Business process analysis and design – importance of having a common language between business and it

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Provide an introduction to process design/specification and the potential benefits of using a visual process design approach such as BPMN to enable business and IT users understand how process should operate

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Business process analysis and design – importance of having a common language between business and it

  1. 1. Business Process Analysis and Design – Importance of Having a Common Language Between Business and IT Alan McSweeney
  2. 2. March 25, 2011 2 Objectives • Provide an introduction to process design/specification and the potential benefits of using a visual process design approach such as BPMN to enable business and IT users understand how process should operate
  3. 3. March 25, 2011 3 Business Process Analysis/Design • There is a continuum from business process analysis and design to business process development and implementation to business process operation and management • Processes exist to implement requirements • Processes define the functionality to be provided by systems • Processes also link the functionality of the systems to external manual operational components • Processes govern the development and implementation work Business Requirements Processes Define How Systems Should Operate Processes Govern Solution Design, Development. Implementation Processes Deliver on Business Requirements
  4. 4. March 25, 2011 4 Process • A process describes a sequence or flow of activities within an organisation with the objective of performing work • Process best depicted graphically containing flow elements - set of activities, events, gateways and sequence flows - that define the execution of the process
  5. 5. March 25, 2011 5 Complete View of Systems and Processes External Manual Interaction External Manual Interaction External Manual Interaction External Manual Interaction Extended Application System Component System Component System Component External Component External Component External Component Core Application
  6. 6. March 25, 2011 6 Complete View of Systems and Processes System Component System Component System Component External Component External Component External Component Automated Process Automated Process Automated Process External Manual Interaction External Manual Interaction Manual Process Manual Process External Manual Interaction External Manual Interaction Manual Process Manual Process
  7. 7. March 25, 2011 7 Combination of Automated and Manual Processes Automated Process Automated Process Automated Process Manual Process Manual Process Manual Process Manual Process Extended Application Core Application
  8. 8. March 25, 2011 8 Complete View of Systems and Processes • Overall solution operates with a mix of automated and manual processes in a structured or ad-hoc manner o deliver the required results • Understanding the overall set of processes and their operation is crucial to successful results • Need to see the entire picture to understand how a solution should operate − Systems/applications are just one part of this universe • Unambiguous definition of processes is required • Processes that are to be automated define the scope of the development and implementation work
  9. 9. March 25, 2011 9 Solution Design and Implementation Sequence Business Plan Business Need Business Benefits Requirements Definition Process Design Solution Architecture and Design Technical and Detailed Design Implementation Defines where the business wants to go Business need identifies solutions that will allow delivery of plan Defines the benefits to be achieved by the solution Defines the detailed requirements of the solution Defines the processes that will be implemented by the solution Defines the solution design to implement the processes Creates a detailed technical design for implementation Implements the detailed design
  10. 10. March 25, 2011 10 Solution Design and Implementation Sequence Business Plan Business Need Business Benefits Requirements Definition Process Design Solution Architecture and Design Technical and Detailed Design Implementation You Can Iterate Through These Steps Multiple Times, Refining Detail Each Stage
  11. 11. March 25, 2011 11 Need a Single Language – Avoid the Tower of Babel and Project Failure Business User Business/ Process Analyst Solution Architect Technical Architect/ Designer ? Developer Team ? ? ? ? ? !?
  12. 12. March 25, 2011 12 Weaknesses in Business Analysis Capabilities and Competencies at the Root of Many Project Failures Business Needs Not Met Opportunities Lost Investment Wasted Inadequate Business Case, Undefined Problem/Need Business Benefits Not Measured Poor Analysis Practices Business Requirements Not Captured Poor Requirements Poor Strategic Alignment Poor Focus on Business Needs Inadequate Resource Allocation and Prioritisation Inadequate Business Involvement Poor Solution Design Inadequately Explored Solution Options Solution Design Not Aligned to Business Needs Large Project, Complex, Difficult Changes and Processes Large Project Team and Multiple Stakeholders Size/Capacity/ Complexity Uncertainly/ Ambiguity Unproven Technology Dynamic, Changing Environment
  13. 13. March 25, 2011 13 Analysis-Related Causes of Failures Business Needs Not Met Opportunities Lost Investment Wasted Inadequate Business Case, Undefined Problem/Need Business Benefits Not Measured Poor Analysis Practices Business Requirements Not Captured Poor Requirements Poor Strategic Alignment Poor Focus on Business Needs Inadequate Resource Allocation and Prioritisation Inadequate Business Involvement Poor Solution Design Inadequately Explored Solution Options Solution Design Not Aligned to Business Needs Large Project, Complex, Difficult Changes and Processes Large Project Team and Multiple Stakeholders Size/Capacity/ Complexity Uncertainly/ Ambiguity Unproven Technology Dynamic, Changing Environment
  14. 14. March 25, 2011 14 Smooth Flow From Requirements to Processes to Design and Implementation Business User Business/ Process Analyst Solution Architect Technical Architect/ Designer This is What I Want The System to Do I Understand. These Are The Processes Needed to Meet the Requirements Developer Team This is The Design of The Overall System I Understand The Processes You Have Described This is The Detail of The Implementation of The Solution This is The Solution Being Developed The Solution Being Developed Delivers the Required Processes The Solution is What I Want
  15. 15. March 25, 2011 15 Who Designs Processes? • There can be multiple inconsistent approaches to designing processes, done by − End users − Business unit managers − Business analysts − Process analysts − System analysts − Technical team leads − Developers
  16. 16. March 25, 2011 16 What Can Go Wrong With Process Design? • Inconsistent or ambiguous process design notation/ language • Uncertainty/lack of specificity • Branching/decision points not identified • Complexity missing/not captured • Too much inappropriate detail • Using tool or approach that does not work • Lack of understanding by business users
  17. 17. March 25, 2011 17 Ensuring Process Design/Specification Works • Convince skeptical business and IT users that it can deliver real benefits • Adopt an integrated approach to using process design/specification including a set of internal organisation standards • Training and mentoring • Active involvement, monitoring, management
  18. 18. March 25, 2011 18 Need to Balance Process Design/Specification Complexity Simplicity – Easy for Business Users to Understand • Consider maintaining two levels of process design/ specification − High-level for business users − Detailed low-level for development/implementation • Graphics are better than pure text Complexity – Unambiguous Detail for Implementation and Operation
  19. 19. March 25, 2011 19 Problems with Process Design/Specification • Absence of recognition of the importance of process design/specification within solution design lifecycle • Focus on just information technology aspects of process design and operation rather than the entire process landscape • Focus on just IT doing the process design • Absence of structured consistent approach to process design • Absence of process representation graphical approach • Absence of skills, experience or training • Absence of partnership between business and IT function
  20. 20. March 25, 2011 20 Business Process Analysis/Design Business needs to understand what processes it is agreeing to, how these processes will deliver requirements, how the processes will operate, who will be responsible and what resources will be required IT needs to understand what is to be developed, delivered and implemented unambiguously Need to have a process definition and representation approach and language that fulfils both requirements at the same time
  21. 21. March 25, 2011 21 Business Processes • Business process design defines what is to be done and who is to do it − IT can translate this into system details, the “how” • Delivery of an overall process can be a mix of automated, system lead and manual activities and tasks • Process design is a key element of overall solution design and implementation • Processes turn the requirements into operational facts
  22. 22. March 25, 2011 22 Process Design • Need to have a process design language and approach that fulfils the requirements of both IT and the business at the same time • Need a process design language and approach that can be understood by the business and provides the rigour required of the IT • Process design can be as simple as a narrative, flowchart or some other graphical representation • Need to balance the requirements of the business and IT − Simplicity and ease of use promotes ease of understanding − Ambiguity/lack of detail leads to misunderstanding • Too much complexity - takes time, alienates the business, loses momentum, costs a lot, delays decisions, induces analysis paralysis • To little complexity - causes doubt, can lead to a disconnect between what the business thinks it is getting and what IT delivers
  23. 23. March 25, 2011 23 Business Process Landscape • Business process design is one element of the business process landscape − Design − Implementation and operation − Management • Continuum from business process analysis and design to business process development and implementation to business process operation and management − Can look for a solution that crosses entire continuum − However, it is very, very difficult to go to fully automated BPM in one step − Substantial investment with diminishing returns • Need to select an approach that delivers most benefits and need to approach delivery incrementally
  24. 24. March 25, 2011 24 Spectrum of Process Design, Implementation and Operation Options Consistent Approach to Business Process Analysis and Description Complete Automated Business Process Management Consistent Use of a Standardised Approach and Language to Unambiguously Describe and Define Business Processes Execution, Measurement, Monitoring and Control of Both Automated and Non-automated Business Processes to Achieve Consistent, Targeted Results Aligned With The Organisation’s Strategic Goals Incremental Set of Steps To Achieve: •Maintenance of Reusable Process Library •Linkage from Process design to Publication and Implementation •Process Management •Operational Process Measurement •Process Reporting and Optimisation
  25. 25. March 25, 2011 25 Process Design/Specification Options • Spectrum of options from simple to complex − Paper/whiteboards/flip-charts/Post-It notes − PowerPoint/Word/Excel/other tool − Visio (flow charting) − Visio Using BPMN Add-on − BPA tool − BPMS tool
  26. 26. March 25, 2011 26 Process Design, Implementation and Operation Journey Consistent Approach to Business Process Analysis and Description Complete Automated Business Process Management Implementation Time, Cost, Resource Requirements, Complexity, Difficulty, Risks Low High You Have to Start Here Before You Can End Here
  27. 27. March 25, 2011 27 Process Design, Implementation and Operation Journey • Moving to a state of Complete Automated Business Process Management is very, very hard • You need to start with a structured approach to describing processes that works and that is accepted and used by all participants and stakeholders − Essential building block and foundation for success − Start small to deliver benefits in a short period of time and build on success − Focus on creating understanding and approach
  28. 28. March 25, 2011 28 Elements of a Process Design/Documentation • Process Triggers – what initiates the process • Process Outcomes – what are the expected outcomes of the process • Pre-Conditions – what must have happened before the process can start • Pre-Requisites – what must be in place before the process can start • Inputs – what the process needs to operate • Processing – what the process does • Dependencies – what the process is dependent on • Outputs – what the process generates • Timelines – what are the expected process times • Reporting Requirements/Performance Measures – how the process should be measured and what measures should be generated • Roles and Responsibilities – who is involved in the process • Skills and Capabilities – what skills are required of the process participants • Requirements Being Delivered (Traceability) – what business requirements are being fulfilled by the process • Issues Identified/Outstanding – any issues not clarified • Assumptions – any assumptions made in the process design
  29. 29. March 25, 2011 29 Business Process Management, Governance, Implementation and Operational Framework – Landscape Process Library Operational Process Usage Data Business Process 1 Business Process 2 Business Process 3 Process Strategy Design and Development Business Process Design and Development Process Usage Analysis Business Process Modification Process KPI Definition Process Templates Process Publication
  30. 30. March 25, 2011 30 Business Process Management, Governance, Implementation and Operational Framework – Landscape Process Library Operational Process Usage Data Business Process 1 Business Process 2 Business Process 3 Process Strategy Design and Development Business Process Design and Development Process Usage Analysis Business Process Modification Process KPI Definition Process Templates Process Publication
  31. 31. March 25, 2011 31 Business Process Management, Governance, Implementation and Operational Framework – Logical Components Strategy, Management and Governance Design and Implementation Optimisation Operation and Measurement Technology Infrastructure
  32. 32. March 25, 2011 32 Business Process Management, Governance, Implementation and Operational Framework Strategy, Management and Governance Design and Implementation Optimisation Operation and Measurement Technology Infrastructure Consistent Approach to Business Process Analysis and Description Complete Automated Business Process Management Implementation Time, Cost, Resource Requirements, Complexity, Risks Low High Start With Realistically Achievable Objectives … … Before Trying to Move to an All- encompassing Solution
  33. 33. March 25, 2011 33 Focus on the Objective … • … Which is to develop an approach to process design and specification that meets both business and technology stakeholder requirements
  34. 34. March 25, 2011 34 Process Representation Diagrams, Maps and Models • Diagrams − Process diagram often depicts simple notation of the basic workflow of a process − Depicts the major elements of a process flow, but omits the minor details which are not necessary for understanding the overall flow of work • Maps − More precision than a diagram − More detail about process and important relationships to other elements such as performers (actors), events, results − Provide a comprehensive view of all of the major components of the process • Models − Represents the performance of what is being modelled − Needs greater precision, data about the process and about the factors that affect its performance − Often done using tools that provide simulation and reporting capability to analyse and understand the process
  35. 35. March 25, 2011 35 Process Attributes and Characteristics • Inputs/Outputs • Events/Results) • Value Add • Roles/Organisations • Data/Information • Probabilities • Queuing • Transmission Time • Wait Time • Arrival Patterns/Distributions • Costs (indirect and direct • Entry Rules • Exit Rules • Branching Rules • Join Rules • Work/Handling Time • Batching • Servers (number of people available to perform tasks) • Attributes and characteristics that describe the properties, behaviour, purpose and other elements of the process • Process attributes are captured in a tool in order to organise, analyse and manage an organisation’s portfolio of processes
  36. 36. March 25, 2011 36 Purpose of Process Modelling • A model is rarely a complete and full representation of the actual process − Focus on representing those attributes of the process that support continued analysis from one or more perspectives • Objective is to create a representation of the process that describes it accurately and sufficiently for the task at hand − Understanding the business process through the creation of the model − Creating a visible representation and establishing a commonly shared perspective − Analysing process performance and defining and validating changes • “To Be” model is an expression of the target process state and specifies the requirements for the supporting resources that enable effective business operations
  37. 37. March 25, 2011 37 Purpose of Process Representation Models • Models are simplified representations that facilitate understanding of that which is being studied and making decisions about it • Mechanism for understanding, documenting, analysing, designing, automating and measuring business activity as well as measuring the resources that support the activity and the interactions between the business activity and its environment • For process managed business, process models are the primary means for − Measuring performance against standards − Determining opportunities for change − Expressing the desired end state preceding a change effort
  38. 38. March 25, 2011 38 Reasons for Process Design and Modelling • To document an existing process clearly • To use as a training aide • To use as an assessment against standards and compliance requirements • To understand how a process will perform under varying loads or in response to some anticipated change • As the basis for analysis in identifying opportunities for improvement • To design a new process or new approach for an existing process • To provide a basis for communication and discussion • To describe requirements for a new business operation
  39. 39. March 25, 2011 39 Benefits of Process Design and Modelling • Models are relatively fast, easy and inexpensive to complete • Models are easy to understand (when compared to other forms of documentation) • Models provide a baseline for measurement • Models facilitate process simulation and impact analysis • Models leverage various standards and a common set of techniques
  40. 40. March 25, 2011 40 Process Design and Modelling Standards and Notations • Range of number of process design, modelling and notational standards and techniques • Models provide a language for describing and communicating as-is and to-be process information − Like all new languages must be learned • Benefits of using a standards based approach − A common symbology, language and technique which facilitate communication and understanding − Standards-based models provide common and consistently defined processes definitions which eases the process of design, analysis and measurement and facilitates model reuse − An ability to leverage modelling tools based on common standards and notations − An ability to import and export models created in various tools for
  41. 41. March 25, 2011 41 Process Representation Standards and Notations • Some commonly or less commonly used approaches − Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) − Flow Charting − Swim Lanes − Event Process Chain (EPC) − Value Chain − Unified Modelling Language (UML) − IDEF-0 − LOVEM-E − SIPOC − Systems Dynamics − Value Stream Mapping
  42. 42. March 25, 2011 42 Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) • Widely used and supported standard for business process modelling • Provides a graphical notation for specifying business processes in a Business Process Diagram (BPD) • Uses a flowcharting technique similar to activity diagrams from Unified Modelling Language (UML) • Can output BPMN to Business Process Execution Language (BPEL - BPEL4WS) − Standard executable language for specifying interactions with Web Services • Emerging standard
  43. 43. March 25, 2011 43 Flow Charting • Simple type of diagram that represents a process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds and their order by connecting these with arrows • Widely used
  44. 44. March 25, 2011 44 Swim Lanes • Swim lanes are an addition to the boxes and arrows process flow view of flow-charting that show how the work flows across organisational units or is handed-off from one role to another • Overall process is divided into lanes, with one lane for each person, group or subprocess • Processes and decisions are grouped by placing them in lanes • Arranged horizontally or vertically and are used for grouping the sub-processes according to the responsibilities of those swim lanes
  45. 45. March 25, 2011 45 Event Process Chain (EPC) • An EPC is an ordered graph of events and functions • Provides various connectors that allow alternative and parallel execution of processes • Tasks (activities) are followed by outcomes (events) of the task, developing a process model • EPC method was developed within the framework of ARIS (BPM toolset) • EPC elements − Event - describe under what circumstances a function or a process works or which state a function or a process results in − Function - model the tasks or activities − Organisation Unit - determine which person or organisation within the structure of an enterprise is responsible for a specific function − Information, Material or Resource Object - portray objects in the real world − Logical Connector - logical relationships between elements in the control flow − Logical Relationships - Branch/Merge, Fork/Join and OR − Control Flow - connects events with functions, process paths or logical connectors creating chronological sequence and logical interdependencies between them − Information Flow - show the connection between functions and input or output data − Organisation Unit Assignment - show the connection between an organisation unit and the function it is responsible for − Process Path - show the connection from or to other processes
  46. 46. March 25, 2011 46 Value Chain • Value chain notation is used to demonstrate a single continuous flow from left to right of the sub-processes that directly contribute to producing value for the organisation’s customers (clients/constituents) • Value chain is a chain of activities for a firm operating in a specific industry • Chain of activities gives the products more added value than the sum of added values of all activities
  47. 47. March 25, 2011 47 Unified Modelling Language (UML) • UML provides a standard set of diagramming techniques and notations primarily for describing information systems requirements • Primarily used for systems analysis and design • Can use UML activity diagrams for business process modelling • UML can be very verbose • Very development and system oriented and not aimed at business users or overall set of processes needed to operate a system
  48. 48. March 25, 2011 48 IDEF-0 (Integration Definition for Function Modelling) • Function modelling methodology for describing manufacturing functions • Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) that was developed by the US Air Force for documenting manufacturing processes • Part of the IDEF family of modelling languages in software engineering − IDEF0 produces a function model that is structured representation of the functions, activities or processes − IDEF1 produces an information model that represents structure and semantics of information − IDEF2 produces a dynamics model that represents time-varying behavioural characteristics
  49. 49. March 25, 2011 49 LOVEM-E (Line of Visibility Engineering Method - Enhanced) • Notation set and a modelling technique that was developed as part of IBM’s Business Process Reengineering Methodology • Based on the process path management concept • Introduces concepts of the customer encounter and the collaborative nature of work between external and internal parties and the supporting information systems • Not widely used
  50. 50. March 25, 2011 50 SIPOC (Supplier, Input, Process, Output and Customer) • Style of process documentation used in Six Sigma
  51. 51. March 25, 2011 51 Systems Dynamics • Approach to understanding the behaviour of complex systems over time • Deals with internal feedback loops and time delays that affect the behaviour of the entire system • Systems Dynamics models are “activity on arrow” diagrams rather than “activity on node” diagrams • Useful in developing dynamic lifecycle type models that focus on the overall business system’s performance and the impact of changing the key variables that affect overall performance
  52. 52. March 25, 2011 52 Value Stream Mapping • Technique used in Lean Manufacturing • Expresses the physical environment and flow of materials and products in a manufacturing environment • Used to analyse the flow of materials and information currently required to bring a product or service
  53. 53. March 25, 2011 53 Process Modelling Quality • Most process analysis and design efforts require the use of models to describe what is happening during the process • Useful to have some standards and measures of quality as it relates to process modelling • Quality of model defined by its accuracy, amount of detail and completeness • Can have multiple versions or iterations of models are created over time to capture more detail and improve the quality of the model • During the modelling of a process, several disconnections, restrictions and/or barriers may become apparent • Items should also be noted on the model as well as any other information discovered that will help create a common understanding of the current state
  54. 54. March 25, 2011 54 Requirements of a Process Design Model • The business environment including the customers, suppliers, external events or market pressures that effect or interact with the process • The organisational structure which includes the hierarchical or functional view of the organisation and how the people work together (this information helps understand who the key decision makers are within the process) • The functional or departmental structure of the organisation which explains how the functions or departments work together in the process • The business rules which control the decisions that are made during the process and workflow • The activities or actions that take place within the process and who does those actions
  55. 55. March 25, 2011 55 Process Design and Definition Language • BPMN offers the most effective approach to process analysis, design and definition
  56. 56. March 25, 2011 56 BPMN as a Common Process Language • Two layers of complexity for business process design − Core set of BPMN process representation diagram elements − Extended set of BPMN process representation diagram elements • What BPMN is not: − Organisation structure design language − Data model and data flow design language – does contain some data modelling elements − System functional flow design language • BPMN diagrams can be complex − BPMN V2.0 (latest version) has a lot of elements − Keep it simple and easy to understand − Add appropriate complexity through refinement and drill-down − Focus on getting the process description right − Complexity and rigour of BPMN is related to the ability to create Business Process Execution Language (BPEL - BPEL4WS) – you probably do not intend to use this feature
  57. 57. March 25, 2011 57 Types of Process • Standard Process (Orchestration Process) defines the flow of activities between participants • Choreography - exchange of information (Messages) between participants
  58. 58. March 25, 2011 58 BPMN Language Structure BPMN Flow Objects Connectors Artifacts Swimlanes Activities Events Gateways Sequence Flows Message Flows Associations Text Annotation Group Pool Lane Data Data Objects Data Inputs Data Outputs Data Stores Data Associations
  59. 59. March 25, 2011 59 Swimlanes and Pools • Swim lanes are a visual means for organising and categorising process activities • Used to demonstrate hand-offs between functions/roles/business units • Show process sequence • Show cross-functional process flow − Pool – represents major participants in a process with separate pools for different organisations or major business units − Lane – contained within pools • Organise and categorise process activities within a pool according to function or role − All other BPMN diagram elements are placed within swimlanes and pools
  60. 60. March 25, 2011 60 Swimlanes and Pools • Good at showing who does what, when and in response to what • Adds a dimension not available in standard flow-charting • Shows responsibilities • Allows identification and elimination of duplicate tasks
  61. 61. March 25, 2011 61 Flow Objects Flow Objects Activities Events Gateways Task Sub-Process Transaction Start End Intermediate Exclusive Inclusive Parallel Complex
  62. 62. March 25, 2011 62 Flow Objects • Define the flow of the process − Activities - work performed within a business process • Task – unit of work • Sub-Process – a set of self-contained activities collapsed within process representation for ease of understanding • Transaction – a sub-process that must be completed or undone if not completed − Events - something that happens • Start – acts as a trigger for a process/sub-process and takes an input only • End – represents the result of a process/sub-process and generates an output only • Intermediate - represents something that happens between the start and end events − Gateways - determine splitting and merging of paths within process depending on the conditions • Exclusive – where the sequence slow can take only one of two or more alternative paths • Inclusive – where the sequence slow can take one, more than one or all of two or more alternative paths and results from paths must be subsequently merged • Parallel – multiple parallel paths are defined • Complex – complex behaviours can be defined
  63. 63. March 25, 2011 63 Flow Objects - Graphics Task Sub-Process Transaction Start End Intermediate Exclusive Inclusive Parallel Complex
  64. 64. March 25, 2011 64 Activities – Detailed Specification • Classified by − Task Type • Service – automated application • Send – send a message to an external participant • Receive – wait for a Message to arrive from an external Participant • User – human performs the task with the assistance of an application and scheduled through a task manager • Script – executed by a business process engine • Manual – not managed by any business process engine. • Business Rule – provide input to a Business Rules Engine and get the output of calculations − Process or Sub-Process • Embedded – sub-process embedded within a process • Event – triggered by an event • Called – pre-defined process that can be called − Looping • Simple • Multiple in Parallel • Multiple in Sequence − Calling – External Sub-Process − Transaction Backout (“Compensation”)
  65. 65. March 25, 2011 65 Activities Looping Symbol Task Border Shows if Called/Sub- Process Top Left Symbol Identifies Task Type Rewind Symbol Used to Indicate Transaction Backout (“Compensation”)
  66. 66. March 25, 2011 66 Activities – Graphics for Combinations of Task Type and Loop Type No Loop Simple Loop Multiple in Parallel Multiple in Sequence Simple/Not Specified Service Send Receive User Script Manual Business Rule
  67. 67. March 25, 2011 67 Activities – Graphics for Sub-Processes Embedded Sub- Process Embedded Transaction Sub- Process Embedded Sub- Process Triggered by Event Embedded Called Sub-Process No Event Specified Message Error Escalation Compensation (Backout of Transaction) Conditional Signal Multiple
  68. 68. March 25, 2011 68 Events • Simple − Start − Intermediate − End • Triggered − Start − Intermediate • Inward Direction “Catching” • Outward Direction “Throwing” − End • Triggers (Not All Apply to All Events) − Message − Timer − Conditional − Signal − Multiple − Multiple in Parallel − Error − Escalation − Compensation (Backout of Transaction) − Link − Cancel − Terminate
  69. 69. March 25, 2011 69 Events Single Light Border Indicates Start Event Double Light Border and Hollow Symbol Indicates Intermediate Inwardly Directed Event Single Dark Border Indicates End Event Symbol Indicates Trigger Type Double Light Border and Filled Symbol Indicates Intermediate Outwardly Directed Event
  70. 70. March 25, 2011 70 Events - Graphics for Combinations of Type, Direction and Trigger Start Intermediate (Inward Direction “Catching”) Intermediate (Outward Direction “Throwing”) End No Trigger Message Timer Conditional Signal Multiple Multiple in Parallel Error Escalation Compensation (Backout of Transaction) Link Cancel Terminate
  71. 71. March 25, 2011 71 Gateways • Control the execution of the process • Do not represent work being done • Gateways represent decisions/branching (exclusive, inclusive, and complex), merging, forking and joining • Parallel gateways synchronise/combine and create parallel flows • Event-based gateways represents a branching point in the process where the alternative paths that follow the gateway are based on events that occur
  72. 72. March 25, 2011 72 Gateways - Graphics for Types Inclusive (AND) Exclusive (OR) or Complex Parallel Exclusive Event Start Exclusive Event Start Parallel Event
  73. 73. March 25, 2011 73 Sample Parallel Gateway
  74. 74. March 25, 2011 74 Artifacts • Used to add information into the process model/diagram • Make the process model/diagram more readable − Data Object – shows which data is required by or produced in an activity − Group – used to group different activities to highlight sections − Annotation – adds text to a diagram
  75. 75. March 25, 2011 75 Artifacts Grouping of Process Elements Annotation Comment
  76. 76. March 25, 2011 76 Data • One requirement of process design/modelling is to be able to model the items (physical or information items) that are created, manipulated, and used during the execution of a process − Data inputs − Data outputs − Data stores – persistent − Collections – set of data, input or outputs
  77. 77. March 25, 2011 77 Data Data Data Collection Data Input Data Collection Input Data Output Data Collection Output Data Store
  78. 78. March 25, 2011 78 Extended BPMN Attributes • BPMN diagram elements have many extended attributes that are not part of the core process definition • These are used when creating a process repository • Used when exporting BPMN process to XML • Activity attributes − isForCompensation − loopCharacteristics − Resources − SequenceFlow − InputOutputSpecification − Properties − BoundaryEventRefs − DataInputAssociations − DataOutputAssociations − StartQuantity − CompletionQuantity − …
  79. 79. March 25, 2011 79 BPMN Usage Options Consistent Approach to Business Process Analysis and Description Complete Automated Business Process Management Implementation Time, Cost, Resource Requirements, Complexity, Difficulty, Risks Low High Basic BPMN Processing Diagramming Allows You to Start Here BPMN Can Grow to Enable This
  80. 80. March 25, 2011 80 Sample Order Processing and Payment Authorisation Process Definition
  81. 81. March 25, 2011 81 Sample Mortgage Approval Process Definition
  82. 82. March 25, 2011 82 Sample Incident Management Process Definition
  83. 83. March 25, 2011 83 Sample Credit Review and Approval Process Definition
  84. 84. March 25, 2011 84 Sample Customer Quotation Request Process Definition
  85. 85. March 25, 2011 85 Sample Order Fulfilment Process Definition
  86. 86. March 25, 2011 86 Sample Bank Account Opening Process Definition
  87. 87. March 25, 2011 87 Summary • Process design/specification is a key element of solution design • Processes consist of both automated and manual components working together • A graphical process design/specification language is useful to represent processes and to assist in a common understanding by both business and IT • BPMN is the emerging process design/specification language • BPMN offers the rigour to create detailed process designs/specifications • BPMN can be just a process design/specification language or a can be part of a complete automated Business Process Management initiative
  88. 88. March 25, 2011 88 More Information Alan McSweeney alan@alanmcsweeney.com

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