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Incorporating A DesignOps Approach Into Solution Architecture

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Incorporating A DesignOps Approach Into Solution Architecture

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Solution architecture and design is concerned with designing new (IT) solutions to resolve problems or address opportunities . In order to solve a problem, you need sufficient information to understand the problem. If you do not understand the scope of the required solution you cannot understand the risks associated with the implementation approach.

Getting the solution wrong can be very expensive. The DesignOps approach is a unified end-to-end view of solution delivery from initial concept to steady state operations. It is a design-to-operations approach identifying all the solution design elements needed to ensure the delivery of a complete solution.

Solution architecture and design teams are becoming larger so more co-ordination, standardisation and management is required. The increasing focus on digital transformation increases the need for improved design as business applications are exposed outside the organisation. Solution complexity is increasing. The aim of the DesignOps approach is to improve solution design outcomes.

Solution architecture and design is concerned with designing new (IT) solutions to resolve problems or address opportunities . In order to solve a problem, you need sufficient information to understand the problem. If you do not understand the scope of the required solution you cannot understand the risks associated with the implementation approach.

Getting the solution wrong can be very expensive. The DesignOps approach is a unified end-to-end view of solution delivery from initial concept to steady state operations. It is a design-to-operations approach identifying all the solution design elements needed to ensure the delivery of a complete solution.

Solution architecture and design teams are becoming larger so more co-ordination, standardisation and management is required. The increasing focus on digital transformation increases the need for improved design as business applications are exposed outside the organisation. Solution complexity is increasing. The aim of the DesignOps approach is to improve solution design outcomes.

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Incorporating A DesignOps Approach Into Solution Architecture

  1. 1. Incorporating A DesignOps Approach Into Solution Architecture Alan McSweeney http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney
  2. 2. DesignOps And Solution Architecture • DesignOps is a unified end-to-end view of solution delivery from initial concept to steady state operations • It is a design-to-operations approach identifying all the solution design elements needed to ensure the delivery of a complete solution October 14, 2018 2
  3. 3. Solution Architecture And Design • Solution architecture and design is concerned with designing new (IT) solutions to resolve problems or address opportunities • These can be standard solutions where the knowledge required to create the design is known and available or new and innovative where there are knowledge gaps that must be identified and completed • Solution architecture requires a (changing) combination of technical, leadership, interpersonal skills, experience, analysis, appropriate creativity, reflection and intuition applied in a structured manner October 14, 2018 3
  4. 4. Objective Of Solution Architecture • The central objective of solution architecture is to create a design • The design is a specification of an IT-oriented solution whose purpose is to realise a defined set of end states and generate a set of outputs • The design is intended to operate in a defined environment • The design is based on a set of basic components • The design satisfies a set of requirements and meet a set of expectations • The design is subject to a variety of environment-specific constraints and limitations • Solution architecture is the process for creating designs • The purpose of the design specification is to enable the implementation and subsequent operation and use of the solution October 14, 2018 4
  5. 5. Design • Design draws from experience and applies design methodologies and approaches to connect the needs of the solution target users, the capabilities of technology and the needs of the business to create a implementable, operable, usable solution design • The benefits of a design approach are seen all along the solution delivery and usage journey October 14, 2018 5
  6. 6. Complete Solution October 14, 2018 6 Changes to Existing Systems New Custom Developed Applications Information Storage Facilities Acquired and Customised Software Products System Integrations/Data Transfers/Exchanges New Business Processes Organisational Changes Reporting and Analysis Facilities Existing Data Conversions/Migrations Changes to Existing Business Processes New Data Loads Training and Documentation Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure Application Hosting and Management Services Cutover/Transfer to Production Parallel Runs Enhanced Support/Hypercare Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services Operational Functions and Processes Sets of Installation and Implementation Services Solution Is Only Really Delivered And Operational When All The Required Components Have Been Delivered Successfully And Work Solution Delivery From Design To Operations Components Must Converge To Create Solution
  7. 7. Solution Design To Operations • Design-to-Operations view of solution means all aspects of the solution design are considered • The solution is only complete when all its constituent components are operational • The implementation of the individual components must converge at some point during the solution delivery phases October 14, 2018 7 Operation And Use Idea Solution Delivery Journey and Solution Design Scope
  8. 8. Solution Design • Good solution design means including details on all aspects of the solution • A complete solution is always greater than the creation of software • Complete solution is the entire set of components needed to operate the associated business processes • Users experience the complete operational solution across its entire scope and experience both its functional and quality properties • Successful solution requires the interoperation of all these components and that the components are properly designed and implemented • Overall solution usage experience is the sum of the experience of the usage of the components • Solution architect must be aware of the usability of designed solutions • Usability is not an afterthought: it must be embedded in the overall solution design from the start • Solution design is always much, much more than a user interface October 14, 2018 8
  9. 9. Solution Is The Sum Of Its Components • The solution is a window to its constituent components October 14, 2018 9
  10. 10. Solutions • Are the windows into the underlying organisation and business processes • Solutions cannot, in themselves, resolve problems with underlying business processes without a process redesign component • Solutions should have the following characteristics − Optimise self-service and associated automation and orchestration − Have a consistent, seamless, continuous experience and appearance across all channels − Ensure underlying data is consistent across all applications and usage points − Measure usage and implement processes to analyse and take improvement actions October 14, 2018 10
  11. 11. Solution Delivery Stages And Solution Components October 14, 2018 11 Changes to Existing Systems New Custom Developed Applications Information Storage Facilities Acquired and Customised Software Products System Integrations/ Data Transfers/ Exchanges Changes to Existing Business Processes New Business Processes Organisational Changes Reporting and Analysis Facilities Existing Data Conversions / Migrations New Data Loads Training and Documentation Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure Sets of Installation and Implementation Services Cutover/ Transfer to Production Operational Functions and Processes Parallel Runs Enhanced Support/ Hypercare Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services Application Hosting and Management Services Idea or Business Concept Initial Discovery Requirements Elicitation Outline Solution Design Decision to Proceed Detailed Solution Research, Analysis and Design Design Review and Approval Initiate Implementation Implementation Planning Development Testing Component Procurement/ Acquisition Component Installation, Configuration and Customisation Data Interfaces and Exchanges Process Definition and Changes Organisation Change Infrastructure Commissioning Data Migration, Load and Validation Documentation and Training Deployment Planning Transition To Support Cutover To Production Parallel Run Hypercare Interval Operation and Use Evolve and Change Solution Components SolutionDeliveryStages
  12. 12. Solution Delivery Stages And Solution Components Components • Changes to Existing Systems • New Custom Developed Applications • Information Storage Facilities • Acquired and Customised Software Products • System Integrations/Data Transfers/Exchanges • Changes to Existing Business Processes • New Business Processes • Organisational Changes • Reporting and Analysis Facilities • Existing Data Conversions/Migrations • New Data Loads • Training and Documentation • Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure • Sets of Installation and Implementation Services • Cutover/Transfer to Production • Operational Functions and Processes • Parallel Runs • Enhanced Support/Hypercare • Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services • Application Hosting and Management Services Stages • Idea or Business Concept • Initial Discovery • Requirements Elicitation • Outline Solution Design • Decision to Proceed • Detailed Solution Research, Analysis and Design • Design Review and Approval • Initiate Implementation • Implementation Planning • Development • Testing • Component Procurement/ Acquisition • Component Installation, Configuration and Customisation • Data Interfaces and Exchanges • Process Definition and Changes • Organisation Change • Infrastructure Commissioning • Data Migration, Load and Validation • Documentation and Training • Deployment Planning • Transition To Support • Cutover To Production • Parallel Run • Hypercare Interval • Operation and Use • Evolve and Change October 14, 2018 12
  13. 13. Solution Delivery Stages And Solution Components • A solution is only completed if all its components are fully operational • A design-to-operations solution design view understands the solution across its two dimensions of: 1. Its constituent components 2. The stages required to make those components operational • DesignOps = {Component, … , Component} x {Delivery Stage, … , Delivery Stage} October 14, 2018 13
  14. 14. Solution Delivery Stages And Solution Components October 14, 2018 14 Changes to Existing Systems New Custom Developed Applications Information Storage Facilities Acquired and Customised Software Products System Integrations/ Data Transfers/ Exchanges Changes to Existing Business Processes New Business Processes Organisational Changes Reporting and Analysis Facilities Existing Data Conversions / Migrations New Data Loads Training and Documentation Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure Sets of Installation and Implementation Services Cutover/ Transfer to Production Operational Functions and Processes Parallel Runs Enhanced Support/ Hypercare Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services Application Hosting and Management Services Idea or Business Concept ˄ ˄ ˂˂DesignOps˃˃ ˅ ˅ Initial Discovery Requirements Elicitation Outline Solution Design Decision to Proceed Detailed Solution Research, Analysis and Design Design Review and Approval Initiate Implementation Implementation Planning Development Testing Component Procurement/ Acquisition Component Installation, Configuration and Customisation Data Interfaces and Exchanges Process Definition and Changes Organisation Change Infrastructure Commissioning Data Migration, Load and Validation Documentation and Training Deployment Planning Transition To Support Cutover To Production Parallel Run Hypercare Interval Operation and Use Evolve and Change Solution Components SolutionDeliveryStages
  15. 15. The Implementation Of Solutions Involves Change October 14, 2018 15 • The implementation of solutions requires or gives rise to the need for changes in one or more of these areas • As part of the solution design process the nature of these changes and the solution options with different change profiles should be analysed and considered • There are six core domains of organisation change Domains of Organisation Change Location and Offices Business Processes Technology, Infrastructure and Communications Applications and Systems Information and Data Organisation and Structure
  16. 16. Core Areas Of Organisation Change • Business-oriented areas − Location and Offices – existing and new locations and facilities of the organisation, their types and functions and the principles that govern the selection of new locations − Business Processes – current and future business process definitions, requirements, characteristics, performance − Organisation and Structure – organisation resources and arrangement, business unit, function and team structures and composition, relationships, reporting and management, roles and skills • Technology-oriented areas − Technology, Infrastructure and Communications – current and future technical infrastructure including security, constraints, standards, technology trends, characteristics, performance requirements − Applications and Systems – current and future applications and systems, characteristics, constraints, assumptions, requirements, design principles, interface standards, connectivity to business processes − Information and Data – data and information architecture, data integration, master and reference data, data access and management October 14, 2018 16
  17. 17. Organisation Change Profiles For Solution Options October 14, 2018 17 Organisation and Structure Locations and Offices Technology, Infrastructure And Communications Business Processes Profile of Solution Organisation Changes Information and Data Applications and Systems Organisation and Structure Locations And Offices Technology, Infrastructure and Communications Business Processes Profile of Solution Organisation Changes Information and Data Applications and Systems • Different solution options can have different organisation change profiles
  18. 18. Extended Areas Of Organisation Change October 14, 2018 18 Overall Organisation Business Strategy Organisation Operating Environment and Business Landscape Including External Users Domains of Organisation Change Location and Offices Business Processes Technology, Infrastructure and Communications Applications and Systems Information and Data Organisation and Structure
  19. 19. Extended Areas Of Organisation Change • Organisation change also affects external parties that interact with the organisation • You have limited, if any, control over external parties and their response to change • The success of externally facing solutions depends on the reactions of the impacted external parties October 14, 2018 19
  20. 20. Mapping Solution Components To Organisation Change Domains October 14, 2018 20 Business Change Domains Offices and Locations Organisation Structures, People and Teams Information and Data Systems and Applications Technology and Infrastructure Business Processes Organisational Changes Training and Documentation Changes to Existing Business Processes New Business Processes Operational Functions and Processes Existing Data Conversions/ Migrations New Data Loads Information Storage Facilities Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure Application Hosting and Management Services Changes to Existing Systems New Custom Developed Applications Acquired and Customised Software Products System Integrations/ Data Transfers/ Exchanges Reporting and Analysis Facilities Sets of Installation and Implementation Services Enhanced Support/ Hypercare Cutover/ Transfer to Production Parallel Runs Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services
  21. 21. Mapping Solution Components To Organisation Change Domains • The possible components of the solution can be mapped to one of the six domains of organisation change • The number of solution components and their complexity that map to an organisation change domain is an indicator of the extent of the required change • The hidden change domain – external parties interacting with the changed organisation post solution operation – is an important design consideration October 14, 2018 21
  22. 22. Solution Component Levels Solution Offices and Locations Business Processes Changes to Existing Business Processes Business Process Business Process New Business Processes Business Process Business Process Operational Functions and Processes Business Process Business Process Organisation Structures, People and Teams Organisational Changes Personnel Changes Organisation Structure Changes Training and Documentation Documentation Training Information and Data Existing Data Conversions/ Migrations Data Conversion/ Migration Data Conversion/ Migration New Data Loads Data Load Data Load Systems and Applications Changes to Existing Systems System Change System Change New Custom Developed Applications New Application New Application Acquired and Customised Software Products Product Product System Integrations/Data Transfers/Exchanges Data Integration Data Integration Reporting and Analysis Facilities Report Report Sets of Installation and Implementation Services Installation Service Installation Service Cutover/Transfer to Production Cutover Cutover Parallel Runs Parallel Run Parallel RunEnhanced Support/Hypercare Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services Maintenance Service Maintenance Service Technology and Infrastructure Information Storage Facilities Information Storage Information Storage Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure Central Infrastructure Distributed Infrastructure Communication Infrastructure Application Hosting and Management Services Hosting Service Hosting Service October 14, 2018 22
  23. 23. Solution Component Levels • There can be multiple levels to the solution design • Greater level of detail allows greater certainty about the design • As the design is elaborated detail can be added • Design to level 3 is sufficient to understand the full scope of the solution October 14, 2018 23 Level 0 Overall Solution Level 1 Business Domain Level 2 Solution Component Type Level 3 Component Type Instance Level 4 Detail on Component Type Instance
  24. 24. DesignOps IS Not An Excuse For … • … Delayed solution implementation • Analysis and design paralysis • DesignOps is about making honest and informed choices based on a realistic assessment of the scope of the solution • It is about stopping the Ready Fire Aim approach to solution implementation October 14, 2018 24
  25. 25. Staged And Iterated Solution Design October 14, 2018 25 Changes to Existing Systems New Custom Developed Applications Information Storage Facilities Acquired and Customised Software Products System Integrations/Data Transfers/Exchanges New Business Processes Organisational Changes Reporting and Analysis Facilities Existing Data Conversions/Migrations Changes to Existing Business Processes New Data Loads Training and Documentation Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure Application Hosting and Management Services Cutover/Transfer to Production Parallel Runs Enhanced Support/Hypercare Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services Operational Functions and Processes Sets of Installation and Implementation Services Solution Delivery From Design To Operations Components Must Converge To Create Solution Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
  26. 26. Staged And Iterated Solution Design • The solution design process does not have to be monolithic • The process can be staged and iterated to achieve rapid results • Taking a DesignOps approach means you can make informed knowledge-based decisions on what to do when to balance delivery factors October 14, 2018 26
  27. 27. DesignOps Is About … • … Understanding the value of solution design • Maximising the impact and value of solution design • Creating a common solution design language along the length of the solution delivery journey • Avoiding solution delivery estimation errors due to factors such as strategic misrepresentation • Reducing solution design effort and time while maximising the value delivered • Increasing solution design collaboration • To solve a problem, you need sufficient information to understand the problem October 14, 2018 27
  28. 28. Core Elements Of DesignOps October 14, 2018 28 People, Skills, Experience, Mentoring, Training Development Engagement, Delivery and Quality Processes Management, Leadership, Governance Standards, Methodologies, Tools, Knowledge Management
  29. 29. Why Take A DesignOps Approach? • Solution architecture and design teams are becoming larger so more co-ordination, standardisation and management is required • Focus on digital transformation increases the need for improved design as business applications are exposed outside the organisation • User expectations of solutions are growing • Solution complexity is increasing • There is a need to protect the organisation from the Just Do It approach of development • Establish common solution design principles that are universally applied • Improve solution outcomes October 14, 2018 29
  30. 30. The Journey From Idea To Successful Operation October 14, 2018 30 Idea, Business Need, Business Benefits Process Definition and Solution Design Costing - Implementation and Operational Solution Implementation and Delivery Solution Operation Benefits Realised
  31. 31. The Journey From Idea To Successful Operation October 14, 2018 31 Idea, Business Need, Business Benefits Process Definition and Solution Design Costing - Implementation and Operational Solution Implementation and Delivery Solution Operation Benefits Realised But Expected And Promised Benefits All Too Frequently Not Delivered
  32. 32. Frequently Too Many Handoffs On The Journey From Idea To Successful Operation October 14, 2018 32 Idea, Business Need, Business Benefits Process Definition and Solution Design Costing - Implementation and Operational Solution Implementation and Delivery Solution Operation Benefits Realised “Chinese Whisper” Effect as Initial Concept Moves to Implementation Handoff and Information Loss Handoff and Information Loss Handoff and Information Loss Handoff and Information Loss
  33. 33. Solution Design And Delivery Issues • Preference for development action over thought, research and analysis • Moving quickly and being decisive are viewed as important • Expectations of speed of delivery and functionality of delivered solution are high • So short-cuts are taken − The development elements of solution delivery are favoured over other (less glamorous) stages − The solution functionality being delivered is based on unvalidated guesses and opinions on what is needed rather than facts October 14, 2018 33
  34. 34. Solution Delivery Short-Cuts • The risks of taking short-cuts include: − Higher operational costs − Unstable solution − Cannot scale to handle volumes − Insecure − Not accepted by target user population − Wrong solution − Cost of rework • DesignOps approach allows you to make informed realistic decisions • If you do not understand the scope of the required solution you cannot understand the risks − Getting the solution wrong can be very expensive October 14, 2018 34
  35. 35. Solution Design Function Issues October 14, 2018 35 Solution Architects Tend To Work Individually With Limited Direction, Information Sharing, Reuse And Standardisation Solution Architects Are Not Involved Throughout The Solution Delivery Process Solution Architecture Hiring And Career Development Is Not Well Understood Or Developed There Are Poor Solution Architecture Tools, Standards And Methodologies To Support The Design Process The Links Between Other IT Architecture Functions Are Poor And Fragmented The Potential Of The Solution Architecture Function Is Not Understood, Valued And Exploited Fully
  36. 36. Cost Of Fixing Errors During Solution Delivery Lifecycle October 14, 2018 36 Process Definition and Solution Design Costing - Implementation and Operational Solution Implementation and Delivery Benefits Realised Idea, Business Need, Business Benefits Solution Operation Errors/ gaps/ omissions become significantly more expensive to fix at later stages of the solution Relative cost to remediate errors at the end can be 50- 100 (or more) times more expensive than at the start
  37. 37. Maximising Solution Value Throughout Lifecycle • The DesignOps approach maximises the value of the solution throughout its life October 14, 2018 37 Solution Design Solution Development Solution Transition Solution Operation Achievement of Business Value Improved Analysis Improved Solution Design Improved Management of Transition Improved Delivery of Business Needs
  38. 38. Solution Characteristics And Quality Properties • Define, agree and prioritise the required characteristics of the solution − Usable − Suitable − Affordable − Deliverable − Operable − Supportable − Maintainable − Flexible − Adaptable − Capable − Scalable − Reliable − Securable − Available − Auditable − Recoverable − Stable − Testable − Accessible October 14, 2018 38
  39. 39. Solution Usage Experience Is The Sum Of Experiences … • … Across all dimensions of all solutions and the user’s interaction with it – functionality and quality attributes − Accuracy − Ease of interpretation − Usability − Utility − Interoperability − Integration − Automation − Performance − Consistency − Reliability − Availability − Appearance and navigation • Not all solution usage experiences can be observed directly or are based on experience of externally accessed solution functional components October 14, 2018 39
  40. 40. October 14, 2018 40 Dimensions Of Solution Usability Components of Overall Solution Quality Properties Functional Components of Solution
  41. 41. Solution Usability • Is the sum of all interactions with the solution and the results the solution provides • The experience of the individual solution • Solution usability is much, much more than a user interface • DesignOps ensures you take a complete approach to solution usability October 14, 2018 41 Functionality and Quality Attributes And Solution Scope ΣSolution Usability = Interactions With and Results of Solution
  42. 42. Summary • Solution architecture and design is concerned with designing new (IT) solutions to resolve problems or address opportunities • To solve a problem, you need sufficient information to understand the problem − If you do not understand the scope of the required solution you cannot understand the risks associated with the implementation approach − Getting the solution wrong can be very expensive • The DesignOps approach is a unified end-to-end view of solution delivery from initial concept to steady state operations − It is a design-to-operations approach identifying all the solution design elements needed to ensure the delivery of a complete solution • Solution architecture and design teams are becoming larger so more co- ordination, standardisation and management is required • The increasing focus on digital transformation increases the need for improved design as business applications are exposed outside the organisation • Solution complexity is increasing • The aim of the DesignOps approach is to improve solution design outcomes October 14, 2018 42
  43. 43. October 14, 2018 43 More Information Alan McSweeney http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney

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