integrated, efficient
and automated are they?
• How well do they work in terms of
cost and time to operate?
• How do we measure performance?
Organisation
• What is our organisation structure?
• Who does what?
• What does it cost to operate?
• How is the organisation operated and
managed?
• How do we recognise and reward talent
and performance?
Locations and Facilities
• Where do we operate from?
• How many types of locations do we
have?
Systems, Data and Technology
• What are the key business systems?
• How well do they meet the needs of the
organisation?
• How well integrated are they?
• What is the state of the organisation’s
technology infrastructure?
• Can customers and suppliers interact
with the organisations using technology?
• How well do we manage data?
Business Model Canvass
• Consider using the Business Model Canvass approach to describe the
vision for the functional business area
• Divides business into nine elements in four groups
− Infrastructure
• Key Partners - the key partners and suppliers needed to achieve the business model
• Key Activities - the most important activities the business must perform to ensure the
business model works
• Key Resources - the most important assets to make the business model work
− Offering
• Value Propositions - the value, products and services provided to the customer
− Customers
• Customer Relationships - the customer relationships that need to be created
• Channels - the channels through which the business reaches its customers
• Customer Segments - the types of customers being targetted by the business model
− Finances
• Cost Structure - the most important costs incurred by the business model
• Revenue Streams - the sources through which the business model gets revenue from
customers
September 24, 2018 85
Business Model Canvass
September 24, 2018 86
Key Partners
• Who are our key partners?
• Who are our key suppliers?
• What Key Resources do we acquire
from partners?
• What Key Activities do partners
perform?
MOTIVATIONS FOR
PARTNERSHIPS
• Optimisation and economy
• Reduction of risk and uncertainty
• Acquisition of resources and skills
Key Activities
• What key activities do our value
propositions require
• What are our distribution channels?
• What are our customer relationships?
• What are our revenue streams?
CATEGORIES
• Production
• Problem Solving
• Platform/Network
Value Propositions
• What value do we deliver to our
customers?
• Which of our customers’ problems are
we helping to solve?
• What bundles of products and
services do we offer to each customer
segment?
CHARACTERISTICS
• Novelty
• Performance
• Customisation
• “Getting the Job Done”
• Design
• Brand
• Status
• Cost Reduction
• Risk Reduction
• Accessibility
• Convenience/Usability
Customer Relationships
• What type of relationship does each of our
customer segments expect us to establish
and maintain with them?
• What ones have we already established?
• How are they integrated into our business
model?
• How much do they cost?
EXAMPLES
• Personal assistance
• Dedicated personal assistance
• Self-service
• Automated services
• Communities
• Co-creation
Customer
Segments
• For whom are we creating
value?
• Wo are our most important
customers?
• Mass market
• Niche market
• Segmented
• Diversified
• Multi-sided platform
Key Resources
What key resources are required by our
Value propositions Distribution channels
Customer relationships
Revenue streams
TYPES OF RESOURCES
Physical
Intellectual
Human
Financial
Channels
• Through which channels do our customer
segments want to be reached?
• How are we reaching them now?
• How are our channels integrated?
• Which ones are most cost-efficient?
• How are we integrating them with customer
processes?
CHANNEL PHASES
• Awareness - How do we raise awareness
about our products and services
• Evaluation – How do we help customers
evaluate our value proposition?
• Purchase – How do we allow customers
purchase specific products and services?
• Delivery – How do we deliver a value
proposition to customers?
• After Sales – How do we provide post-
purchase customer support?
Cost Structure
• What are the most important costs inherent in the business model?
• Which key resources are the most expensive?
• Which key activities are the most expensive?
IS THE BUSINESS MORE:
• Cost Driven – leanest cost structure, low price value proposition, maximum automation, extensive
outsourcing
• Value Driven – focussed on value creation, premium value proposition
SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS
• Fixed costs
• Variable costs
• Economies of loading
• Economies of scale
Revenue Streams
• What value are customers really willing to pay for?
• What are they currently paying for?
• How are they currently paying?
• How would they prefer to pay?
How much does each revenue stream contribute to overall revenue?
TYPES FIXED PRICING DYNAMIC PRICING
• Asset sale • List price • Negotiation/bargaining
• Usage fee • Product feature dependent • Yield management
• Subscription fees • Customer segment dependent • Real-time market
• Lending/renting/leasing • Volume dependent
• Licensing
• Brokerage fees
• Advertising
Key Stakeholder Interviews
• Gather information from key stakeholders using structured
one-to-one interviews
• Summarise information collected to create initial view of
current and desired or target future state
• Clarify and align vision through collective workshops
• Document updated vision
• Communicate vision
September 24, 2018 87
Key Stakeholder Interviews
• Identify key stakeholders who are important to the achievement of
the target from the business architecture engagement or who know
about the business environment
− Business executives and heads of business functions
− Those involved in developing business strategy
− Those involved in analysing business and market trends
• Interviews will gather hard and soft information
− Hard – facts, numbers, detail
− Soft – stakeholder level of interest, engagement, commitment and enthusiasm,
possible resistance, amount and quality of information provided
• Collect information from multiple stakeholders to get different
perspectives
• Prepare structured interview notes using previously documented
vision factors and business model canvas
• Conduct stakeholder interviews, document information collected
and circulate for comments
September 24, 2018 88
Consolidate Stakeholder Interview Information
• Create starting vision based on consolidated information
collected and analysed
− Separate the What of the vision from the How of its actualisation
• Describing the vision
− Use scenarios and process journeys to walk through the internal
and external operations for key business activities and detail their
flow
− Develop inventory of key scenarios and process journeys
− Describe alternatives and options where they arose
− Identify differences and divergences where they arose in the
information collected
− Define the choices and decisions to be made
September 24, 2018 89
Vision Workshop
• Purpose is to present the consolidated vision, alternatives,
differences and decisions
− Again, separate the What of the vision from the How of its actualisation
− The How is a constraint that can be addressed later
• At this stage, a detailed analysis and discussion can be counter-
productive
• Objective is to achieve (some) consensus on the vision and to
create a netted list of disagreements and differences
• Present the information collected using the previous structures
and frameworks:
− Scenarios and process journeys
− Vision factors and business model canvas
− Use pictures and diagrams
September 24, 2018 90
Rich Pictures
• Detailed visualisations represent information more effectively
than lengthy narrative text
− More easily understood and engaged with
• Show relationships, interactions
• Provides a more concise illustration of state
• Better tool to elicit information
• Gaps, errors and omissions more easily identified
• Assists informed discussions
• Evolve and refine rich picture representations of as-in and to-
be situations throughout the engagement exercise
• Cannot expect to capture every piece of information – focus on
the important elements
• A rich picture is not a process map
24 September 2018 91
Rich Pictures – Typical Contents
• Not all picture need have all elements
• You can have multiple pictures and pictures can evolve
24 September 2018 92
Element Description
Core Objective(s) Brief statement of the core purpose(s) of the situation where there is perceived to be a
problem – what the associated service is looking to achieve
Actor Persons or groups within the organisation or externally providing services to the
organisation involved in the delivery of the overall service
Consumer Persons or groups at whom the service is being directed or who use the service
Entities, Types and Roles Functional collections of persons or groups within the organisation or externally providing
services
Locations and Facilities Locations or interaction points where consumers avail of or are provided with services
Viewpoints Views or opinions of actors on the provision and operation of the service
Relationships and
Dependencies
Relationships and dependencies between other elements of the rich picture
Interactions Dealings and relations between entities, actors and consumers
Processes Processes that are used to deliver service or support its delivery
Options, Questions Options and questions relating to the core service objectives
Requirements, Obligations Requirements and obligations of actors and entities, relating to the core service objectives
Core Issues and Owners Issues relating to the core service objectives
Constraints, Limitations Any actual or perceived constraints and limitations relating to the provision and operation
of the service
Rich Picture Example
24 September 2018 93
Entity 1 Entity 2 Entity 3
Entity 10 Entity 11
Entity 7 Entity 8 Entity 9
Entity 5 Entity 6
Entity 4
Location 1
Issue 1
Issue 2
Issue 3
Location 2
Viewpoint 1
Requirement 1
Requirement 6
Requirement 3
Requirement 4
Requirement 2
Viewpoint 2
Viewpoint 4
Viewpoint 3
Interaction
Interaction
Interaction
Interaction
Process 1
Process 2
Process 3
Viewpoint 5
Interaction
Interaction
Constraint 1
Constraint 2
Constraint 3
Requirement 5
Location 3
Core
Objectives
Consumer 1
Consumer 2
Rich Pictures
• Are not systematic views (yet)
• They do not contains system-related components such as
IT applications, infrastructure and data flows at this stage
− These are solution and implementation-related elements
• Resist the temptation to include systematic parts at the
investigation stage and pre-judge options for resolution
and transformation
− Transformation with a small “t”
• Jumping to conclusions at this stage will limit the scope of
information gathered
24 September 2018 94
Refine And Communicate Vision
• Update the vision based on workshop contents and
outcomes
• Distribute to stakeholders
September 24, 2018 95
Achieving Organisational Change
• Achieving the ultimate target business architecture
involves organisation change
• The required changes may be resisted by some affected
stakeholders and other individuals or the organisation
itself may be unable to accommodate change
• It is important to identify potential blockers early in the
business architecture engagement and to continue this
throughout the engagement
− Early and often
• Actions need to be defined that address these blockers in
order to enable the required change to occur
September 24, 2018 96
Achieving Organisational Change
• Actions can include:
− Supporting those that in favour of change
− Identifying and addressing the objections of those who resist
change
− Articulating the new culture that will facilitate change
− Defining the change message and communicating the need for
change
− Assembling suitable business representatives into a change forum
to whom the progress of the engagement and the benefits of
change
− Collect and respond to feedback
− Creating a communications portal with information that affirms
the need for change
September 24, 2018 97
Achieving Organisational Change
• Plan to take a carrot and stick approach to change
• Plan to encourage and reward those who accept and
embrace change
• Demonstrate the benefits of change
• Emphasise that change is part of the future operating
model
September 24, 2018 98
2.2 Describe Functional Business Area Principles,
Assumptions and Limitations
• This is concerned with defining the principles, assumptions and
limitations for the overall business function and for each of the
individual six domains
− Principles, assumptions and limitations can be interchangeable
− Definitive categorisation is not important – just capture them for now
• Principles are values, codes, standards, guidelines, and
directions that underpin and govern the overall organisation or
business function
• Assumptions are used as the basis for decisions
− Assumptions need to be validated – they can be false
• Limitations are constraints that narrow range options and
scope of action
September 24, 2018 99
Principles, Assumptions And Limitations
September 24, 2018 100
Business
Architecture
Location and
Offices
Business
Processes
Technology,
Infrastructure
and
Communications
Applications and
Systems
Information and
Data
Organisation and
Structure
Principles
AssumptionsLimitations
Principles
AssumptionsLimitations
Principles
AssumptionsLimitations
Principles
AssumptionsLimitations
Principles
AssumptionsLimitations
Principles
AssumptionsLimitations
Gathering Principles, Assumptions and Limitations
• Principles, assumptions and limitations affect the target
vision
• Understanding principles, assumptions and limitations are
important to creating a realistic and achievable vision that
meets the needs of the organisation
• Information on principles, assumptions and limitations can
be initially gathered through a focussed and dedicated
workshop
• Principles, assumptions and limitations should be refined
throughout the exercise
September 24, 2018 101
2.3 Describe Application And System Principles,
Assumptions and Limitations
• Concerned here with describing the usage of applications and systems and not the detail of
their construction – external rather than internal view
• Applications and Systems
− Current application and system selection, design, operation principles – rules that define usage and
actions
− User interfaces and interaction
− Integration
− Constraints that limit operation and use
− Assumptions on the applications and systems – extendability, growth, deployment and usage in different
ways
• Information and Data
− Who and how acquires, owns, uses, manages
− Limitations
− Assumptions on data – quality, integration, redundancy
• Technology and Infrastructure
− Current technology and infrastructure organisation, selection, design, operation principles – rules that
define usage and actions
− Security
− Standards and compliance
− Limitations
− Assumptions on technology and infrastructure – suitability, capacity, growth, adaptability
September 24, 2018 102
Describe Organisation Structure, Business Process and
Location Principles, Assumptions and Limitations
• Business Process
− Principles
• Process optimisation through compression of work and collapse of roles
• Include parallel processing
• Automation as much as possible
• Decision by exception rather than in all cases
− Assumptions
• Number of people available to process work
• Number of work items
− Limitations
• Levels of process workload
September 24, 2018 103
Describe Organisation Structure, Business Process and
Location Principles, Assumptions and Limitations
• Organisation and structure
− Principles
• Organisation structure, hierarchy, reporting
• Allocation and handling of work
• How do we want to interact with partners, suppliers, customers
− Assumptions
• Number of people in each function and role
• Skills and experience required
− Limitations
• Numbers of new staff, retraining
• What limitations apply to organisation change
• What is the regulatory environment
September 24, 2018 104
Describe Organisation Structure, Business Process and
Location Principles, Assumptions and Limitations
• Locations and offices
− Principles
• Number and type of locations and offices
• Consolidation of locations and offices as required
• Location of work processing
− Assumptions
• Size and quality of locations and offices
• Costs of locations and offices
− Limitations
• Restrictions on options to consolidate locations and offices
• Restrictions on options to relocate staff
• Restrictions on availability of suitable locations and offices
September 24, 2018 105
Collect Principles, Assumptions and Limitations
Through Workshop
• Present previously defined vision and information
collected during business review across six domains
− Location and Offices
− Business Processes
− Organisation and Structure
− Technology, Infrastructure and Communications
− Applications and Systems
− Information and Data
• Use this structure to understand principles, assumptions
and limitations
September 24, 2018 106
3. Document Business Processes, Entity Model,
Capacity Planning And Solution Approach
September 24, 2018 107
3.1 Define And Document Business Processes
• The objective of this activity is the design of the target business
processes
• Processes are important because they reflect and represent what
the organisation does and how it does it
• This can be based on the redesign of existing processes to make
them more efficient and effective or it can involve the definition of
entirely new business processes that replace existing ones
− Redesign of existing processes is usually termed Business Process
Improvement (BPI)
− Design of new business processes is usually termed Business Process Redesign
(BPR)
• The two approaches can be used in tandem for different processes
• This section will not cover business process design in detail – that is
best done elsewhere (for example, see
http://www.slideshare.net/alanmcsweeney/introduction-to-
business-process-management)
September 24, 2018 108
Business Process Generic Structure
September 24, 2018 109
Doing Processes
Administering, Gathering Information,
Controlling, Managing and Improving the
Doing Processes
Process
Group
Major
Process
Detailed
Process
Activity
Activity
Activity
Major
Process
Detailed
Process
Activity
Activity
Activity
Process
Group
Major
Process
Detailed
Process
Activity
Activity
Activity
Major
Process
Detailed
Process
Activity
Activity
Activity
Process
Group
Major
Process
Detailed
Process
Activity
Activity
Activity
Major
Process
Detailed
Process
Activity
Activity
Activity
Process
Group
Major
Process
Detailed
Process
Activity
Activity
Activity
Major
Process
Detailed
Process
Activity
Activity
Activity
Business Process Redesign – Compress And Collapse
• Compress – reduce unnecessary/non-value-adding steps
• Collapse – eliminate unnecessary handoffs and involvement
September 24, 2018 110
Collapse
Compress
Business Process Change Options
September 24, 2018 111
Left-to-Right Process Change - Process Performance Improvement
Right-to-Left Process Change – Output-Driven Process Redesign
Business Process Change/Design Options
• Business Process Redesign (BPR) – design a new process
to achieve the desired outputs
− Focus is on specifying new processes to replace existing ones so
less detail on existing processes needs to be collected
• Business Process Improvement (BPI) – modify current
process to eliminate problems
− Focus is on collecting detailed information on existing processes
so they can be improved
• BPR and BPI techniques are equally valid and can be
applied together
September 24, 2018 112
Business Process Change/Design Principles – Avoid
Waste
• Causes of waste – various definitions and lists available
from
− Six Sigma
− Lean Manufacturing
− Lean IT
• Originally seven causes of waste identified
• Increased over time to 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12
• Principles of identifying and avoiding waste can be applied
to business process design
September 24, 2018 113
Causes Of Waste
• Original Lean Manufacturing Seven Causes of Waste
1. Overproduction - manufacturing an item before it is actually required
2. Waiting - whenever goods are not moving or being processed
3. Transport - moving products between processes is a cost which adds no value to the product
4. Inventory – excess work in progress (WIP) cases by overproduction and waiting
5. Unnecessary / Excess Motion - people or equipment moving or walking more than is required
to perform the processing
6. Over/Inappropriate Processing - using expensive resources where simpler ones would be
sufficient
7. Defects - resulting in rework or scrap or the need for excessive quality control
• Additional causes of waste added over time
1. Wrong Product - manufacturing goods or services that do not meet customer demand or
specifications
2. People Unmatched to Role - waste of unused human talent/underutilising capabilities and skills
and allocating tasks to people with insufficient training to do the work
3. Inadequate Performance Measurement - working to the wrong performance metrics or to no
metrics
4. Uninvolved Personnel - not using staff fully by not allowing them to contribute ideas and
suggestions and be part of participative management
5. Inadequate Technology - improper use of information technology - inadequate or poorly
performing systems requiring manual workarounds, systems that deliver poor response times,
systems or the underlying data that are unreliable or inadequate training in the use of systems
September 24, 2018 114
Causes Of Process Waste
September 24, 2018 115
Cause Of Waste Business Process Approach to Avoiding Waste
Overproduction • Process work as it arises
Waiting • Reduce delays as work waits to be processed
• Reduce linear processing and include as much parallelism as possible
Transport • Reduce number of steps and movement and delays
• Ensure work in performed in the optimum location
• Reorganise work processing to optimise locations
Inventory • Eliminate batching of work rather and move individual cases through the process
Unnecessary / Excess
Motion
• Reduce unnecessary handoffs
• Reduce fragmentation of work
• Reduce the need to search for information
Over/Inappropriate
Processing
• Reduce unnecessary variation in work types
• Reduce the application of unnecessary steps to work
• Do not delay simple work with steps that only need to be applied to complex work
• Reduce non-value adding steps
• Eliminate unnecessary checks and controls
Causes Of Process Waste
September 24, 2018 116
Cause Of Waste Business Process Approach to Avoiding Waste
Defects • Reduce the need for inspection by automating quality checks and identifying
errors as early in the process as possible
• Do not allow work to start until necessary pre-requisites are available
Wrong Product • Organise work around processes rather than processes around work and focus
People Unmatched to
Role
• Ensure people are adequately and continuously trained
• Structure work around required functional competencies
Inadequate
Performance
Measurement
• Design process metrics to allow process efficiency be measured
• Implement process data collection, reporting and analysis
• Take decisions on process metrics
Uninvolved Personnel • Delegate decision-making and empower people to complete work
• Encourage, support and reward new ideas
• Encourage feedback from those performing the work
Inadequate Technology • Ensure people has access to the necessary technology to allow work to be done
efficiently
• Use technology to automate business processes
• Optimise technology
• Build knowledge-base and documentation into technology
Cross Functional Processes – Crossing “Vertical”
Operational Organisational Units
September 24, 2018 117
Cross Functional Processes – Crossing “Vertical”
Operational Organisational Units
• The organisation sees the structure vertically and in a
compartmentalised view and all to frequently does not see
the viewpoint of the entity that is the beneficiary of or the
recipient of the output of the process
• Cross-functional processes deliver value
− Value to the customer
− Value to the company
• Changing business process operations to take a cross-
functional view eliminate waste and inefficiencies
associated with work moving through organisational silos
September 24, 2018 118
Business Process Design Success Factors
September 24, 2018 119
Make the beneficiaries of the process the
centre of process change and process
value.
Focus On The Process Beneficiaries
Get the process activities needed to
achieve the process goals first. Then
examine and optimise process
performance.
Examine Process Delivery First and
Then Process Performance
The process drives value achieved.
Technology and organisation are enablers
of process operations. Value is derived
from process improvement.
Emphasise The Process And Not Its
Constraints
Your processes may interact with other
external processes. Consider extending
your analysis to these to understand the
complete process.
Extend Process Examination To
External Processes
Create a vision for process excellence
based on service, performance, delivery
and achievement of goals unconstrained
by limitations.
Create A Top-Down Process Vision
Learn from the experiences and
achievements of other organisations in
achieving process change to benefit from
them.
Look At What Others Have Achieved
The process consists of the activities, the
organisation functions that operate the
processes, the source of the process
initiation and technology. Look at all these
elements.
Examine The Entire Process Landscape
Document the existing rules, assumptions,
principles and constraints that underpin
the current process operation. Do not
accept these when redesigning processes.
Do Not Accept Current Beliefs
Process Analysis High Level Steps
September 24, 2018 120
Describe Current Process Landscape
Describe the current process landscape in enough
detail to allow business rules to be understood and for
issues, problems and improvements to be identified
Describe Current Process Performance and
Value Generated
Where appropriate (when current processes are being
redesigned), describe the effort, resources, cost,
duration, errors, rework and value generated for the
current processes
Identify and Design the Core Process
Landscape
Identify and (re)design the theoretical minimum set of
core processes required to achieved the required
outcomes and results assuming there are no constraints
Define Throughput Requirements and
Performance Measurement Framework
Define the performance and through required for the
process operation – effort, resources, costs, error,
quality, rework – and define the measurement
framework to create the data to assess this
Verify Core Process Landscape
Verify that the (re)designed set of core processes will
achieve the defined set of performance and throughput
requirements
Business Process Analysis Information Structure
Analysis Information
Structure
Current Situation
Business Process Model
Process Structure and
List
Process Definitions
Process Triggers
Process Outcomes/
Results
Process Conceptual
Representation
Process Flow
Representation
Process Performance
Structure
Process Beneficiary
Requirements
Comparative
Performance Summary
Process Performance
Metrics
Process Performance
Measurement Structure
Target Future State
Business Process Model
Process Structure and
List
Process Definitions
Process Triggers
Process Outcomes/
Results
Process Conceptual
Representation
Process Flow
Representation
Process Performance
Structure
Process Beneficiary
Requirements
Comparative
Performance Summary
Process Performance
Metrics
Process Performance
Measurement Structure
September 24, 2018 121
Business Process Analysis Information Structure
• The intention is not to create an exhaustive and detailed
set of information deliverables
• The goals of information analysis are:
− Reduce uncertainty in the future state
− Reduce number of viable and realistic and achievable options
• You cannot collect and analyse information forever
September 24, 2018 122
Analysis Paralysis And Decision Avoidance
September 24, 2018 123
Analysis
and Design
Never Escape
Analysis
Stage –
Always
Looking For
More
Information
and
Perfection
Decision
Making
Decision Making
Request/ Response
Loop For More
Information –
Always Looking For
more Details,
Additional Options,
More Clarification
Never Escape
Decision
Stage
Characteristics Of Analysis Paralysis And Decision
Avoidance
• Two possible loops:
− Analysis Loop – where analysis
never finished
• Analysis and design do not want to
let go – always looking for
perfection and want to retain
ownership
− Decision/Analysis Loop –
where decision making is
deferred because of requests
for more analysis
• Fear of decision-making is masked
by endless requests for more
information and options
September 24, 2018 124
Analysis
Loop
Decision/
Analysis
Loop
Clearing The Analysis Paralysis And Decision
Avoidance Hurdles
September 24, 2018 125
Clear The
Decision
Avoidance
And Evasion
Hurdle
Clear The
Analysis And
Design
Paralysis
Hurdle
Move To Implementation,
Service Introduction,
Transition To Production
Plateau
Analysis And Design
Can Be Viewed By
Some As A Trough Of
Despair
Find The Information Saddle Point
• Do as little as possible to achieve as much as possible to make an
informed decision on whether and how to proceed at gate stage in
the business architecture engagement journey
• Key principle at this stage is satisficing – optimise effort and
resources during planning - satisfy requirements sufficiently
24 September 2018 126
Minimise
Effort
Maximise
Results
Current Situation And Future State Deliverables
Business Process Model
• Process Structure and List List the process hierarchy: major process groups and key processes within each
group. There will be two types of processes:
1. Delivery processes
2. Management processes that are concerned with the internal management
and operation of the business function
• Process Definitions Create high-level descriptions for the major process groups and key processes
within each group
• Process Triggers Detail what causes each of the key processes to be initiated
• Process Outcomes/ Results Detail the outcomes, deliverables and results of the key processes
• Process Conceptual
Representation
Conceptual representations are actor/entity-based pictures that communicate at
a high level how a business process works
• Process Flow Representation These are standard business process flows, typically represented as cross-
functional diagrams
Process Performance Structure
• Process Beneficiary Requirements What are the requirements of each of the main beneficiaries (such as customers)
want from the process, both in terms of performance (time to compete) and
results
• Comparative Performance
Summary
What do other organisations achieve for similar processes to similar beneficiaries
illustrating what is possible
• Process Performance Metrics What are the metrics for the processes: time to complete, cost, resources, steps,
number of process executions, errors, rework
• Process Performance
Measurement Structure
What is the measurement framework used to assess process performance and
throughput and how is the data collected, analysed and presented
September 24, 2018 127
Process Activity Decomposition And Description
Detail
• Processes can be represented at different levels of detail
• Document sufficient detail to allow problems and opportunities to be
identified
September 24, 2018 128
…
… …
Process Activity Decomposition And Description
Detail
• Create and agree an inventory of triggers and events to which
the business function reacts and responds
− Identify any new triggers and events required by new/changed
processes
• Create and agree an inventory of outputs and results generated
in response to triggers and events by process activities
− Identify any new outputs and results required by new/changed
processes
• Create and agree an inventory of outcomes achieved or desired
in response to triggers and events by process activities
− Identify any new outcomes required by new/changed processes
• Create and agree an inventory of key process activities
− Identify any new activities required by new/changed processes
− Decompose large monolithic activities into smaller more granular
representations of key process activities
September 24, 2018 129
Describe Current And Future Target Process Activity
Performance Attributes
• Not all process activities will share all performance attributes
− Performance attribute is one that has a cost, direct or indirect
• Detail the current and future targeted/desired/expected
performance characteristics
September 24, 2018 130
Process
Trigger(s)/
Event(s)
Required Input(s)
Output(s)/
Result(s)
Outcome(s)
Cost Resources
Skills/
Roles
Error Rate
Elapsed
Time
Inventory
Levels
Service
Levels
Effort(s)
Detail Skills, Experience, Competencies Required For
Target Process Roles
• Identify the roles required for the target processes and the
associated skills, experience, education, training and
competencies needed to perform them
− Include hard and soft skills
• Use this information to design the target organisation
structure
September 24, 2018 131
Define Target Business Function Locations
• Define the business function location types required to
operate the new target processes
September 24, 2018 132
Create Business Process Flows For Existing Processes
• For each of the current key processes, create a process
flow description/map at enough detail to ensure it can be
understood
• Describe the existing process at sufficient level to allow
problems, issues and opportunities for improvement to be
identified
• Existing process analysis is more important for BPI than for
BPR exercises
• Create an inventory of key processes and the associated
issues and opportunities
September 24, 2018 133
Assess Performance Of And Value Delivered by
Existing Processes
• Analyse the performance of the existing processes and determine the value the
create
− More important for BPI than for BPR analyses
• Extend the business process flow analysis by adding performance and value
dimension
• Determine prospects for improvement and quantify scope of possible
improvements
• Provides a target list for enhancements
− Longest process and process step elapsed time
− Longest process and process step elapsed time relative to processing time
− Greatest number of handoffs
− Processes and process steps with largest number of steps
− Processes and process steps crossing organisation functional boundaries
− Processes and process steps with data quality issues
− Processes and process steps with errors and rework
− Processes and process steps that do not add value
− Processes and process steps experiencing delays in getting responses to requests, internal or
external
• Use the list of types of wastes to identify most wasteful processes and process
steps and thus the top opportunities for improvement
September 24, 2018 134
Define Core Business Processes
• Define the core set of business processes required to
achieve the desired results and outputs
• Assume no constraints in skills, resources, technology,
external interactions or location
− These can be added later
• Create an inventory of these core business processes
September 24, 2018 135
Define Target Future State Process Model
• Define the new/redesigned target processes and process steps in detail
• There can be many options when defining the new/changed processes
• Options can involve organisation change such as:
− Case management approach with assigned case workers
− Team-based processing
− Upskilling teams
− Elimination of cross-functional handoffs
− Automation and technology changes
− Personnel relocation
− Outsourcing
− Integration with external parties
• Other changes can include:
− Introduction of parallel processing
− Work prioritisation
− Compression of steps
− Collapsing of roles
− Eliminating unnecessary inspections
− Unnecessary steps added for historical reasons to address exceptions and complexity
• Focus is on adding value and reducing unnecessary cost
September 24, 2018 136
Enhance Target Future State Process Model With
Personnel, Systems And Locations
• Extend the definition of the new/redesigned target
processes and process steps with details on:
− The roles that perform them
− When the work is performed
− What technology is used or required to perform the work
• Create matrix of extended process classification
September 24, 2018 137
Role Role 1 Role 2 Role 3
Technology Technology 1 Technology 2 Technology 1 Technology 2 Technology 1 Technology 2
Location Loc 1 Loc 2 Loc 3 Loc 1 Loc 2 Loc 3 Loc 1 Loc 2 Loc 3 Loc 1 Loc 2 Loc 3 Loc 1 Loc 2 Loc 3 Loc 1 Loc 2 Loc 3
Process Step 1
Process Step 2
Process Step 3
Process Step 4
Process Step 5
Validate Target Future State Process Measurement
And Performance
• Define the projected performance characteristics of the
future process state
• Validate the process performance through simulations,
automated or paper-based
September 24, 2018 138
Assess The Implementability Of The Future State
Process Options
• There may be more than one set of future state process
options
• If so, each needs to be considered with respect to
characteristics such as:
− Time to implement
− Likely cost
− Resources required
− Probability of success and risk of failure
− Degree of organisation change and expected amount of
disruption caused
− Degree to which the improvement objectives will be achieved
• Use these factors to determine the most suitable option or
subset of options
September 24, 2018 139
Identify The Management Processes Required For
The Target Future State Process Model
• Identify the management processes required to
administer, manage and assess the performance of the
target future state processes
− Collect, analyse and take action on process performance
information
− Measure the satisfaction of the process beneficiary
− Assess process quality, rework and error rate
− Review process cost
• There will be general management processes across all
operational processes and specific management processes
for specific operational processes
September 24, 2018 140
Implementation And Support Processes
• Specify at a high-level the processes to:
− Implement the target process model
− Support the operation and use of the target process model
September 24, 2018 141
3.2 Create Conceptual Entity Model
• Create an inventory of entities involved the operation of the
business function and the delivery of products and services
• Entities are objects about which data is stored and processed
• Entities are people, functions, events, products and can include
− Business roles and organisation functions involved in the work
− External parties contributing to the products and services
− Products and services
− Beneficiaries of the work done by the business function
− Offices and locations
• The conceptual entity model is an Entity Relationship Diagram
• This results in a picture of data flows and interactions within
the business function within the scope of the business
architecture engagement
September 24, 2018 142
Sample Conceptual Entity Model
September 24, 2018 143
Customer
Order
Product
Service
Catalogue
Item
Storage
Location
Delivery
Transport
Order
History
Order Status
Returned
Order
External
Supplier
Cancelled
Order
Partner/
Reseller
Bulk Order
Installation
Customer
Agent
Installation
History Service
History
Sample For Energy Utility
September 24, 2018 144
Create Conceptual Entity Model
• Identify the types and groups of entities and the individual
entities of each type
• Describe each entity briefly and identify its main
characteristic
• Define the interactions and relationships between the
entities
• Define the direction and number of interactions and
relationships
• Quantify the volumes of interactions
• Identify the major business rules associated with the
interactions and relationships
September 24, 2018 145
3.3 Gather Capacity Planning Information
• Capacity planning covers all aspects of business volumetric
information
− Technology
− Personnel
− Location
− Physical product production capacity
− Physical product storage capacity
− Physical product transportation capacity
• Capacity and resource usage information will affect overall system(s)
performance and the choice of technology and ultimately the
solution options from the business architecture engagement
• It is important that capacity planning information is accurate and
that the underlying assumptions are understood and documented
• The business may not understand technical aspects of capacity
planning and so must be guided to an understanding and must
approve the estimates produced
September 24, 2018 146
Objective Of Technology Capacity Planning
• The objective is to determine the current and future
resource requirements:
− Processing capacity
− Storage capacity
− I/O data read/write capacity
− RAM capacity
− Network capacity
• There are many aspects of technology usage and
configuration that contribute to resource requirements
September 24, 2018 147
High-Level Technology Resource Model
September 24, 2018 148
Business
Users
Generate
Work
External
Users
RAM
Processing
Capacity
Data Must
Be Stored
Data Must Be Read
and Written
That
Consumes
Resources
External
Network
Capacity
Internal
Network
Capacity
Affects
Numbers
of
Gather Capacity Planning Information
• Capacity planning metrics depend on the type of work
being performed
− Number of transactions or events of each type
− Number of data entities of each type
− Average and peak numbers
− Past and expected future growth rates
− Resource types to perform work types
• Understand the technology resource requirements of
transactions and entity data
September 24, 2018 149
Operation Aspect Of Capacity Planning
• Operation requirements will affect capacity requirements:
− Availability
− Response times
− Service levels
− Acceptable failure rate
− Recovery time
• High operational requirements – highly available systems with very good
and consistent response times – will affect resource requirements and cost
• Understand the resource requirement impact of operational requirements
• Different elements of the overall operation of the business function will
have different operational requirements:
− Externally facing applications may need to be more highly available than internal
systems
• The business may not understand technical aspects of operational
requirements and so must be guided to an understanding and must
approve the estimates produced
September 24, 2018 150
Organisation Capacity Planning
• The business function will operate across different
locations and location types:
− Call centre
− Service centre
− Back office processing
− Physical product storage and delivery
• Each of these will also have different resource
requirements and operational characteristics
September 24, 2018 151
Resource Entity Model
• Create a resource entity model to understand the
structure and volumes of resource consuming entities
September 24, 2018 152
Customer
Order
Order Data
Order
Processing
Data
Order
Processing
Personnel
Customer
Data
Products
Product
Storage
Locations
Product
Delivery
Resources
Capacity Planning Model
• Create a structure capacity planning model that
• Captures inputs in terms of resource types and volumes
• Defines the rules used to translate inputs into system resources
• Explicitly define assumptions in terms of:
− Growth in volumes of resource utilisation
− Operational requirements and their resource implications
September 24, 2018 153
Resource
Consuming
Entities
Resource Model
Resource
Consuming
Entity Volumes Assumptions Rules
Resource
Capacity Plan
Validate And Signoff Capacity Planning
• Review and agree capacity plan with business
September 24, 2018 154
3.4 Define Solution And System Approach
• Consider and decide on whether to initiate a software
product evaluation and determination exercise at this
stage
• You may want to determine solution characteristics in
more detail before seeking to identify possible suitable
products
• Or there may be an overriding requirement to identify
likely solutions to meet urgent requirements now
• Agree the approach to solution selection
• Decide on whether to perform a parallel product and
solution selection exercise
September 24, 2018 155
The Complete Solution Is Always Much More Than
Just …
• … Just a bunch of software
• Complete solution is the entire set of components needed to
operate the associated business processes
• Successful solution requires the interoperation of all these
components and that the components are properly designed
and implemented
• Overall solution usage experience is the sum of the experience
of the usage of the components
• Solution architect must be aware of the usability of designed
solutions
• Usability is not an afterthought: it must be embedded in the
overall solution design from the start
September 24, 2018 156
Scope Of Complete Solution
September 24, 2018 157
Changes to Existing
Systems
New Custom
Developed
Applications Information Storage
Facilities
System
Integrations/Data
Transfers/Exchanges
Changes to Existing
Business Processes
Organisational
Changes
Existing Data
Conversions/
Migrations
New Data Loads
Training and
Documentation
Central, Distributed
and Communications
Infrastructure
Sets of Installation
and Implementation
Services
Cutover/Transfer to
Production
Operational
Functions and
Processes
Parallel Runs
New Business
Processes
Reporting and
Analysis Facilities
Sets of Maintenance,
Service Management
and Support Services
Application Hosting
and Management
Services
Acquired and
Customised Software
Products
Any Complete Solution Consists of:
• Zero or more of {Changes to Existing Systems}
• + Zero or more of {New Custom Developed Applications}
• + Zero or more of {Information Storage Facilities}
• + Zero or more of {Acquired and Customised Software Products}
• + Zero or more of {System Integrations/Data Transfers/Exchanges}
• + Zero or more of {Changes to Existing Business Processes}
• + Zero or more of {New Business Processes}
• + Zero or more of {Organisational Changes}
• + Zero or more of {Reporting and Analysis Facilities}
• + Zero or more of {Existing Data Conversions/Migrations}
• + Zero or more of {New Data Loads}
• + Zero or more of {Training and Documentation}
• + Zero or more of {Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure}
• + Zero or more of {Sets of Installation and Implementation Services}
• + Zero or more of {Cutover/Transfer to Production}
• + Zero or more of {Operational Functions and Processes}
• + Zero or more of {Parallel Runs}
• + Zero or more of {Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services}
• + Zero or more of {Application Hosting and Management Services}
September 24, 2018 158
Outsource
Operations
Consider Develop and Acquisition Options
• Spectrum of (not mutually exclusive) options available
• Separate options can be considered for different
components of the overall business function solution
September 24, 2018 159
Change
Existing
Processes
Develop
Customised
Solution(s)
Acquire
Software
Product(s) or
Services
Change
Processes
and Update
Existing
Systems
Two Dimensions Of Options
September 24, 2018 160
Product 1
Development
Option 1
Outsourcing
Option 1
Product 2
Development
Option 2
Outsourcing
Option 2
Product 3
Change
Existing
Processes
Change
Processes and
Update
Existing
Systems
Acquire
Software
Product(s) or
Services
Develop
Customised
Solution
Outsource
Operations
There Are Many Theoretical Options
• One of the objectives of the business architecture
engagement is to reduce the set of options to a small
number that are:
− Practical
− Realistic
− Achievable
− Affordable
− Usable
− Compliant with organisation strategy and principles
− Compliant with organisation’s enterprise architecture
− Compliant with organisation’s appetite for risk
September 24, 2018 161
Introduction to Business Architecture - Part 2
Introduction to Business Architecture - Part 2
Introduction to Business Architecture - Part 2
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Introduction to Business Architecture - Part 2

  • 1. Introduction To Business Architecture – Part 2 Alan McSweeney http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney
  • 2. Objectives • Second part of Introduction to Business Architecture − First part https://www.slideshare.net/alanmcsweeney/introduction-to- business-architecture-part-1 • This material describes conducting a specific business architecture engagement • Engagement process is generic and needs to be adapted to each specific application and use September 24, 2018 2
  • 3. Business Architecture Engagement • Formal process for gathering information and creating a new business function model based on an analysis of that information • Formal process means information is gathered and analysed in a structured way • Analysis supports and justifies the new business model • Reduces risks and increases the likelihood of success of the implementation of the new business model September 24, 2018 3
  • 4. Business Architecture Engagement • The objective of the engagement is to produce results: options and recommendations − The engagement is a means to an end and not an end in itself − It is a process that needs to be followed to completion September 24, 2018 4 Activities Information Gathered Information Analysed and Discussed Conclusions, Options and Recommendations
  • 5. Scope of Business Architecture • Scope can be a business function or entire business September 24, 2018 5 Organisation Business Function/ Business Area Business Function/ Business Area Business Function/ Business Area Business Function/ Business Area
  • 6. Scope • Agree the scope of the engagement with the key business stakeholders • Depth and breadth of engagement • Time and resources available • Reason for the engagement – the problem to be addressed and resolved, the challenge to be responded to, the opportunity to be addressed September 24, 2018 6
  • 7. Initiation Steps • Set initial engagement objectives and scope • Refine and elaborate engagement scope • Define the expected benefits of the engagement • Identify sources of business knowledge • Prepare preliminary engagement timeline • Determine preliminary engagement costs • Establish business user participation • Identify source of engagement funding/resources • Decide whether to continue with the engagement September 24, 2018 7
  • 8. Business Architecture – Core Internal Organisation Areas • Business architecture is concerned with changes in one or more of these areas and co-ordinating changes across these areas to deliver the greatest benefit September 24, 2018 8 Business Architecture Location and Offices Business Processes Technology, Infrastructure and Communications Applications and Systems Information and Data Organisation and Structure
  • 9. Business Architecture – Core Internal Organisation Areas • Above The Line − Concerned with the organisation or the business function • Below The Line − Concerned with the technology and infrastructure that underpins and enables the operation of the organisation or the business function September 24, 2018 9 Business Architecture Location and Offices Business Processes Technology, Infrastructure and Communications Applications and Systems Information and Data Organisation and Structure
  • 10. Extended View Of Information On Core Internal Organisation Areas • One of the objectives of the business architecture engagement exercise is to define the target state along the six core areas and their constituent elements • This provides a comprehensive target structure for information collection and analysis • One of the purposes of business architecture is to define the change across these six domains September 24, 2018 10
  • 11. Core Areas Of Business Architecture Changes • Business-oriented areas − Location and Offices – existing and new locations and facilities of the organisation, their types and functions and the principles that govern the selection of new locations − Business Processes – current and future business process definitions, requirements, characteristics, performance − Organisation and Structure – organisation resources and arrangement, business unit, function and team structures and composition, relationships, reporting and management, roles and skills • Technology-oriented areas − Technology, Infrastructure and Communications – current and future technical infrastructure including security, constraints, standards, technology trends, characteristics, performance requirements − Applications and Systems – current and future applications and systems, characteristics, constraints, assumptions, requirements, design principles, interface standards, connectivity to business processes − Information and Data – data and information architecture, data integration, master and reference data, data access and management September 24, 2018 11
  • 12. Factors Driving Business Architecture Engagement • Organisations facing multiple pressures across the spectrum of operations • These require the organisation to develop new organisation architectures to enable them to respond and operate effectively • The objective of the engagement is to allow the business develop responses one or more of these factors September 24, 2018 12 Factors Driving Business Architecture Engagement Globalisation Transparency Service Focus and Customer Expectations Challenging Economic Circumstances Consolidation Increased Regulation Business and Technology Changes and New Opportunities Mobile and Social Computing Changes Competition New Business Models Increased Pace of Change
  • 13. Core Areas Of Business Architecture Changes • Business architecture engagements are concerned with analysing these existing business core areas and creating a target business architecture September 24, 2018 13
  • 14. Business Function Architecture Location and Offices Business Processes Technology, Infrastructure and Communications Applications and Systems Information and Data Organisation and Structure Business Function Architecture Location and Offices Business Processes Technology, Infrastructure and Communications Applications and Systems Information and Data Organisation and Structure Business Architecture – Core Internal Organisation Areas • Organisation will consist of multiple business units each with separate, possibly partially overlapping core area domains • Business functions may be loosely coupled and not well integrated September 24, 2018 14 Business Function Architecture Location and Offices Business Processes Technology, Infrastructure and Communications Applications and Systems Information and Data Organisation and Structure Business Function Architecture Location and Offices Business Processes Technology, Infrastructure and Communications Applications and Systems Information and Data Organisation and Structure
  • 15. Business Architecture – Overall Organisation Extended Areas September 24, 2018 15 Overall Organisation Business Strategy Organisation Operating Environment and Business Landscape Business Function Architecture Location and Offices Business Processes Technology, Infrastructure and Communications Applications and Systems Information and Data Organisation and Structure Business Function Architecture Location and Offices Business Processes Technology, Infrastructure and Communications Applications and Systems Information and Data Organisation and Structure Business Function Architecture Location and Offices Business Processes Technology, Infrastructure and Communications Applications and Systems Information and Data Organisation and Structure Business Function Architecture Location and Offices Business Processes Technology, Infrastructure and Communications Applications and Systems Information and Data Organisation and Structure
  • 16. Organisation Operating Environment and Landscape – Extended Business Architecture Elements BusinessExtendedPotential AreasofChange Objectives These are what the organisation wants to needs to achieve. Individual business function objectives must contribute to achieving the overall organisation objectives. Strategy and Methods This is what the organisation will do to achieve its objectives. Individual business function strategy and methods must contribute to those of the organization. Success Factors These are the core reasons of and contributors to success and achievement of the objectives. The organisation must focused it attention on these for the company to achieve its objectives and fulfill its mission. Individual business function success factors must conform with those of the organisation. Critical Concerns Identify challenges, opportunities, questions, problems, trends, threats, risks or circumstances that must be addressed and resolved. Measurement Framework Set of measurement and indicators that show the degree to which the objectives are been met and the success factors achieved Engagement Justification Why are we proposing to do this, why it is needed, what is driving the requirement and what are the timescales by which it must be complete. Future State This is a brief description of the ideal or desired target future state in terms of business operations and changes to key business domains Essential Policies and Approaches How the business function or organisation currently achieves what it does. Business Rules What underlies the way the business operates and how it organises its work and make decisions. September 24, 2018 16
  • 17. Objectives Of And Outputs From Engagement • Objective is to create a realistic, achievable implementable and operable target business architecture, supported by information gathered and analysed • Artefacts created are a means to an end and exist to support and validate the target business architecture • Artefacts are designed to support the conclusions and to ensure the engagement was conducted with the necessary and appropriate rigour • Artefacts demonstrate evidence-based decision making September 24, 2018 17
  • 18. Business Architecture Engagement Components Generalised Engagement Activities And Their Sequence Generalised Deliverables From Activities Generalised Engagement Roles And Their Involvement In The Creation Of Deliverables During Activities September 24, 2018 18
  • 19. Business Architecture Engagement Components • Generalised Engagement Activities And Their Sequence – complete set of possible activities and their groups and sequence and flow through the engagement from which the specific engagement can be created • Generalised Deliverables From Activities – complete set of possible deliverables from the possible set of activities • Generalised Engagement Roles And Their Involvement In The Creation Of Deliverables During Activities – identification of possible roles and their involvement in the possible set of activities and the generation of the possible set of deliverables September 24, 2018 19
  • 20. Business Architecture Engagement Components • Comprehensive and generalised set of components from which the details of a specific engagement can be defined • Create customised engagement from menu of options to suit the specific needs September 24, 2018 20
  • 21. Create Specific And Customised Scope From Available Menu Of Options September 24, 2018 21 Generalised Engagement Activities And Their Sequence Generalised Deliverables From Activities Generalised Engagement Roles And Their Involvement In The Creation Of Deliverables During Activities Specific Customised Engagement Activities And Their Sequence Specific Customised Deliverables From Activities Specific Customised Engagement Roles And Their Involvement In The Creation Of Deliverables During Activities • Create customised path through the business architecture engagement process involves agreeing activities to be performed, deliverables from the engagement and participating roles
  • 22. Business Architecture Engagement Scope • Scope needs to be agreed and understood before commencement • Some of the steps can be iterated and repeated to increasing levels of detail – but not too many iterations − Information gathering and analysis needs to be time-limited − Activities can occur in parallel by different sub-teams to optimise elapsed time − Always check for previously collected information and inventories to avoid duplication − Need to avoid analysis paralysis and move to a conclusion and set of options quickly • Intended to describe a structured and focussed engagement • Suited to situations where detail and implementation structure and framework are required September 24, 2018 22
  • 23. Objective Of Business Architecture Engagement September 24, 2018 23 Organisation and Structure Locations and Offices Technology, Infrastructure And Communications Business Processes Organisation/ Business Function Landscape Information and Data Applications and Systems Organisation and Structure Locations And Offices Technology, Infrastructure and Communications Business Processes Organisation/ Business Function Landscape Information and Data Applications and Systems From … Current Landscape To … Target Landscape • Move from where we are now to an agreed target of where we want to be
  • 24. Objective Of Business Architecture Engagement • Create a realistic and achievable target business architecture to achieve the desired business change • Business architecture is a structured approach to analysing the operation of an existing business function or entire organisation with a view to improving its operations or developing a new business function, with a strong focus on processes and technology • Business architecture is not about business requirements – it is about business solutions and organisation changes to deliver business objectives September 24, 2018 24
  • 25. Where We Want To Be September 24, 2018 25
  • 26. Objective Of Business Architecture Engagement • Define a target business architecture and a path to transition to or transform into it across all the core business domains • Create a mapping from where the business is now to a target future state • Reason for documenting the current state is to provide a basis for, a context and a justification of the definition of the target state September 24, 2018 26
  • 27. Business Architecture Engagement High Level Activities And Their Logical Sequence September 24, 2018 27 0. Define And Agree Engagement Scope 1. Information Collection And Assessment 2. Define Vision, Business Principles And System Principles 3. Document Business Processes, Entity Model, Capacity Planning And Solution Approach 4. Document Solutions, Applications And Functions 5. Define Organisation, Infrastructure And Data 6. Conduct Solution And Product Evaluation And Selection 7. Design Model Architecture 8. Consolidate, Finalise And Review Design
  • 28. Business Architecture Engagement High Level Activities And Their Logical Sequence • The activities do not have to be performed in sequence − The order can be agreed at the start of the engagement to suit the available resources and time September 24, 2018 28 0. Define And Agree Engagement Scope 1. Information Collection And Assessment 2. Define Vision, Business Principles And System Principles 3. Document Business Processes, Entity Model, Capacity Planning And Solution Approach 4. Document Solutions, Applications And Functions 6. Conduct Solution And Product Evaluation And Selection 5. Define Organisation, Infrastructure And Data 7. Design Model Architecture 8. Consolidate, Finalise And Review Design
  • 29. Business Architecture Engagement Activities – 1 September 24, 2018 29 0. Define And Agree Engagement Scope 0.1 Mobilise and Present Approach to Sponsorship and Stakeholder Team 0.2 Review Any Previous Work, if Any 0.3 Perform Initial Informal Information Gathering 0.4 Review Information and Define Scope of Introductory Workshop(s) 0.5 Define Team and Facilities Required 0.6 Create Table of Contents (Scope) of Engagement Deliverable 0.7 Conduct Introductory Workshop(s) 0.8 Update Scope of Deliverables
  • 30. Business Architecture Engagement Activities – 2 September 24, 2018 30 1. Information Collection And Assessment 1.1 Current Business Review 1.2 Assess Customer (Or External Party) Perceptions 1.3 Review Current Industry Best Practices And Technology Changes 1.4 Analyse Current Business Systems 1.5 Analyse Available Solutions And Products 2. Define Vision, Business Principles And System Principles 2.1 Define Vision For Functional Business Area 2.2 Describe Functional Business Area Principles, Assumptions and Limitations 2.3 Describe System Principles, Assumptions and Limitations 3. Document Business Processes, Entity Model, Capacity Planning And Solution Approach 3.1 Define And Document Business Processes 3.2 Create Conceptual Entity Model 3.3 Gather Capacity Planning Information 3.4 Define Solution And System Approach 3.5 Develop And Validate Feasibility Prototype(s) 4. Document Systems, Applications And Functions 4.1 Document Systems, Applications And Functions
  • 31. Business Architecture Engagement Activities – 3 September 24, 2018 31 5. Define Organisation, Infrastructure And Data 5.1 Define Organisation And Resource Requirements And Structure 5.2 Define Application And Data Organisation 5.3 Define Infrastructure Requirements 6. Conduct Solution And Product Evaluation And Selection 6.1 Conduct Solution And Product Evaluation And Selection 7. Design Infrastructure Model Architecture 7.1 Design Infrastructure Model Architecture 8. Consolidate, Finalise And Review Design 8.1 Finalise Application Architecture 8.2 Define Benefits And Costs 8.3 Create High Level Phased Delivery Plan 8.4 Review And Agree Business Architecture Engagement
  • 32. Business Architecture Engagement Organisation And Landscape September 24, 2018 32 Core Team Extended Team – Direct Business Participants and Stakeholders Wider Organisation – Aware Of, Communicated About And Affected By Engagement
  • 33. Workshops • Workshops are an effective and necessary information gathering tool as part of the business engagement exercise • Workshops involve the core engagement team presenting to and learning from the extended business team and the wider organisation • Workshops have two sets of purposes: − Primary – achieve the stated objective, gather and confirm information − Secondary – build team, get acceptance and buy-in from extended team and wider organisation, identify potential organisation and personnel problems and hidden agendas, assist with communication and control the message, assist with making decisions, uncover conflicts September 24, 2018 33
  • 34. Workshops • The effectiveness of workshops needs to be optimised with careful preparation, planning and delivery • Define and communicate objectives • Identify and profile extended and wider team participants • Allocate roles to core team participants • Define schedule, timescale and duration • Deal with issues such as facilities and equipment • Prepare, review, agree and distribute inputs • Create tables of contents of target deliverables • Prepare, review, agree set of topics to be covered and presentation material • Document results and circulate for review and feedback September 24, 2018 34
  • 35. 0. Define And Agree Engagement Scope September 24, 2018 35
  • 36. 0.1 Mobilise And Present Approach To Sponsorship And Stakeholder Team • Ensure that the composition of the team sponsoring the engagement and the stakeholders involved in the business area covered by the engagement are agreed • Prepare and review summary materials • Present high-level approach – activities, deliverables, roles – of the engagement • Confirm scope and objectives • Prepare and present work plan with indicative schedule • Present the contents of the report from the engagement • Agree the team composition • Allocate resources and facilities • This is the start of the continuous communication process during the engagement − It sets the tone for the remainder of the engagement September 24, 2018 36
  • 37. 0.2 Review Any Previous Work, If Any • There may have been other similar or related engagements that generated outputs, relating to strategic business change • Analyse results to determine what can be reused, if any • Understand the issues identified during these previous engagement • Review how their recommendation were implemented, if at all • Understand the reasons for the (partial or incomplete) implementation • This will inform how the current engagement should proceed and how it should address problems previously encountered September 24, 2018 37
  • 38. 0.3 Perform Initial Informal Information Gathering • Prior to the formal introductory workshop(s) have informal and preparatory individual meetings with engagement sponsor and some of the key stakeholders • Understand their vision, objectives and understanding of the business architecture engagement • Ascertain the key underlying issues they are looking to resolve • Identify their level of commitment • Walk the floor of the current operation/business function • Understand how work gets done • Document the organisation structure and key people • Present the likely workshop schedule • Agree workshop participants • Understand likely objections and resistance to the engagement process and to any recommendations for change September 24, 2018 38
  • 39. 0.4 Review Information And Define Scope Of Introductory Workshop(s) • Review the results of the informal meetings and information gathered in the business area and previous engagements • Introductory workshop is intended to present the engagement to those participants who will be contributing to information gathering, issue analysis and identification of resolutions • The introductory workshop(s) need to be prepared carefully to demonstrate professionalism and seriousness September 24, 2018 39
  • 40. Possible Topics To Cover In Introductory Workshop(s) Measurement Framework •Key performance indicators across dimensions of: •Service and product delivery – cost, time, quality, volume •Financial – input costs, cost of product and service delivery, return •Customer (external party) view – satisfaction, retention •Organisation – ability to adopt changes and apply new ways of operating Why The Engagement •Why the engagement is taking place, what issues, challenges, needs are driving the engagement – poor performance, service, loss of business, new regulations •What is likely to happen if no action is taken •What benefits are likely to accrue Future Vision •What does the future look like Limitations •What will constrain the range of solution options: •Cost •Time The Team And Schedule •Who will be involved in doing the work •Who will contribute to the work •Who will review the work •How will the core and extended teams operate •How long will it takeSeptember 24, 2018 40 Scope •Business functions involved in the engagement •Locations and jurisdictions involved in the work delivery •Sets of products and services being provided •Business processes, business rules •Facilities, systems and applications used or that support service delivery Why The Engagement •Why the engagement is taking place, what issues, challenges, needs are driving the engagement – poor performance, service, loss of business, new regulations •What is likely to happen if no action is taken •What benefits are likely to accrue Indication Of Changes •What are the likely changes across the core areas Aims •Business aims •Success factors Stakeholders •Who needs to be involved
  • 41. 0.5 Define Team And Facilities Required • Teams − Core team that will do the work − Extended team that will contribute to the work and review (some of the) outputs • Determine required competencies/skills/experience of core team • Create project delivery standards and templates • Agree and document communication process • Agree and document work delivery process including artefact creation and review • Acquire facilities • Conduct team building and introductory round table session September 24, 2018 41
  • 42. Core Team Building And Introductory Round Table Session • Describe engagement, its objectives and deliverables • Describe the known work programme and schedule • Describe the planned work delivery process • Describe the participants, stakeholders, organisation structure • Define team roles, relationships and structures • Understand team members’ experience and knowledge • Define internal and external communication processes • Define principles of operation such as: − Document all interactions with extended team to avoid confusion and doubt later − Information gathering needs to be timeboxed • Define work delivery standards, performance, accountability and processes • Detail internal and external meeting schedule including daily stand-ups • Detail the team decision-making process • Describe the boundaries: − Between groups within the engagement team − Between external stakeholders and participants • Document team charter September 24, 2018 42
  • 43. 0.6 Create Table Of Contents (Scope) Of Engagement Deliverable • Create an initial draft table of contents of the analysis and report that will be generated from the business architecture engagement September 24, 2018 43
  • 44. Indicative Table Of Contents Of Output From Business Architecture Engagement • Need to create a comprehensive deliverable that describes where the business function or organisation wants to be and how this can be achieved • This will be supported by the other more detailed artefacts created during the engagement September 24, 2018 44 Summary Current State Terms of Reference Issues Driving Need for Change Current Organisation Area Future State And Structure Volumetrics Processes, Performance and Service Levels Business Case Future State Justification for Action Target Organisation Area Future State And Structure Volumetrics Processes, Performance and Service Levels Impact of Change Assumptions Constraints Supporting Information Benchmarks and Best Practices External and Internal Drivers for Change Possible Software Products and Vendors Cost and Benefit Analysis Achieving The Future State Implementation Options and Plans Pilot, Phases and Releases Schedule and Dependencies Resources and People Required
  • 45. 0.7 Conduct Introductory Workshop(s) • Conduct introductory workshops with business participants aimed at initiating the project and setting expectations • These are designed to introduce the engagement based on the scope agreed with the sponsor • There are not detailed information collection sessions • They are designed to present an overview of the envisaged end-to-end process • Present the proposed set of topics to be covered in subsequent information gathering sessions • Allow participants to comment • Emphasise that the approach and workplan are subject to change during the engagement • The focus needs to be on producing quality deliverables within a reasonable timescale and not analysing to a minute level of detail • Produce sufficient information to allow management make an informed decision September 24, 2018 45
  • 46. 0.8 Update Scope Of Deliverables • Based on the feedback from the introductory workshop(s), update the deliverables produced so far September 24, 2018 46
  • 47. 1. Information Collection And Assessment September 24, 2018 47
  • 48. 1.1 Current Business Review • Gather information on the structure and operation of existing organisation or function operations including locations, if this applies • Objective is to have sufficient information on current operations and business processes to understand performance issues • Document business processes • Document organisation or function structure, locations and interactions September 24, 2018 48
  • 49. Business Or Function Organisational Structure • Create a model for the existing structure of the function being analysed • The level of detail to be included in the model depends on the size of the function: individual, functional group • Classify each unit in the organisational structure: − Roles, positions, levels/grades, functions, responsibilities, key personnel − Decision making processes − Work groups, work organisation, work types, work allocation and distribution, work volumes − Business processes operated, level and currency of documentation − Performance, throughput, service levels, monitoring and reporting − Technology used and staff opinion of technology − Relationships between work groups and functions − Interactions with other business functions − Interactions with external product or service delivery partners − Staff engagement, staff awareness of issues − Issues and problems − Planned changes September 24, 2018 49
  • 50. Support Processes And Systems • Work allocation and planning systems − How is work allocated, recorded and workload planned for • Learning management − Examine staff training processes and approaches − How are business processes linked to training • Time recording and management • Performance recognition and reward − How is good staff performance identified, recognised and rewarded − How is poor performance handled • Personnel development and talent management − What is the approach to staff development and progression • Staff communications − Evaluate how staff are communicated with and how information is disseminated September 24, 2018 50
  • 51. Business Or Function Locations • Document each business or function location that comes under the scope of the engagement • Define location type: office, distribution, storage, service, sales • Describe details about the location: size, number of staff, facilities September 24, 2018 51
  • 52. Business Process And Rule Examination • This involves documenting existing business processes and associated rules at a high-level – the detail may come later • It is also not concerned with redesigning existing processes – this also comes later • Identify core business processes categories • Document major processes within each process category − What causes the process to be initiated? − What information is required and where does it come from? − What are the outcomes of the process? − What are the key metrics about each process: time to complete, errors and rework, cost, resources and skills required, systems used? − How is process performance recorded and reported on? − What rules and decision-making are applied to process operations? − What restrictions, limitations and implied assumptions are applied to each process? − Where are the manual steps and handoffs? − What process documentation exists and how does it differ from the actual process as performed? September 24, 2018 52
  • 53. Business Process And Rule Examination • What work areas do not map to existing defined business processes? • What processes are shared between or performed at multiple locations? • What processes rely on external involvement and what is that involvement? • Where are processes and rules automated? • Document each process category and major process within category in a structured and common manner September 24, 2018 53
  • 54. Existing Technology And Information Systems • Review systems and applications used − Office support systems − Applications − Data structures − Level of automation − Manual workarounds − Documentation and its currency − Staff satisfaction September 24, 2018 54
  • 55. 1.2 Assess Customer (Or External Party) Perceptions • Identify some representative customers (or external parties) that interact with the organisation or business function and that agreed to be contacted to discuss their interactions and experiences − Products or services used or acquired − How much, how frequently − Alternatives evaluated − Experiences of interactions and level of satisfaction − Experiences of products or services and level of satisfaction − Overall perception of organisation or business function − Overall satisfaction − Importance of organisation to customer − Desired performance − Views of how the organisation or business function should change or can improve September 24, 2018 55
  • 56. Customer (External Party) Perceptions • What products and services are used by the customer? • How are products and services are used in customers’ businesses? • What business issues do these customer face in using the products and services? • How do the products and services enable customers’ businesses succeed? • What do customers like? • What do customers not like? September 24, 2018 56
  • 57. What Do Customers (External Parties) Want? • Customers (External Interacting Parties) generally want the organisation to demonstrate a mix of one, two or three core values: − Understanding and Closeness (Enhancement) – demonstrate and act on customer knowledge and offer customised products and services to meet those exact needs − Product and Service Operational Excellence (Efficiency/Utility) – provide reliable, convenient, easy-to-use, cost-effective, value for money products and services − Product and Service Innovation and Leadership (Transformational) – offer products and services that are better, more innovative, technologically advanced than others September 24, 2018 57
  • 58. What Do Customers (External Parties) Want? • Understand what your customers (external parties) want, how they perceive you and what you can are capable of September 24, 2018 58
  • 59. What Issues Do Customers (External Parties) Encounter? • Identify issues customers encounter during business interactions − Access to information − Quality of information − Access to person − Speed and quality of response − Provision of response − Ease of ordering products and services − Order status − Product and service delivery − Product and service utility − Price, billing − Accuracy and rework − Query and error handling and resolution • Use process groups to identify points where problems arise September 24, 2018 59
  • 60. Sample Process For Buy Product Or Service September 24, 2018 60 Buy Product/Service Customer Contact Management Information Request Fulfilment Response Provide Quotation Collect and Validate Requirements Process Information and Create Quotation Issue Quotation Follow-up on Quotation Manage Negotiations Sell Handle and Fulfil Order Billing Bill Invoicing Bill Payments and Receivables Management Bill Inquiry Handling Receive Customer Bill Inquiry Assess Customer Bill Inquiry Authorise Customer Bill Invoice Adjustment Track and Manage Customer Bill Inquiry Resolution Analyse Detailed Bill Inquiry Determine Appropriate Bill Adjustment Record Customer Bill Invoice Adjustment Issue Adjusted Bill Report Customer Bill Inquiry Close Customer Bill Inquiry Handle Payment
  • 61. Sample Customer Journey For Buy Product Or Service September 24, 2018 61 Look For Information/ Awareness And Interest Generated Look For Details on Specific Product/ Service/ Offer Receive, Evaluate Offer, Negotiate and Compare Decide To Buy Product/ Service Pass Enrolment, Buy/ Subscribe and Receive Product/ Service Receive and Pay Usage Statements and Bills Query Usage Statement and Bill, Pay Bill Report Fault/ Complaint Upgrade/ Buy Additional Product/ Service/ Respond to Offer Renew, Evaluate Alternatives and Negotiate Decide to Leave/ Cancel Service Accept Counteroffer
  • 62. Sample Customer Journey For Buy Product Or Service – External To Internal Mapping September 24, 2018 62 Look For Information/ Awareness And Interest Generated Look For Details on Specific Product/ Service/ Offer Receive, Evaluate Offer, Negotiate and Compare Decide To Buy Product/ Service Pass Enrolment, Buy/ Subscribe and Receive Product/ Service Receive and Pay Usage Statements and Bills Query Usage Statement and Bill, Pay Bill Report Fault/ Complaint Upgrade/ Buy Additional Product/ Service/ Respond to Offer Renew, Evaluate Alternatives and Negotiate Decide to Leave/ Cancel Service Accept Counteroffer Internal Processes and Activities Needed to Deliver Customer Journey Customer End-to-End Journey
  • 63. 1.3 Review Current Industry Best Practices And Technology Changes • Review best practices within the industry area in which the organisation or business operates and companies that excel in areas of relevance • Review what other competing organisations use and how their performance compares • Review business trends • Review technologies and providers • Review technology trends September 24, 2018 63
  • 64. Review Best Practices • Purpose is to understand how comparable organisations achieve better performance • Review organisations offering similar products and services • Review organisations that excel in specific areas and that do not necessarily offer similar products and services − Customer service − Brand development − Innovation − Cost reduction − Sales − Similar complexity of operation, products or services − Supply chain management − Efficiency, performance, throughput for numbers of staff − Quality control, errors − Use of technology − Use of resources − Organisation structure • Look for excellence in the previously identified core process categories • Look for how excellence was achieved and what the previous state was • Examine the what – results and outcomes achieved – and the how • Use the information to identify possible new approaches and options to operate the core processes September 24, 2018 64
  • 65. Review Best Practices • Source best practice information from: − Search of publications and articles − Industry experts − Direct contacts − Relevant industry associations − Employees’ previous experience − Customers’ (external party) experience • Could consider using services of professional survey organisation if time and budget allow and if the scope of the work justifies it September 24, 2018 65
  • 66. Review Best Practices • Classify the results of the best practice analysis using the previously identified process categories and other analysis factors − Customer service − Brand development − Innovation − Cost reduction − Sales − Similar complexity of operation, products or services − Supply chain management − Efficiency, performance, throughput for numbers of staff − Quality control, errors − Use of technology − Use of resources − Organisation structure • Identify those organisations that are achieve more and determine gaps between the two organisation • Quantify difference and describe the reasons for the difference September 24, 2018 66
  • 67. Review Technology Trends • What new technologies are available? • How commercially available are these new technologies? • How can these new technologies be applied within the organisation? • How are other organisations using new technologies? • Who are the vendors offering these new technologies? September 24, 2018 67
  • 68. 1.4 Analyse Current Business Systems • Examine the business system and technology landscape, data and communications infrastructure September 24, 2018 68
  • 69. Review Data Stores • Lists major data stores − Subject area(s) − Underlying applications − Data source(s) − Data types and formats − Size, amount of data, number of transactions − Technology and its currency − Data quality issues − Value and utility to the business − Year of implementation, year of last major upgrade/update September 24, 2018 69
  • 70. Create Logical Data Topic Entity Model • Create diagram(s) identify key data topics or classes • Document high-level contents of each data topic • Identify relationships and linkages between data topics September 24, 2018 70 Data Details Data Details Data Details Data Subject Data Details Data Details Data Details Data Subject Data Details Data Details Data Details Data Subject Data Details Data Details Data Details Data Subject Data Details Data Details Data Details Data Subject
  • 71. Review Business Systems And Applications In Use • Create an inventory of business systems and applications in use • Describe their technology basis – product/custom-developed, software used, technical infrastructure • Detail the core functions provided by the systems and applications • Link the business systems and applications to the core process categories and their constituent processes • Describe the state of these systems and applications − Fitness for purpose and suitability for current business operations − Value to the business − Manual workarounds and manual handoffs to other systems − Ease of use, usefulness − Goodness of fit for planned and known future business changes − Efficiency of operations − User experiences of the system − Level and currency of documentation and training material − Volume of work, number of users, number of transactions − Year of implementation, year of last major upgrade/update − Internal or hosted September 24, 2018 71
  • 72. Review Business Systems And Applications In Use • Evaluate the technical state of the business systems and applications − Reliability − Availability − Compliance with technical standards − Compliance with data regulations − Flexibility and ease of modification − Vendor plans for packaged applications − Version in use and current versions supported by vendor − Issues with technical infrastructures - for example, operating system and database versions − Cost of operations, support and maintenance − Fitness and appropriateness as a platform for future developments − Compliance with organisation IT architecture standards September 24, 2018 72
  • 73. Review IT And Communications Infrastructure • Create a diagram showing the infrastructural components, including any network, and their relationships • Identify major elements of the infrastructure − External hosting and communications links − Internal infrastructure – server operating systems, databases − Security − Application access − User access devices September 24, 2018 73
  • 74. Categorise Business Systems And Applications • Create four state classification of reviewed business systems and applications based on two factors (collected earlier and reviewed now): − Value to the business − State of application and underlying technology and vendor September 24, 2018 74 Value to the Business Application Technical State Retain or Replace Later Retain Replace Now Replace Later Low High Poor Good
  • 75. Categorise Business Systems And Applications • Application Technical State Poor Value to the Business Low = Replace Now − These applications need to be replaced or retired and their data converted to new platforms • Application Technical State Good Value to the Business Low = Retain or Replace Later − These applications may be considered for replacement in the future or may be retained depending on the target business architecture, the associated technology architecture and the systems needs to support its operation • Application Technical State Poor Value to the Business High = Replace Later − These applications should be flagged for replacement in the future • Application Technical State Good Value to the Business High = Retain − These applications should be retained unless there are better options readily available that can be implemented easily and quickly with minimum disruption September 24, 2018 75
  • 76. 1.5 Analyse Available Solutions And Products • Objective is to evaluate possible options for business systems and applications - package, in-house or hosted or custom development - flagged for replacement now or in the future − High-level evaluation and sense-check that product is likely to meet key requirements − Not conducting a full tendering process • Identify sources of possible sets of product information • Prepare vendor contact approach including questionnaire September 24, 2018 76
  • 77. Production Options – Functional And Operational Requirements • Define high-level functional requirements based on functionality provided by current products and likely future business requirements • Define high-level operational and product delivery requirements – capacity, number of users, volume of data September 24, 2018 77
  • 78. Vendor Contact Questionnaire • Vendor details – company size, duration in business, product details, numbers of installations of product, maturity of product • Compliance with functional requirements • Compliance with operational requirements • Security model • Product delivery options • Customer satisfaction • Implementation project resources and timescale • Service management and support • Outline financial analysis – initial cost, maintenance, cost of ownership September 24, 2018 78
  • 79. Vendor Contact Summary • Summarise information gathered from vendors, comparing solutions across key requirement and evaluation factors September 24, 2018 79
  • 80. 2. Define Vision, Business Principles And System Principles September 24, 2018 80
  • 81. 2.1 Define Initial Vision For Functional Business Area • The vision is a high-level description of the desired future operating model of the organisation or business function • It is concerned with the desired future state and not how that state can be achieved • Vision contains: − The expected environment in which the organisation or business function operates: • Products and services provided • Customer segments supplied • Physical distribution • Competitors • Economy − The business function operating model in terms of its future core business process groups and constituent business processes • Structure of the business function core operating domains • Organisation structure and operation • Supporting and enabling technology September 24, 2018 81
  • 82. Initial Vision For Functional Business Area • Use scenarios and process journeys to walk through the internal and external operations for key business activities and detail their flow • Develop inventory of key scenarios and process journeys • The approach breathes life into the operating model and can be used to determine its validity • There can be more than one vision or alternative versions of the vision September 24, 2018 82
  • 83. Initial Vision For Functional Business Area • Vision is the means for articulating the target of the business architecture engagement − Externally used to communicate what the engagement is concerned with − Internally used to organise and focus work effort and to define the boundaries of the work September 24, 2018 83
  • 84. Factors To Consider When Developing Vision September 24, 2018 84 Products and Services • What products and services do we supply • How many types do we supply? • How are they different from those of other organisations? • How do we deliver the products and services ? • How do we develop and enhance them? Customers • Who do we provide products and services to? • How broad is the range of customers? • Why do customers acquire our products and services? Suppliers and Partners • Who are our suppliers and partners? • How do we work with them? • How many are there? Competition • Who do we compete with? • How do we compete? • How well do we compete? • How are we different from our competitors? • How is competition changing? Regulatory Landscape • What is the regulatory landscape? • How compliant are we with regulations? • How is it changing? Business Processes • How well defined are our business processes? • How optimised, integrated, efficient and automated are they? • How well do they work in terms of cost and time to operate? • How do we measure performance? Organisation • What is our organisation structure? • Who does what? • What does it cost to operate? • How is the organisation operated and managed? • How do we recognise and reward talent and performance? Locations and Facilities • Where do we operate from? • How many types of locations do we have? Systems, Data and Technology • What are the key business systems? • How well do they meet the needs of the organisation? • How well integrated are they? • What is the state of the organisation’s technology infrastructure? • Can customers and suppliers interact with the organisations using technology? • How well do we manage data?
  • 85. Business Model Canvass • Consider using the Business Model Canvass approach to describe the vision for the functional business area • Divides business into nine elements in four groups − Infrastructure • Key Partners - the key partners and suppliers needed to achieve the business model • Key Activities - the most important activities the business must perform to ensure the business model works • Key Resources - the most important assets to make the business model work − Offering • Value Propositions - the value, products and services provided to the customer − Customers • Customer Relationships - the customer relationships that need to be created • Channels - the channels through which the business reaches its customers • Customer Segments - the types of customers being targetted by the business model − Finances • Cost Structure - the most important costs incurred by the business model • Revenue Streams - the sources through which the business model gets revenue from customers September 24, 2018 85
  • 86. Business Model Canvass September 24, 2018 86 Key Partners • Who are our key partners? • Who are our key suppliers? • What Key Resources do we acquire from partners? • What Key Activities do partners perform? MOTIVATIONS FOR PARTNERSHIPS • Optimisation and economy • Reduction of risk and uncertainty • Acquisition of resources and skills Key Activities • What key activities do our value propositions require • What are our distribution channels? • What are our customer relationships? • What are our revenue streams? CATEGORIES • Production • Problem Solving • Platform/Network Value Propositions • What value do we deliver to our customers? • Which of our customers’ problems are we helping to solve? • What bundles of products and services do we offer to each customer segment? CHARACTERISTICS • Novelty • Performance • Customisation • “Getting the Job Done” • Design • Brand • Status • Cost Reduction • Risk Reduction • Accessibility • Convenience/Usability Customer Relationships • What type of relationship does each of our customer segments expect us to establish and maintain with them? • What ones have we already established? • How are they integrated into our business model? • How much do they cost? EXAMPLES • Personal assistance • Dedicated personal assistance • Self-service • Automated services • Communities • Co-creation Customer Segments • For whom are we creating value? • Wo are our most important customers? • Mass market • Niche market • Segmented • Diversified • Multi-sided platform Key Resources What key resources are required by our Value propositions Distribution channels Customer relationships Revenue streams TYPES OF RESOURCES Physical Intellectual Human Financial Channels • Through which channels do our customer segments want to be reached? • How are we reaching them now? • How are our channels integrated? • Which ones are most cost-efficient? • How are we integrating them with customer processes? CHANNEL PHASES • Awareness - How do we raise awareness about our products and services • Evaluation – How do we help customers evaluate our value proposition? • Purchase – How do we allow customers purchase specific products and services? • Delivery – How do we deliver a value proposition to customers? • After Sales – How do we provide post- purchase customer support? Cost Structure • What are the most important costs inherent in the business model? • Which key resources are the most expensive? • Which key activities are the most expensive? IS THE BUSINESS MORE: • Cost Driven – leanest cost structure, low price value proposition, maximum automation, extensive outsourcing • Value Driven – focussed on value creation, premium value proposition SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS • Fixed costs • Variable costs • Economies of loading • Economies of scale Revenue Streams • What value are customers really willing to pay for? • What are they currently paying for? • How are they currently paying? • How would they prefer to pay? How much does each revenue stream contribute to overall revenue? TYPES FIXED PRICING DYNAMIC PRICING • Asset sale • List price • Negotiation/bargaining • Usage fee • Product feature dependent • Yield management • Subscription fees • Customer segment dependent • Real-time market • Lending/renting/leasing • Volume dependent • Licensing • Brokerage fees • Advertising
  • 87. Key Stakeholder Interviews • Gather information from key stakeholders using structured one-to-one interviews • Summarise information collected to create initial view of current and desired or target future state • Clarify and align vision through collective workshops • Document updated vision • Communicate vision September 24, 2018 87
  • 88. Key Stakeholder Interviews • Identify key stakeholders who are important to the achievement of the target from the business architecture engagement or who know about the business environment − Business executives and heads of business functions − Those involved in developing business strategy − Those involved in analysing business and market trends • Interviews will gather hard and soft information − Hard – facts, numbers, detail − Soft – stakeholder level of interest, engagement, commitment and enthusiasm, possible resistance, amount and quality of information provided • Collect information from multiple stakeholders to get different perspectives • Prepare structured interview notes using previously documented vision factors and business model canvas • Conduct stakeholder interviews, document information collected and circulate for comments September 24, 2018 88
  • 89. Consolidate Stakeholder Interview Information • Create starting vision based on consolidated information collected and analysed − Separate the What of the vision from the How of its actualisation • Describing the vision − Use scenarios and process journeys to walk through the internal and external operations for key business activities and detail their flow − Develop inventory of key scenarios and process journeys − Describe alternatives and options where they arose − Identify differences and divergences where they arose in the information collected − Define the choices and decisions to be made September 24, 2018 89
  • 90. Vision Workshop • Purpose is to present the consolidated vision, alternatives, differences and decisions − Again, separate the What of the vision from the How of its actualisation − The How is a constraint that can be addressed later • At this stage, a detailed analysis and discussion can be counter- productive • Objective is to achieve (some) consensus on the vision and to create a netted list of disagreements and differences • Present the information collected using the previous structures and frameworks: − Scenarios and process journeys − Vision factors and business model canvas − Use pictures and diagrams September 24, 2018 90
  • 91. Rich Pictures • Detailed visualisations represent information more effectively than lengthy narrative text − More easily understood and engaged with • Show relationships, interactions • Provides a more concise illustration of state • Better tool to elicit information • Gaps, errors and omissions more easily identified • Assists informed discussions • Evolve and refine rich picture representations of as-in and to- be situations throughout the engagement exercise • Cannot expect to capture every piece of information – focus on the important elements • A rich picture is not a process map 24 September 2018 91
  • 92. Rich Pictures – Typical Contents • Not all picture need have all elements • You can have multiple pictures and pictures can evolve 24 September 2018 92 Element Description Core Objective(s) Brief statement of the core purpose(s) of the situation where there is perceived to be a problem – what the associated service is looking to achieve Actor Persons or groups within the organisation or externally providing services to the organisation involved in the delivery of the overall service Consumer Persons or groups at whom the service is being directed or who use the service Entities, Types and Roles Functional collections of persons or groups within the organisation or externally providing services Locations and Facilities Locations or interaction points where consumers avail of or are provided with services Viewpoints Views or opinions of actors on the provision and operation of the service Relationships and Dependencies Relationships and dependencies between other elements of the rich picture Interactions Dealings and relations between entities, actors and consumers Processes Processes that are used to deliver service or support its delivery Options, Questions Options and questions relating to the core service objectives Requirements, Obligations Requirements and obligations of actors and entities, relating to the core service objectives Core Issues and Owners Issues relating to the core service objectives Constraints, Limitations Any actual or perceived constraints and limitations relating to the provision and operation of the service
  • 93. Rich Picture Example 24 September 2018 93 Entity 1 Entity 2 Entity 3 Entity 10 Entity 11 Entity 7 Entity 8 Entity 9 Entity 5 Entity 6 Entity 4 Location 1 Issue 1 Issue 2 Issue 3 Location 2 Viewpoint 1 Requirement 1 Requirement 6 Requirement 3 Requirement 4 Requirement 2 Viewpoint 2 Viewpoint 4 Viewpoint 3 Interaction Interaction Interaction Interaction Process 1 Process 2 Process 3 Viewpoint 5 Interaction Interaction Constraint 1 Constraint 2 Constraint 3 Requirement 5 Location 3 Core Objectives Consumer 1 Consumer 2
  • 94. Rich Pictures • Are not systematic views (yet) • They do not contains system-related components such as IT applications, infrastructure and data flows at this stage − These are solution and implementation-related elements • Resist the temptation to include systematic parts at the investigation stage and pre-judge options for resolution and transformation − Transformation with a small “t” • Jumping to conclusions at this stage will limit the scope of information gathered 24 September 2018 94
  • 95. Refine And Communicate Vision • Update the vision based on workshop contents and outcomes • Distribute to stakeholders September 24, 2018 95
  • 96. Achieving Organisational Change • Achieving the ultimate target business architecture involves organisation change • The required changes may be resisted by some affected stakeholders and other individuals or the organisation itself may be unable to accommodate change • It is important to identify potential blockers early in the business architecture engagement and to continue this throughout the engagement − Early and often • Actions need to be defined that address these blockers in order to enable the required change to occur September 24, 2018 96
  • 97. Achieving Organisational Change • Actions can include: − Supporting those that in favour of change − Identifying and addressing the objections of those who resist change − Articulating the new culture that will facilitate change − Defining the change message and communicating the need for change − Assembling suitable business representatives into a change forum to whom the progress of the engagement and the benefits of change − Collect and respond to feedback − Creating a communications portal with information that affirms the need for change September 24, 2018 97
  • 98. Achieving Organisational Change • Plan to take a carrot and stick approach to change • Plan to encourage and reward those who accept and embrace change • Demonstrate the benefits of change • Emphasise that change is part of the future operating model September 24, 2018 98
  • 99. 2.2 Describe Functional Business Area Principles, Assumptions and Limitations • This is concerned with defining the principles, assumptions and limitations for the overall business function and for each of the individual six domains − Principles, assumptions and limitations can be interchangeable − Definitive categorisation is not important – just capture them for now • Principles are values, codes, standards, guidelines, and directions that underpin and govern the overall organisation or business function • Assumptions are used as the basis for decisions − Assumptions need to be validated – they can be false • Limitations are constraints that narrow range options and scope of action September 24, 2018 99
  • 100. Principles, Assumptions And Limitations September 24, 2018 100 Business Architecture Location and Offices Business Processes Technology, Infrastructure and Communications Applications and Systems Information and Data Organisation and Structure Principles AssumptionsLimitations Principles AssumptionsLimitations Principles AssumptionsLimitations Principles AssumptionsLimitations Principles AssumptionsLimitations Principles AssumptionsLimitations
  • 101. Gathering Principles, Assumptions and Limitations • Principles, assumptions and limitations affect the target vision • Understanding principles, assumptions and limitations are important to creating a realistic and achievable vision that meets the needs of the organisation • Information on principles, assumptions and limitations can be initially gathered through a focussed and dedicated workshop • Principles, assumptions and limitations should be refined throughout the exercise September 24, 2018 101
  • 102. 2.3 Describe Application And System Principles, Assumptions and Limitations • Concerned here with describing the usage of applications and systems and not the detail of their construction – external rather than internal view • Applications and Systems − Current application and system selection, design, operation principles – rules that define usage and actions − User interfaces and interaction − Integration − Constraints that limit operation and use − Assumptions on the applications and systems – extendability, growth, deployment and usage in different ways • Information and Data − Who and how acquires, owns, uses, manages − Limitations − Assumptions on data – quality, integration, redundancy • Technology and Infrastructure − Current technology and infrastructure organisation, selection, design, operation principles – rules that define usage and actions − Security − Standards and compliance − Limitations − Assumptions on technology and infrastructure – suitability, capacity, growth, adaptability September 24, 2018 102
  • 103. Describe Organisation Structure, Business Process and Location Principles, Assumptions and Limitations • Business Process − Principles • Process optimisation through compression of work and collapse of roles • Include parallel processing • Automation as much as possible • Decision by exception rather than in all cases − Assumptions • Number of people available to process work • Number of work items − Limitations • Levels of process workload September 24, 2018 103
  • 104. Describe Organisation Structure, Business Process and Location Principles, Assumptions and Limitations • Organisation and structure − Principles • Organisation structure, hierarchy, reporting • Allocation and handling of work • How do we want to interact with partners, suppliers, customers − Assumptions • Number of people in each function and role • Skills and experience required − Limitations • Numbers of new staff, retraining • What limitations apply to organisation change • What is the regulatory environment September 24, 2018 104
  • 105. Describe Organisation Structure, Business Process and Location Principles, Assumptions and Limitations • Locations and offices − Principles • Number and type of locations and offices • Consolidation of locations and offices as required • Location of work processing − Assumptions • Size and quality of locations and offices • Costs of locations and offices − Limitations • Restrictions on options to consolidate locations and offices • Restrictions on options to relocate staff • Restrictions on availability of suitable locations and offices September 24, 2018 105
  • 106. Collect Principles, Assumptions and Limitations Through Workshop • Present previously defined vision and information collected during business review across six domains − Location and Offices − Business Processes − Organisation and Structure − Technology, Infrastructure and Communications − Applications and Systems − Information and Data • Use this structure to understand principles, assumptions and limitations September 24, 2018 106
  • 107. 3. Document Business Processes, Entity Model, Capacity Planning And Solution Approach September 24, 2018 107
  • 108. 3.1 Define And Document Business Processes • The objective of this activity is the design of the target business processes • Processes are important because they reflect and represent what the organisation does and how it does it • This can be based on the redesign of existing processes to make them more efficient and effective or it can involve the definition of entirely new business processes that replace existing ones − Redesign of existing processes is usually termed Business Process Improvement (BPI) − Design of new business processes is usually termed Business Process Redesign (BPR) • The two approaches can be used in tandem for different processes • This section will not cover business process design in detail – that is best done elsewhere (for example, see http://www.slideshare.net/alanmcsweeney/introduction-to- business-process-management) September 24, 2018 108
  • 109. Business Process Generic Structure September 24, 2018 109 Doing Processes Administering, Gathering Information, Controlling, Managing and Improving the Doing Processes Process Group Major Process Detailed Process Activity Activity Activity Major Process Detailed Process Activity Activity Activity Process Group Major Process Detailed Process Activity Activity Activity Major Process Detailed Process Activity Activity Activity Process Group Major Process Detailed Process Activity Activity Activity Major Process Detailed Process Activity Activity Activity Process Group Major Process Detailed Process Activity Activity Activity Major Process Detailed Process Activity Activity Activity
  • 110. Business Process Redesign – Compress And Collapse • Compress – reduce unnecessary/non-value-adding steps • Collapse – eliminate unnecessary handoffs and involvement September 24, 2018 110 Collapse Compress
  • 111. Business Process Change Options September 24, 2018 111 Left-to-Right Process Change - Process Performance Improvement Right-to-Left Process Change – Output-Driven Process Redesign
  • 112. Business Process Change/Design Options • Business Process Redesign (BPR) – design a new process to achieve the desired outputs − Focus is on specifying new processes to replace existing ones so less detail on existing processes needs to be collected • Business Process Improvement (BPI) – modify current process to eliminate problems − Focus is on collecting detailed information on existing processes so they can be improved • BPR and BPI techniques are equally valid and can be applied together September 24, 2018 112
  • 113. Business Process Change/Design Principles – Avoid Waste • Causes of waste – various definitions and lists available from − Six Sigma − Lean Manufacturing − Lean IT • Originally seven causes of waste identified • Increased over time to 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12 • Principles of identifying and avoiding waste can be applied to business process design September 24, 2018 113
  • 114. Causes Of Waste • Original Lean Manufacturing Seven Causes of Waste 1. Overproduction - manufacturing an item before it is actually required 2. Waiting - whenever goods are not moving or being processed 3. Transport - moving products between processes is a cost which adds no value to the product 4. Inventory – excess work in progress (WIP) cases by overproduction and waiting 5. Unnecessary / Excess Motion - people or equipment moving or walking more than is required to perform the processing 6. Over/Inappropriate Processing - using expensive resources where simpler ones would be sufficient 7. Defects - resulting in rework or scrap or the need for excessive quality control • Additional causes of waste added over time 1. Wrong Product - manufacturing goods or services that do not meet customer demand or specifications 2. People Unmatched to Role - waste of unused human talent/underutilising capabilities and skills and allocating tasks to people with insufficient training to do the work 3. Inadequate Performance Measurement - working to the wrong performance metrics or to no metrics 4. Uninvolved Personnel - not using staff fully by not allowing them to contribute ideas and suggestions and be part of participative management 5. Inadequate Technology - improper use of information technology - inadequate or poorly performing systems requiring manual workarounds, systems that deliver poor response times, systems or the underlying data that are unreliable or inadequate training in the use of systems September 24, 2018 114
  • 115. Causes Of Process Waste September 24, 2018 115 Cause Of Waste Business Process Approach to Avoiding Waste Overproduction • Process work as it arises Waiting • Reduce delays as work waits to be processed • Reduce linear processing and include as much parallelism as possible Transport • Reduce number of steps and movement and delays • Ensure work in performed in the optimum location • Reorganise work processing to optimise locations Inventory • Eliminate batching of work rather and move individual cases through the process Unnecessary / Excess Motion • Reduce unnecessary handoffs • Reduce fragmentation of work • Reduce the need to search for information Over/Inappropriate Processing • Reduce unnecessary variation in work types • Reduce the application of unnecessary steps to work • Do not delay simple work with steps that only need to be applied to complex work • Reduce non-value adding steps • Eliminate unnecessary checks and controls
  • 116. Causes Of Process Waste September 24, 2018 116 Cause Of Waste Business Process Approach to Avoiding Waste Defects • Reduce the need for inspection by automating quality checks and identifying errors as early in the process as possible • Do not allow work to start until necessary pre-requisites are available Wrong Product • Organise work around processes rather than processes around work and focus People Unmatched to Role • Ensure people are adequately and continuously trained • Structure work around required functional competencies Inadequate Performance Measurement • Design process metrics to allow process efficiency be measured • Implement process data collection, reporting and analysis • Take decisions on process metrics Uninvolved Personnel • Delegate decision-making and empower people to complete work • Encourage, support and reward new ideas • Encourage feedback from those performing the work Inadequate Technology • Ensure people has access to the necessary technology to allow work to be done efficiently • Use technology to automate business processes • Optimise technology • Build knowledge-base and documentation into technology
  • 117. Cross Functional Processes – Crossing “Vertical” Operational Organisational Units September 24, 2018 117
  • 118. Cross Functional Processes – Crossing “Vertical” Operational Organisational Units • The organisation sees the structure vertically and in a compartmentalised view and all to frequently does not see the viewpoint of the entity that is the beneficiary of or the recipient of the output of the process • Cross-functional processes deliver value − Value to the customer − Value to the company • Changing business process operations to take a cross- functional view eliminate waste and inefficiencies associated with work moving through organisational silos September 24, 2018 118
  • 119. Business Process Design Success Factors September 24, 2018 119 Make the beneficiaries of the process the centre of process change and process value. Focus On The Process Beneficiaries Get the process activities needed to achieve the process goals first. Then examine and optimise process performance. Examine Process Delivery First and Then Process Performance The process drives value achieved. Technology and organisation are enablers of process operations. Value is derived from process improvement. Emphasise The Process And Not Its Constraints Your processes may interact with other external processes. Consider extending your analysis to these to understand the complete process. Extend Process Examination To External Processes Create a vision for process excellence based on service, performance, delivery and achievement of goals unconstrained by limitations. Create A Top-Down Process Vision Learn from the experiences and achievements of other organisations in achieving process change to benefit from them. Look At What Others Have Achieved The process consists of the activities, the organisation functions that operate the processes, the source of the process initiation and technology. Look at all these elements. Examine The Entire Process Landscape Document the existing rules, assumptions, principles and constraints that underpin the current process operation. Do not accept these when redesigning processes. Do Not Accept Current Beliefs
  • 120. Process Analysis High Level Steps September 24, 2018 120 Describe Current Process Landscape Describe the current process landscape in enough detail to allow business rules to be understood and for issues, problems and improvements to be identified Describe Current Process Performance and Value Generated Where appropriate (when current processes are being redesigned), describe the effort, resources, cost, duration, errors, rework and value generated for the current processes Identify and Design the Core Process Landscape Identify and (re)design the theoretical minimum set of core processes required to achieved the required outcomes and results assuming there are no constraints Define Throughput Requirements and Performance Measurement Framework Define the performance and through required for the process operation – effort, resources, costs, error, quality, rework – and define the measurement framework to create the data to assess this Verify Core Process Landscape Verify that the (re)designed set of core processes will achieve the defined set of performance and throughput requirements
  • 121. Business Process Analysis Information Structure Analysis Information Structure Current Situation Business Process Model Process Structure and List Process Definitions Process Triggers Process Outcomes/ Results Process Conceptual Representation Process Flow Representation Process Performance Structure Process Beneficiary Requirements Comparative Performance Summary Process Performance Metrics Process Performance Measurement Structure Target Future State Business Process Model Process Structure and List Process Definitions Process Triggers Process Outcomes/ Results Process Conceptual Representation Process Flow Representation Process Performance Structure Process Beneficiary Requirements Comparative Performance Summary Process Performance Metrics Process Performance Measurement Structure September 24, 2018 121
  • 122. Business Process Analysis Information Structure • The intention is not to create an exhaustive and detailed set of information deliverables • The goals of information analysis are: − Reduce uncertainty in the future state − Reduce number of viable and realistic and achievable options • You cannot collect and analyse information forever September 24, 2018 122
  • 123. Analysis Paralysis And Decision Avoidance September 24, 2018 123 Analysis and Design Never Escape Analysis Stage – Always Looking For More Information and Perfection Decision Making Decision Making Request/ Response Loop For More Information – Always Looking For more Details, Additional Options, More Clarification Never Escape Decision Stage
  • 124. Characteristics Of Analysis Paralysis And Decision Avoidance • Two possible loops: − Analysis Loop – where analysis never finished • Analysis and design do not want to let go – always looking for perfection and want to retain ownership − Decision/Analysis Loop – where decision making is deferred because of requests for more analysis • Fear of decision-making is masked by endless requests for more information and options September 24, 2018 124 Analysis Loop Decision/ Analysis Loop
  • 125. Clearing The Analysis Paralysis And Decision Avoidance Hurdles September 24, 2018 125 Clear The Decision Avoidance And Evasion Hurdle Clear The Analysis And Design Paralysis Hurdle Move To Implementation, Service Introduction, Transition To Production Plateau Analysis And Design Can Be Viewed By Some As A Trough Of Despair
  • 126. Find The Information Saddle Point • Do as little as possible to achieve as much as possible to make an informed decision on whether and how to proceed at gate stage in the business architecture engagement journey • Key principle at this stage is satisficing – optimise effort and resources during planning - satisfy requirements sufficiently 24 September 2018 126 Minimise Effort Maximise Results
  • 127. Current Situation And Future State Deliverables Business Process Model • Process Structure and List List the process hierarchy: major process groups and key processes within each group. There will be two types of processes: 1. Delivery processes 2. Management processes that are concerned with the internal management and operation of the business function • Process Definitions Create high-level descriptions for the major process groups and key processes within each group • Process Triggers Detail what causes each of the key processes to be initiated • Process Outcomes/ Results Detail the outcomes, deliverables and results of the key processes • Process Conceptual Representation Conceptual representations are actor/entity-based pictures that communicate at a high level how a business process works • Process Flow Representation These are standard business process flows, typically represented as cross- functional diagrams Process Performance Structure • Process Beneficiary Requirements What are the requirements of each of the main beneficiaries (such as customers) want from the process, both in terms of performance (time to compete) and results • Comparative Performance Summary What do other organisations achieve for similar processes to similar beneficiaries illustrating what is possible • Process Performance Metrics What are the metrics for the processes: time to complete, cost, resources, steps, number of process executions, errors, rework • Process Performance Measurement Structure What is the measurement framework used to assess process performance and throughput and how is the data collected, analysed and presented September 24, 2018 127
  • 128. Process Activity Decomposition And Description Detail • Processes can be represented at different levels of detail • Document sufficient detail to allow problems and opportunities to be identified September 24, 2018 128 … … …
  • 129. Process Activity Decomposition And Description Detail • Create and agree an inventory of triggers and events to which the business function reacts and responds − Identify any new triggers and events required by new/changed processes • Create and agree an inventory of outputs and results generated in response to triggers and events by process activities − Identify any new outputs and results required by new/changed processes • Create and agree an inventory of outcomes achieved or desired in response to triggers and events by process activities − Identify any new outcomes required by new/changed processes • Create and agree an inventory of key process activities − Identify any new activities required by new/changed processes − Decompose large monolithic activities into smaller more granular representations of key process activities September 24, 2018 129
  • 130. Describe Current And Future Target Process Activity Performance Attributes • Not all process activities will share all performance attributes − Performance attribute is one that has a cost, direct or indirect • Detail the current and future targeted/desired/expected performance characteristics September 24, 2018 130 Process Trigger(s)/ Event(s) Required Input(s) Output(s)/ Result(s) Outcome(s) Cost Resources Skills/ Roles Error Rate Elapsed Time Inventory Levels Service Levels Effort(s)
  • 131. Detail Skills, Experience, Competencies Required For Target Process Roles • Identify the roles required for the target processes and the associated skills, experience, education, training and competencies needed to perform them − Include hard and soft skills • Use this information to design the target organisation structure September 24, 2018 131
  • 132. Define Target Business Function Locations • Define the business function location types required to operate the new target processes September 24, 2018 132
  • 133. Create Business Process Flows For Existing Processes • For each of the current key processes, create a process flow description/map at enough detail to ensure it can be understood • Describe the existing process at sufficient level to allow problems, issues and opportunities for improvement to be identified • Existing process analysis is more important for BPI than for BPR exercises • Create an inventory of key processes and the associated issues and opportunities September 24, 2018 133
  • 134. Assess Performance Of And Value Delivered by Existing Processes • Analyse the performance of the existing processes and determine the value the create − More important for BPI than for BPR analyses • Extend the business process flow analysis by adding performance and value dimension • Determine prospects for improvement and quantify scope of possible improvements • Provides a target list for enhancements − Longest process and process step elapsed time − Longest process and process step elapsed time relative to processing time − Greatest number of handoffs − Processes and process steps with largest number of steps − Processes and process steps crossing organisation functional boundaries − Processes and process steps with data quality issues − Processes and process steps with errors and rework − Processes and process steps that do not add value − Processes and process steps experiencing delays in getting responses to requests, internal or external • Use the list of types of wastes to identify most wasteful processes and process steps and thus the top opportunities for improvement September 24, 2018 134
  • 135. Define Core Business Processes • Define the core set of business processes required to achieve the desired results and outputs • Assume no constraints in skills, resources, technology, external interactions or location − These can be added later • Create an inventory of these core business processes September 24, 2018 135
  • 136. Define Target Future State Process Model • Define the new/redesigned target processes and process steps in detail • There can be many options when defining the new/changed processes • Options can involve organisation change such as: − Case management approach with assigned case workers − Team-based processing − Upskilling teams − Elimination of cross-functional handoffs − Automation and technology changes − Personnel relocation − Outsourcing − Integration with external parties • Other changes can include: − Introduction of parallel processing − Work prioritisation − Compression of steps − Collapsing of roles − Eliminating unnecessary inspections − Unnecessary steps added for historical reasons to address exceptions and complexity • Focus is on adding value and reducing unnecessary cost September 24, 2018 136
  • 137. Enhance Target Future State Process Model With Personnel, Systems And Locations • Extend the definition of the new/redesigned target processes and process steps with details on: − The roles that perform them − When the work is performed − What technology is used or required to perform the work • Create matrix of extended process classification September 24, 2018 137 Role Role 1 Role 2 Role 3 Technology Technology 1 Technology 2 Technology 1 Technology 2 Technology 1 Technology 2 Location Loc 1 Loc 2 Loc 3 Loc 1 Loc 2 Loc 3 Loc 1 Loc 2 Loc 3 Loc 1 Loc 2 Loc 3 Loc 1 Loc 2 Loc 3 Loc 1 Loc 2 Loc 3 Process Step 1 Process Step 2 Process Step 3 Process Step 4 Process Step 5
  • 138. Validate Target Future State Process Measurement And Performance • Define the projected performance characteristics of the future process state • Validate the process performance through simulations, automated or paper-based September 24, 2018 138
  • 139. Assess The Implementability Of The Future State Process Options • There may be more than one set of future state process options • If so, each needs to be considered with respect to characteristics such as: − Time to implement − Likely cost − Resources required − Probability of success and risk of failure − Degree of organisation change and expected amount of disruption caused − Degree to which the improvement objectives will be achieved • Use these factors to determine the most suitable option or subset of options September 24, 2018 139
  • 140. Identify The Management Processes Required For The Target Future State Process Model • Identify the management processes required to administer, manage and assess the performance of the target future state processes − Collect, analyse and take action on process performance information − Measure the satisfaction of the process beneficiary − Assess process quality, rework and error rate − Review process cost • There will be general management processes across all operational processes and specific management processes for specific operational processes September 24, 2018 140
  • 141. Implementation And Support Processes • Specify at a high-level the processes to: − Implement the target process model − Support the operation and use of the target process model September 24, 2018 141
  • 142. 3.2 Create Conceptual Entity Model • Create an inventory of entities involved the operation of the business function and the delivery of products and services • Entities are objects about which data is stored and processed • Entities are people, functions, events, products and can include − Business roles and organisation functions involved in the work − External parties contributing to the products and services − Products and services − Beneficiaries of the work done by the business function − Offices and locations • The conceptual entity model is an Entity Relationship Diagram • This results in a picture of data flows and interactions within the business function within the scope of the business architecture engagement September 24, 2018 142
  • 143. Sample Conceptual Entity Model September 24, 2018 143 Customer Order Product Service Catalogue Item Storage Location Delivery Transport Order History Order Status Returned Order External Supplier Cancelled Order Partner/ Reseller Bulk Order Installation Customer Agent Installation History Service History
  • 144. Sample For Energy Utility September 24, 2018 144
  • 145. Create Conceptual Entity Model • Identify the types and groups of entities and the individual entities of each type • Describe each entity briefly and identify its main characteristic • Define the interactions and relationships between the entities • Define the direction and number of interactions and relationships • Quantify the volumes of interactions • Identify the major business rules associated with the interactions and relationships September 24, 2018 145
  • 146. 3.3 Gather Capacity Planning Information • Capacity planning covers all aspects of business volumetric information − Technology − Personnel − Location − Physical product production capacity − Physical product storage capacity − Physical product transportation capacity • Capacity and resource usage information will affect overall system(s) performance and the choice of technology and ultimately the solution options from the business architecture engagement • It is important that capacity planning information is accurate and that the underlying assumptions are understood and documented • The business may not understand technical aspects of capacity planning and so must be guided to an understanding and must approve the estimates produced September 24, 2018 146
  • 147. Objective Of Technology Capacity Planning • The objective is to determine the current and future resource requirements: − Processing capacity − Storage capacity − I/O data read/write capacity − RAM capacity − Network capacity • There are many aspects of technology usage and configuration that contribute to resource requirements September 24, 2018 147
  • 148. High-Level Technology Resource Model September 24, 2018 148 Business Users Generate Work External Users RAM Processing Capacity Data Must Be Stored Data Must Be Read and Written That Consumes Resources External Network Capacity Internal Network Capacity Affects Numbers of
  • 149. Gather Capacity Planning Information • Capacity planning metrics depend on the type of work being performed − Number of transactions or events of each type − Number of data entities of each type − Average and peak numbers − Past and expected future growth rates − Resource types to perform work types • Understand the technology resource requirements of transactions and entity data September 24, 2018 149
  • 150. Operation Aspect Of Capacity Planning • Operation requirements will affect capacity requirements: − Availability − Response times − Service levels − Acceptable failure rate − Recovery time • High operational requirements – highly available systems with very good and consistent response times – will affect resource requirements and cost • Understand the resource requirement impact of operational requirements • Different elements of the overall operation of the business function will have different operational requirements: − Externally facing applications may need to be more highly available than internal systems • The business may not understand technical aspects of operational requirements and so must be guided to an understanding and must approve the estimates produced September 24, 2018 150
  • 151. Organisation Capacity Planning • The business function will operate across different locations and location types: − Call centre − Service centre − Back office processing − Physical product storage and delivery • Each of these will also have different resource requirements and operational characteristics September 24, 2018 151
  • 152. Resource Entity Model • Create a resource entity model to understand the structure and volumes of resource consuming entities September 24, 2018 152 Customer Order Order Data Order Processing Data Order Processing Personnel Customer Data Products Product Storage Locations Product Delivery Resources
  • 153. Capacity Planning Model • Create a structure capacity planning model that • Captures inputs in terms of resource types and volumes • Defines the rules used to translate inputs into system resources • Explicitly define assumptions in terms of: − Growth in volumes of resource utilisation − Operational requirements and their resource implications September 24, 2018 153 Resource Consuming Entities Resource Model Resource Consuming Entity Volumes Assumptions Rules Resource Capacity Plan
  • 154. Validate And Signoff Capacity Planning • Review and agree capacity plan with business September 24, 2018 154
  • 155. 3.4 Define Solution And System Approach • Consider and decide on whether to initiate a software product evaluation and determination exercise at this stage • You may want to determine solution characteristics in more detail before seeking to identify possible suitable products • Or there may be an overriding requirement to identify likely solutions to meet urgent requirements now • Agree the approach to solution selection • Decide on whether to perform a parallel product and solution selection exercise September 24, 2018 155
  • 156. The Complete Solution Is Always Much More Than Just … • … Just a bunch of software • Complete solution is the entire set of components needed to operate the associated business processes • Successful solution requires the interoperation of all these components and that the components are properly designed and implemented • Overall solution usage experience is the sum of the experience of the usage of the components • Solution architect must be aware of the usability of designed solutions • Usability is not an afterthought: it must be embedded in the overall solution design from the start September 24, 2018 156
  • 157. Scope Of Complete Solution September 24, 2018 157 Changes to Existing Systems New Custom Developed Applications Information Storage Facilities System Integrations/Data Transfers/Exchanges Changes to Existing Business Processes Organisational Changes Existing Data Conversions/ Migrations New Data Loads Training and Documentation Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure Sets of Installation and Implementation Services Cutover/Transfer to Production Operational Functions and Processes Parallel Runs New Business Processes Reporting and Analysis Facilities Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services Application Hosting and Management Services Acquired and Customised Software Products
  • 158. Any Complete Solution Consists of: • Zero or more of {Changes to Existing Systems} • + Zero or more of {New Custom Developed Applications} • + Zero or more of {Information Storage Facilities} • + Zero or more of {Acquired and Customised Software Products} • + Zero or more of {System Integrations/Data Transfers/Exchanges} • + Zero or more of {Changes to Existing Business Processes} • + Zero or more of {New Business Processes} • + Zero or more of {Organisational Changes} • + Zero or more of {Reporting and Analysis Facilities} • + Zero or more of {Existing Data Conversions/Migrations} • + Zero or more of {New Data Loads} • + Zero or more of {Training and Documentation} • + Zero or more of {Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure} • + Zero or more of {Sets of Installation and Implementation Services} • + Zero or more of {Cutover/Transfer to Production} • + Zero or more of {Operational Functions and Processes} • + Zero or more of {Parallel Runs} • + Zero or more of {Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services} • + Zero or more of {Application Hosting and Management Services} September 24, 2018 158
  • 159. Outsource Operations Consider Develop and Acquisition Options • Spectrum of (not mutually exclusive) options available • Separate options can be considered for different components of the overall business function solution September 24, 2018 159 Change Existing Processes Develop Customised Solution(s) Acquire Software Product(s) or Services Change Processes and Update Existing Systems
  • 160. Two Dimensions Of Options September 24, 2018 160 Product 1 Development Option 1 Outsourcing Option 1 Product 2 Development Option 2 Outsourcing Option 2 Product 3 Change Existing Processes Change Processes and Update Existing Systems Acquire Software Product(s) or Services Develop Customised Solution Outsource Operations
  • 161. There Are Many Theoretical Options • One of the objectives of the business architecture engagement is to reduce the set of options to a small number that are: − Practical − Realistic − Achievable − Affordable − Usable − Compliant with organisation strategy and principles − Compliant with organisation’s enterprise architecture − Compliant with organisation’s appetite for risk September 24, 2018 161