Successfully reported this slideshow.

Design Science and Solution Architecture

5

Share

1 of 83
1 of 83

Design Science and Solution Architecture

5

Share

Download to read offline

This examines the potential for the application of Design Science principles to the solution design process within solution architecture to improve the rigour and accuracy of solution designs.

Design Science is the structured and systematic process for creating designs that resolve problems. It is concerned with the structured process for the acquisition and application of knowledge in relation to the problems to the resolved and the solution knowledge to be applied.

The application of Design Science must be a means to an end – better solution quality – and not an end in itself – an incentive for the design function is to become large.

Solution architecture requires a (changing) combination of technical, leadership, interpersonal skills, experience, analysis, appropriate creativity, reflection and intuition applied in a structured manner.

Knowledge management – problem knowledge and solution knowledge – is at the core of the application of design science principles.

Knowledge management requires good management of the solution architecture function.

This examines the potential for the application of Design Science principles to the solution design process within solution architecture to improve the rigour and accuracy of solution designs.

Design Science is the structured and systematic process for creating designs that resolve problems. It is concerned with the structured process for the acquisition and application of knowledge in relation to the problems to the resolved and the solution knowledge to be applied.

The application of Design Science must be a means to an end – better solution quality – and not an end in itself – an incentive for the design function is to become large.

Solution architecture requires a (changing) combination of technical, leadership, interpersonal skills, experience, analysis, appropriate creativity, reflection and intuition applied in a structured manner.

Knowledge management – problem knowledge and solution knowledge – is at the core of the application of design science principles.

Knowledge management requires good management of the solution architecture function.

More Related Content

More from Alan McSweeney

Related Books

Free with a 14 day trial from Scribd

See all

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 14 day trial from Scribd

See all

Design Science and Solution Architecture

  1. 1. Design Science and Solution Architecture Alan McSweeney http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney
  2. 2. Topics • Science, Design Science (DS), Design Science Research (DSR), Design Science Research in Information Systems (DSR-IS), Evidence-Based Design • Problem and Solution Knowledge • Purpose, Objective and Scope of Solution Design • Solution Architecture and Design Science • Solution Design Process • Architecture Patterns October 7, 2018 2
  3. 3. Science, Design Science (DS), Design Science Research (DSR), Design Science Research in Information Systems (DSR-IS), Evidence-Based Design October 7, 2018 3
  4. 4. Science • Science is not • Science is the process whereby knowledge is formally acquired or generated, validated, accumulated and revised and updated through observation, investigation, experience, research and analysis − Scientific method is the application of this process • The resulting knowledge needs to be acted-on and applied in a systematic manner October 7, 2018 4
  5. 5. Theory • The output from science and the scientific method are theories − These are the current best explanations consistent with the currently available knowledge October 7, 2018 5
  6. 6. Design Science (DS) • Design Science is the structured and systematic process for creating designs that resolve problems • It is the application of formal design processes • Design Science is also the process for developing the associated systematic process • Design Science is concerned with the structured process for the acquisition and application of knowledge in relation to the problems to the resolved and the solution knowledge to be applied − Problem Knowledge – how known is the problem or how much knowledge must be acquired on the problem to understand it − Solution Knowledge – how much existing solution knowledge can be applied and how much new knowledge is required October 7, 2018 6
  7. 7. Design Theory Design Science (DS), Design Science Research (DSR), Design Science Research in Information Systems (DSR-IS) Context October 7, 2018 7 Design Science Research In Information Systems Systematised Approach to Design In General Outcome-Based Research Approach and Methodology DSR Applied to Information System Design Process Design Research Development of Theoretical Basis of Principles Knowledge and Practice of Design Design Research Design Science Research Design Science
  8. 8. Design Science Research (DSR) • Design Science Research is the approach and methodology for developing Design Science within research-type endeavours − Research is at best a semi-structured activity that can be difficult to formalise • Design Science Research is concerned with the creation and improvement of artefacts • Intended to be have a practical approach and application rather than pure research October 7, 2018 8
  9. 9. Design Science Research Framework October 7, 2018 9 Knowledge Design Process Outputs Awareness Of The Problem Suggestion Development of Design Evaluation of Design Conclusion Knowledge Contribution Cognitive Process Problem Statement and Resolution Proposal Indicative Solution Design Artefacts Performance Measurement Results Design Science Knowledge Abduction Deduction Reflection and Abstraction Circumscription
  10. 10. Circumscription • Discovery of constraint knowledge about explanation gained through detection and analysis of contraindications when things do not work according to previously defined expectations October 7, 2018 10
  11. 11. Suggestion • Suggestion is the application of creativity where new functionality is conceived of based on a novel configuration of either existing or new and existing solution components • Creativity is difficult to define in a rigorous way and its consistent repeatability cannot be guaranteed October 7, 2018 11
  12. 12. Abduction • Derive a simple, plausible and reasonable explanation based on observations and knowledge acquired • The explanation may be plausible and is supported by the facts but is not certain • The explanation derived through abduction is the most likely and best available but not absolutely provable October 7, 2018 12
  13. 13. Deduction • Derive a completely certain and accurate explanation based on observations, knowledge acquired and the application of logic and rules • Deductions expands on the explanations produced during the abduction phase October 7, 2018 13
  14. 14. Outputs From Design Science Research Type Description Constructs The conceptual vocabulary of the problem area: concepts, terms, ideas Models Sets of propositions or statements expressing relationships between constructs Frameworks Real or conceptual guides to serve as support or guide Architectures High-level structures of systems Design Principles Core principles and concepts to guide solution design Methods Sets of steps used to perform tasks Instantiations Material artefact that realises a construct, model or method Design Theories A defined set of statements on how to perform actions to achieve a defined objective October 7, 2018 14
  15. 15. DSR Artefacts • Artefacts within DSR are intended to contain knowledge − This knowledge ranges from the design logic, construction methods and tool to assumptions about the context in which the artefact is intended to function • DSR artefacts can include any of: − Models − Methods − Constructs − Instantiations (creation of an concrete example or instance) and design theories − Innovations − New or previously unknown properties of informational resources − New explanatory theories − New design and developments models and implementation processes or methods October 7, 2018 15
  16. 16. Design Science Research in Information Systems (DSR-IS) • Information systems research that uses the design and construction of artefacts to generate new knowledge and insights into a class of problems • The use of artefacts embodies the principle of learning through building • There are three general activities to DSR-IS 1. Construction of artefacts where the construction is informed and guided by either by practice-based insight or theory 2. Gathering and evaluating of data on the functional performance of the artefact 3. Reflection on the construction process and on the implications the gathered data October 7, 2018 16
  17. 17. Iteration Between Development Of Design And Evaluation Of Design • In DSR-IS, the process iterates between the development of design and the evaluation of design phases rather than flowing sequentially from one phase to the next • This iteration is a major difference between design science research and other science research projects − Science projects flow sequentially from the design of experiments that yield results that are analysed to generate knowledge October 7, 2018 17
  18. 18. Outputs From DSR-IS • Artefacts • Information Systems Design Theory (ISDT) • Design-Related Explanatory/Predictive Theory (DREPT) October 7, 2018 18
  19. 19. Information Systems Design Theory (ISDT) • Detailed descriptions how artefacts should behave and how they can be constructed • These are design principles • ISDT defines the how artefact is constructed October 7, 2018 19
  20. 20. Design-Related Explanatory/Predictive Theory (DREPT) • This contains explanatory information explaining formally why artefact has the effects it does • The captures the knowledge about the artefacts • These are refinements to refinements to theories that contributed to the initial design • Defines the how and the why the artefacts’ features have the specified effects October 7, 2018 20
  21. 21. Evidence-Based Design And Solution Architecture • Create optimum solution designs by using knowledge and evidence derived from research using a rigorous and repeatable approach − Clarification of the problem and definition of the problem statement − Identification of and analysis of information available on the problem and clarification of problem to be resolved − Identification of and analysis of information available on the possible solutions to the problem − Analysis of the solution options in terms of resolving the problem − Determine and eliminate various forms of bias in the problem statement and the solution options − Analysis of risks in the solution options • Risk of doing the wrong thing • Risk of doing it in the wrong way • Risk of underestimating complexity and scope of work • Risk of higher than expected cost of operation and maintenance • Risk of underestimating organisation change impact and organisation resistance • Risk through uncertainty and unpredictability − Validate that the solution will resolve the problem October 7, 2018 21
  22. 22. What Is A Solution? October 7, 2018 22
  23. 23. Need For Solution Exists Because … • I have a problem • I want to be able to do what I am currently unable to do • I cannot do what I want • I need to be able to do something • A solution is a Resolver, a Provider or an Enabler • An originator will identify the need for a solution • The IT function must work with the originator to provide a usable answer to the solution need 07 October 2018 23
  24. 24. Solution Definition Journey Stages October 7, 2018 24 WHY? WHAT? HOW?
  25. 25. Why, What And How • WHY? − Why is the solution being looked for: a problem, an opportunity, an obligation? − Why has the situation requiring a solution arisen? − Why are we here? − Why do it? − Why not do it? • WHAT − What are the options? − What can be done? − What is being looked for? − What must it do? • HOW − How should it be done? − How should it operate? − How can it be delivered? October 7, 2018 25
  26. 26. The Complete Solution Is Always Much More Than Just … • … Just a bunch of software • Complete solution is the entire set of components needed to operate the associated business processes • Successful solution requires the interoperation of all these components and that the components are properly designed and implemented • Overall solution usage experience is the sum of the experience of the usage of the components • Solution architect must be aware of the usability of designed solutions • Usability is not an afterthought: it must be embedded in the overall solution design from the start October 7, 2018 26
  27. 27. Scope Of Complete Solution October 7, 2018 27 Changes to Existing Systems New Custom Developed Applications Information Storage Facilities System Integrations/Data Transfers/Exchanges Changes to Existing Business Processes Organisational Changes Existing Data Conversions/ Migrations New Data Loads Training and Documentation Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure Sets of Installation and Implementation Services Cutover/Transfer to Production Operational Functions and Processes Parallel Runs New Business Processes Reporting and Analysis Facilities Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services Application Hosting and Management Services Acquired and Customised Software Products
  28. 28. Any Complete Solution Consists of: • Zero or more of {Changes to Existing Systems} • + Zero or more of {New Custom Developed Applications} • + Zero or more of {Information Storage Facilities} • + Zero or more of {Acquired and Customised Software Products} • + Zero or more of {System Integrations/Data Transfers/Exchanges} • + Zero or more of {Changes to Existing Business Processes} • + Zero or more of {New Business Processes} • + Zero or more of {Organisational Changes} • + Zero or more of {Reporting and Analysis Facilities} • + Zero or more of {Existing Data Conversions/Migrations} • + Zero or more of {New Data Loads} • + Zero or more of {Training and Documentation} • + Zero or more of {Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure} • + Zero or more of {Sets of Installation and Implementation Services} • + Zero or more of {Cutover/Transfer to Production} • + Zero or more of {Operational Functions and Processes} • + Zero or more of {Parallel Runs} • + Zero or more of {Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services} • + Zero or more of {Application Hosting and Management Services} October 7, 2018 28
  29. 29. Aspects Of Solution Design October 7, 2018 29 Solution Design Getting Work Done, Making The Solution Work Appearance, Utility, Experience Development, Configuration, Implementation, Migration People and Organisation, Operating Landscape How the Solution, Appears, Is Accessed, Used, Navigated Who Uses The Solution, How the Solution Interacts With Other Components
  30. 30. Simplified Organisation Context Of Solution Design October 7, 2018 30 Organisation Strategy Organisation Information Technology and Systems Strategy Organisation Structure And Processes Set Of Solutions That Comprise The Organisation Solution Landscape Alignment Between Strategies Solution Design Alignment Between Solutions And Organisation Organisation Design External Factors Constraints, Standards, Limitations
  31. 31. Business Objectives Business Operational Model Enterprise Architecture Solution Implementation and Delivery Management And Operations Business Processes Required Operational Business Systems Business Strategy Business Solution Analysis and Design/ Selection Business IT Strategy IT Function Strategy Required Operational and Support Processes Required Business Support Systems Support Solution Analysis and Design/ Selection Organisation Context Of Solution Design October 7, 2018 31
  32. 32. Problem and Solution Knowledge October 7, 2018 32
  33. 33. Solution Architecture And Knowledge • The amount of already known knowledge and the amount of knowledge that must be acquired governs the complexity of the solution design process • The solution design process acquires and uses knowledge about the problem and the solution to create one or more implementable and usable solution options October 7, 2018 33 Problem Knowledge Solution Knowledge Solution Design Process
  34. 34. Mapping The Problem/Solution Domain • Combination of options based on existing knowledge about problem and knowledge of solution options that can be applied to the problem October 7, 2018 34
  35. 35. Mapping The Problem/Solution Domain - Problems October 7, 2018 35 New Or Unquantified Problem/No Problem Knowledge Where Existing Solution Knowledge Can Be Adapted Known Or Quantified Problem With Existing Solution Knowledge New Or Unquantified Problem/No Problem Knowledge With No Existing Solution Knowledge Known Or Quantified Problem With No Existing Solution Knowledge Amount Of Existing Knowledge That Is Known About The Problem Or Novelty Of The Problem Amount Of Solution Knowledge That Can Be Applied To The Solution or Amount Of Solution Knowledge Known HIGH LOW LOW HIGH
  36. 36. Mapping The Problem/Solution Domain – Solution Approach October 7, 2018 36 Adapt Or Apply Existing Solutions or Knowledge For New Problem Adapt Or Apply Existing Solutions or Knowledge For Known Problem Invent or Derive New Knowledge To Create New Solution For New Problem Develop New Knowledge To Create New Solution For Known Problem Amount Of Existing Knowledge That Is Known About The Problem Or Novelty Of The Problem Amount Of Solution Knowledge That Can Be Applied To The Solution or Amount Of Solution Knowledge Known HIGH LOW LOW HIGH
  37. 37. Mapping The Problem/Solution Domain - Complexity October 7, 2018 37 Amount Of Existing Knowledge That Is Known About The Problem Or Novelty Of The Problem Amount Of Solution Knowledge That Can Be Applied To The Solution or Amount Of Solution Knowledge Already Known HIGH LOW LOW HIGH
  38. 38. Mapping The Problem/Solution Domain October 7, 2018 38 Adapt Or Apply Existing Solutions or Knowledge For New Problem Adapt Or Apply Existing Solutions or Knowledge For Known Problem Invent or Derive New Knowledge To Create New Solution For New Problem Develop New Knowledge To Create New Solution For Known Problem New Or Unquantified Problem/No Problem Knowledge Where Existing Solution Knowledge Can Be Adapted Known Or Quantified Problem With Existing Solution Knowledge New Or Unquantified Problem/No Problem Knowledge With No Existing Solution Knowledge Known Or Quantified Problem With No Existing Solution Knowledge
  39. 39. Maximise The Known Knowns Of The Potential Solution • Solution unkowns are the source of potential problems during solution delivery • The goal of solution design is no surprises • Remove the uncertainty from the solution design as much as possible 07 October 2018 39 What Can Be Known Known Unknown What We Know Known Here Be Dragons Unknown
  40. 40. Maximise The Known Knowns Of The Potential Solution 07 October 2018 40 Known Knowns Known Unknowns Unknown Unknowns • The more that is known about the solution design the fewer the problems relating to scope and changes and associated cost, time and resource increase will occur later in solution implementation
  41. 41. Solution Design Process – Requirements To Solution Mapping • Solution has functional (and other) requirements that it must have in order to be deemed to be operating correctly − Solutions can be delivered without some of the functional requirements – manual work • Solution design process is concerned with mapping the requirements to the functions of the solution • Solution requirements identified will never include the full scope of the solution − Requirements identified during any requirements elicitation process will only ever be a sparse and fragmented representation of what the full set of solution requirements that constitute a complete solution October 7, 2018 41
  42. 42. Solution Design Process – Requirements To Solution Mapping October 7, 2018 42 Sparse Functional Requirements Identified Complete Solution Functionality Implemented = Functional Requirements Identified = Solution Functionality Implemented But Not Explicitly Identified = Functional Requirements Identified But Not Implemented Solution Need To Solution Design Mapping
  43. 43. Requirements Space And Solution Space • Minimise Solution Space while maximising size of Requirements Space encompassed • You do not deliver requirements • You deliver solutions that encompass multiple interoperating elements that enable business processes that allow requirements to be complied with • Solution Space maximises the requirements complied with while minimising its scope and complexity and therefore its cost, delivery time and risk • Solution design is concerned with finding an optimal Solution Space • There may be many Solution Space options – solution design needs to focus on finding the most viable ones quickly and the deciding on the one(s) to pursue October 7, 2018 43
  44. 44. Purpose, Objective and Scope of Solution Design October 7, 2018 44
  45. 45. Solution Architecture And Design • Solution architecture and design is concerned with designing new (IT) solutions • These can be standard solutions where the knowledge required to create the design is known and available or new and innovative where there are knowledge gaps that must be identified and completed • Solution architecture requires a (changing) combination of technical, leadership, interpersonal skills, experience, analysis, appropriate creativity, reflection and intuition applied in a structured manner October 7, 2018 45
  46. 46. Objective Of Solution Architecture • The central objective of solution architecture is to create a design • The design is a specification of an IT-oriented solution whose purpose is to realise a defined set of end states and generate a set of outputs • The design is intended to operate in a defined environment • The design is based on a set of basic components • The design satisfies a set of requirements and meet a set of expectations • The design is subject to a variety of environment-specific constraints and limitations • Solution architecture is the process for creating designs • The purpose of the design specification is to enable the implementation and subsequent operation and use of the solution October 7, 2018 46
  47. 47. Scope Of Solution Design • There are differing views of the scope of the solution design effort and of the solution design itself − Narrow rather than broad • Narrow - the design should cover just the core functional elements • Broad - the design should include details on the wider solution operation such as data migration and transition to service • The solution design should encompass all elements required to ensure that the solution can be implemented, operated, used and supported • This means the solution design should describe all the solution design and implementation components October 7, 2018 47
  48. 48. Solution Design Scope October 7, 2018 48 Changes to Existing Systems New Custom Developed Applications Information Storage Facilities System Integrations/ Data Transfers/ Exchanges Changes to Existing Business Processes Organisational Changes Existing Data Conversions/ Migrations New Data Loads Training and Documentation Central, Distributed and Network Infrastructure Sets of Installation and Implementation Services Cutover/ Transfer to Production Operational Functions and Processes Parallel Runs New Business Processes Reporting and Analysis Facilities Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services Application Hosting and Management Services Acquired and Customised Software Products
  49. 49. Solution Implementation Stages October 7, 2018 49 Idea or Business Concept Initial Discovery Requirements Elicitation Outline Solution Design Decision to Proceed Design Review And Approval Development Organisation Change Detailed Solution Design Initiate Implementation Implementation Planning Deployment Planning Data Migration Testing Transition To Support Parallel Run Hypercare Interval Documentation and Training Process Definition and Changes Cutover To Production Operation and Use Evolve and Change Component Procurement/ Acquisition Infrastructure Commissioning
  50. 50. Journey From Solution Idea To Operation And Use • The solution implementation journey from initial concept to operation and use is never simple October 7, 2018 50 Compromise Options Strategy Exploration Workaround Concession Operation And UseIdea Implementation Transition to Production Training
  51. 51. Solution Design Scope October 7, 2018 51 What Should the Scope of the Design Be? Scope Scope Scope OR OR
  52. 52. Solution Implementation Stages • What should the solution design encompass? • What should the solution design included to ensure that the solution will be implementable, operable and usable? • Knowing the actual solution scope means being able to estimate effectively and accurately and know the cost, time, resources and risks in implementing the solution October 7, 2018 52
  53. 53. Mapping The Solution Scope To The Solution Implementation Stages October 7, 2018 53 What Should the Solution Scope Be To Achieve the Required Solution Implementation? Solution Implementation Stages Solution Scope
  54. 54. Solution Design Scope October 7, 2018 54 This Is What The Implementation of the Solution Will Ultimately Cost The Solution Design Should Include All The Elements Needed To Accurately Quantify The Solution Implementation Costs, Resources and Time
  55. 55. Solution Design Scope • Likely scope of complete solution • If elements of the solution scope are omitted then the solution design will not be complete October 7, 2018 55 New Business Processes Sets of Installation and Implementation Services Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services New Data Loads Parallel Runs Acquired and Customised Software Products Existing Data Conversions/ Migrations Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure Cutover/ Transfer to Production Application Hosting and Management Services Changes to Existing Business Processes Reporting and Analysis Facilities Information Storage Facilities New Custom Developed Applications System Integrations/ Data Transfers/ Exchanges Changes to Existing Systems Training and Documentation Operational Functions and Processes Organisational Changes New Business Processes Sets of Installation and Implementation Services Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services New Data Loads Parallel Runs Acquired and Customised Software Products Existing Data Conversions/ Migrations Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure Cutover/ Transfer to Production Application Hosting and Management Services Changes to Existing Business Processes Reporting and Analysis Facilities Information Storage Facilities New Custom Developed Applications System Integrations/ Data Transfers/ Exchanges Changes to Existing Systems Training and Documentation Operational Functions and Processes Organisational Changes
  56. 56. Solution Delivery Costs – Cost Committed And Cost Incurred • Most solution delivery costs are embedded and committed after the solution design has been completed • The embedded costs will just be incurred during subsequent delivery stages • If the solution design is not accurate and complete then the costs will not be understood or represented correctly October 7, 2018 56
  57. 57. Solution Architecture and Design Science October 7, 2018 57
  58. 58. Design Science And Solution Architecture – Key Questions • Can design science principles be applied to solution architecture in a commercial context? • Is there a commercial and business benefit to applying design science in a business environment • Can the rigour of an academic-derived process be used in a business environment? • Can it be adapted to suit the required flexibility and dynamism outside the academic world? • Can the business and commercial environment adopt the required rigour of a design science process? October 7, 2018 58
  59. 59. Design Science And Solution Architecture – Key Questions • Using a rigorous scientific approach add cost to the solution design process but improves solution quality • The application of DSR-IS must be a means to an end – better solution quality – and not an end in itself – an incentive for the design function is to become large • A large design function can create work for itself to justify its size and existence and so the potential value-adding benefits of DSR-IS can be lost − Need to avoid the problems of Conway’s Law - https://www.slideshare.net/alanmcsweeney/conways-law- cognitive-diversity-organisation-transformation-and-solution- design-66522207 October 7, 2018 59
  60. 60. Types Of Solution Design Activities • Two broad types of solution design activities: 1. Design of commercial products for sale and supply to customers 2. Design of solutions within organisations • While design science approach and principles can be applied to both types of design activities, it is particularly applicable to the design of commercial solutions • Internal organisation solutions include commercial products October 7, 2018 60
  61. 61. Design Science And Solution Architecture • Solution architecture involves creativity during the solution design process • Creativity is difficult to define and apply rigorously • There are tools and approaches to channel and direct creativity October 7, 2018 61
  62. 62. Problems With Solution Design • Soft organisational information can be difficult to identify and thus incorporate into the solution design • Any solution operates in an organisational context − Understanding this context is important to ensure the success of the solution • Soft information can include the way information − Many solutions do not meet user needs, especially as these change over time − Many solutions require additional external manual workarounds to operate successfully − Many solutions are difficult to maintain and evolve to incorporate changes − Many solutions are difficult to reuse − Many solutions are hard to integrate with other systems October 7, 2018 62
  63. 63. Spectrum of Solution Delivery Failures and Successes October 7, 2018 63 Complete Solution Success: On-time, On-budget And Delivering Specified Benefits Solution Delivery Late And/Or Over Budget More Expensive to Operate And Support Than Planned Or Expected Performance And/Or Operational Problems Functionality Delivered Does Not Meet Business Requirements Significant Rework Or Replacement Required Solution Largely Unused And/Or Unusable Complete Solution Failure: Cancelled, Unused, Rejected Not What Is Wanted Or What Was Required/ Envisaged Not All Specified Business Benefits and Savings Not Delivered Solution Has Reduced Functionality Requiring Workarounds
  64. 64. Spectrum of Solution Delivery Failures and Successes • Solution delivery success and failure are not binary options: there is a spectrum of outcomes between complete success and complete failure • Complete solution delivery success is as infrequent as complete failure • Getting the architecture and design right puts the solution delivery project on a solid foundation and maximises the likelihood of success • Getting the architecture and design wrong puts the solution delivery project on an unstable foundation and negatively impacts on the deliverability of the solution • The discipline of design science can improve the quality of solution designs October 7, 2018 64
  65. 65. Design Science And Solution Architecture • A key element of the application and use of Design Science is the management of knowledge – problem knowledge and solution knowledge − This allows knowledge to be reused • This means that the solution architecture function must incorporate effective knowledge management – knowledge storage, sharing, use and constant maintenance • This requires good management of the solution architecture function October 7, 2018 65
  66. 66. Being Good At Solution Design Means … • Solutions are defined, designed and delivered in a reliable, stable and innovative way to ensure that cost, time, required functionality and quality are constantly optimised to meet the needs of the business • Good solution design means being aware of all the options and selecting the most appropriate one subject to all constraints • Good solution design means avoiding all the conscious and unconscious biases that lead to bad solutions • Doing the right things and doing them the right way October 7, 2018 66
  67. 67. Solution Design Process October 7, 2018 67 Initial Concept Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Formal Statement Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Stakeholder Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Architecture Design and Specification Elicit Stakeholder Requirements Formalise Stakeholder Requirements Define Solution Requirements Analyse Solution Requirements Define Solution Architecture and Design Analyse, Evaluate and Refine Solution Architecture Implementation Project Initial Architecture Review and Options
  68. 68. Solution Design Process • Each stage uses the output from the previous stage as an input • Detail is refined, extended and elaborated on in successive stages October 7, 2018 68 Initial Concept Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Formal Statement Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Stakeholder Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Architecture Design and Specification Implementation Project Initial Architecture Review and Options
  69. 69. Solution Design Process Stage Scope Initial Concept Of Need/ Goal/ Objective The business have an idea for a solution based on an apparent need to solve a problem, to do what is currently not possible, to react or respond to an external demand or to be able to achieve a new objective. Formal Statement Of Need/ Goal/ Objective This formalises the initial concept to introduce greater consistency and detail. It serves to understand the business, objectives, purposes and potential organisational impacts. It describes what the ideal solution will do. It also identifies the high-level potential system impacts. Initial Architecture Review and Options This uses the formal statement of need to create an initial high-level view of the overall solution, its new and existing systems and applications components, the required functionality, their interfaces, the required processes and the business functions impacted. This provides a container for the requirements and a vision for the solution. Stakeholder Requirements Collection and Specification This uses this initial architectural review output in a structured way to elicit and formalise the set of stakeholder requirements across the dimensions of functionality and processes. Solution Requirements Collection and Specification The solution requirements specification is a fuller, more detailed and elaborated set of solution requirements encompassing all the solution components. This includes the requirements explicitly identified by stakeholders and the implied requirements. Solution Architecture Design and Specification This is the detailed solution specification derived from the stakeholder and solution requirements. Implementation Project This uses the detailed solution specification to act as an input to project definition and to create a realistic implementation plan, schedule, set of costs and required resources. October 7, 2018 69
  70. 70. Solution Design Process • There is a decision point after each stage where a decision is made if it is worthwhile to proceed to the next stage October 7, 2018 70 Initial Concept Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Formal Statement Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Stakeholder Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Architecture Design and Specification Implementation Project Initial Architecture Review and Options Decision Points
  71. 71. Solution Design Process • Not all concepts make it all the way to implementation • Process needs to accommodate this • Do as little as possible to achieve as much as possible to make an informed decision on whether and how to proceed to the next stage in the solution journey October 7, 2018 71 Initial Concept Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Formal Statement Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Stakeholder Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Architecture Design and Specification Implementation Project Initial Architecture Review and Options
  72. 72. Solution Design Process - Iterations • Solution design process is not necessarily linear • Stages can be iterated a number of times to different levels of detail October 7, 2018 72 Initial Concept Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Formal Statement Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Stakeholder Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Architecture Design and Specification Implementation Project Initial Architecture Review and Options
  73. 73. Mapping Solution Design Process to DSR-IS Process October 7, 2018 73 Initial Concept Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Formal Statement Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Stakeholder Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Architecture Design and Specification Implementation Project Initial Architecture Review and Options Awareness Of The Problem Suggestion Development of Design Evaluation of Design Conclusion
  74. 74. Mapping Solution Design Process to DSR-IS Process • The DSR process can be applied standard solution design process • What works in an academic environment can be applied, with care, to a commercial setting October 7, 2018 74
  75. 75. Architectural Patterns And Research Techniques October 7, 2018 75
  76. 76. Architectural Patterns • Architectural patterns are template solutions to recurring types of problems − Not all problems are they same but there can be sufficient similarity to allow knowledge reuse • The pattern describes the problem and the core of the solution to that problem • Patterns demonstrate and communicate short-cuts solution models • Patterns do not contain detailed implementation-specifics • The use of patterns can reduce design effort October 7, 2018 76
  77. 77. Solution Design Techniques • If you are stuck at any stage in the solution analysis and design process, use brainstorming to create a new solution concept by first creating a large number of ideas that are then evaluated on their usefulness • If conventional thinking is not yielding results, consider alternative or unusual ideas or a combination of ideas • Redefine the problem scope and statement after an initial review • Conduct a rigorous cost-benefit analyst to determine if the envisioned expenditure justifies the expected benefits • Analyse existing solutions to determine if they can be applied when the problem becomes more complex or whether different solutions are required • Restructure ill-structured problems by identifying and prioritising the key problem objectives and clarifying any constraints. Restate the problem in formal and precise terms October 7, 2018 77
  78. 78. Solution Design Techniques • Break down the complex problem into smaller constituent problems to create manageable problems that can be worked on individually • Develop the solution to a complex problem in an incremental and iterative manner • Identify tools and techniques applicable to the problem based on analysis of existing documentation • Look at the problem from different and unorthodox perspectives in order to identify new dimensions to the solution • Create a library of ideas generated over multiple solution design exercises so they can be reviewed to determine their suitability for future exercises • Examine the possibility that a solution or solution approach to a problem in one problem area can be applied or adapted or extrapolated to a different problem October 7, 2018 78
  79. 79. Solution Design Techniques • Start with an simple solution first and then expand its complexity • Detail the desired end solution state (end state) and the start problem state (start state) and analyse the differences between the two states. Look for methods that can be employed in narrowing the difference between the two states • Understand and predict the behaviour of the designed solution without having to build it. Explore alternative designs for the solution. The behaviour of complex solutions may be difficult to understand. • Identify problems that are similar to the current problem. Understand the solution approaches, concepts and principles used for solving these similar problems and apply this knowledge to the solution of current problem October 7, 2018 79
  80. 80. Solution Design Techniques • Explore the option that a solution or solution approach to a problem in one discipline or domain can be applied in or adapted to the current problem • Divide the given complex solution design into smaller problems that can form the building blocks for solving the original problem • Identify and carry out the next feasible task that can contribute to the solution of the problem resolution and solution design and let the succeeding tasks emerge • Find and combine partial solutions to parts of the research problem to form the entire solution • Develop a solution to the problem through iterations of system development, observation and refinement October 7, 2018 80
  81. 81. Solution Design Techniques • Demonstrate that the solution is implementable and valid. Creating a prototype of a solution for a problem can be used to show that the solution is implementable. Testing of the solution can demonstrate the validity of the solution • Use simulation to evaluate and validate the solution to the problem October 7, 2018 81
  82. 82. Summary • Design Science principles can be applied to the solution design process within solution architecture to improve the rigour and accuracy of solution designs • The application of Design Science must be a means to an end – better solution quality – and not an end in itself – an incentive for the design function is to become large • Knowledge management – problem knowledge and solution knowledge – is at the core of the application of design science principles • Knowledge management requires good management of the solution architecture function October 7, 2018 82
  83. 83. October 7, 2018 83 More Information Alan McSweeney http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney

×