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Modelling interactions: digital and physical – Part 2 – getting physical

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Modelling interactions:
digital and physical
Alan Dix
https://www.alandix.com/academic/talks/ICTCS-School-2021/
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
ICTA...

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
Part II – getting physical
physigrams
sensor-rich interactions and IoT


ICTAC 2021

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modelling physical things
have a go …
– what was hard or easy?
– did you need to include the environment?
physigrams
– mod...

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Modelling interactions: digital and physical – Part 2 – getting physical

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Lecture at ICTAC School 2021: 18th International Colloquium on Theoretical Aspects of Computing, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan, 1st September 2021.

https://www.alandix.com/academic/talks/ICTCS-School-2021/

The second part focuses on a specific area, the formal specification and analysis of systems that have both physical and digital aspects. This will incude using physigrams, a extension of finite state networks for describing interactions with physical devices such hand-held controllers. We will also look at the ways formal analuysis contributed to the design of a internet-enabled ‘cafe open’ sign – IoT in action!

Lecture at ICTAC School 2021: 18th International Colloquium on Theoretical Aspects of Computing, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan, 1st September 2021.

https://www.alandix.com/academic/talks/ICTCS-School-2021/

The second part focuses on a specific area, the formal specification and analysis of systems that have both physical and digital aspects. This will incude using physigrams, a extension of finite state networks for describing interactions with physical devices such hand-held controllers. We will also look at the ways formal analuysis contributed to the design of a internet-enabled ‘cafe open’ sign – IoT in action!

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Modelling interactions: digital and physical – Part 2 – getting physical

  1. 1. Modelling interactions: digital and physical Alan Dix https://www.alandix.com/academic/talks/ICTCS-School-2021/   ICTAC 2021
  2. 2.  Part II – getting physical physigrams sensor-rich interactions and IoT   ICTAC 2021
  3. 3. modelling physical things have a go … – what was hard or easy? – did you need to include the environment? physigrams – modelling the device ‘unplugged’ – connecting digital and physical IoT shop open sign – modelling human processes … including uncertainty
  4. 4. multiple feedback loops physical–logical mappings physical aspects knobs, dials, buttons, location, orientation virtual aspects screens, lights, buzzers, speakers (ii) physical effects (iii) virtual effects show message, turn light on motors, effectors (a) physical manipulation (i) sensed inputs logical system A B C (c) felt feedback (d)‘electronic’feedback (b) perceived state see message on screen resistance, ? physical sounds ? turn knob, press button effects on logical objects device physical environment D (iv) physical effects controlling external things (e) physical feedback notice light is on, kettle boils semantic feedback
  5. 5. multiple feedback loops physical aspects knobs, dials, buttons, location, orientation virtual aspects screens, lights, buzzers, speakers A (c) felt feedback (b) perceived state (a) physical manipulation turn knob, press button device
  6. 6. multiple feedback loops physical aspects knobs, dials, buttons, location, orientation virtual aspects screens, lights, buzzers, speakers logical system A (ii) physical effects motors, effectors (i) sensed inputs B (c) felt feedback physical–logical mappings (b) perceived state (a) physical manipulation turn knob, press button device
  7. 7. multiple feedback loops physical–logical mappings physical aspects knobs, dials, buttons, location, orientation virtual aspects screens, lights, buzzers, speakers (ii) physical effects motors, effectors (a) physical manipulation (i) sensed inputs logical system A B (iii) virtual effects show message, turn light on C (c) felt feedback (b) perceived state (d)‘electronic’feedback see message on screen resistance, ? physical sounds ? turn knob, press button device
  8. 8. multiple feedback loops physical–logical mappings physical aspects knobs, dials, buttons, location, orientation virtual aspects screens, lights, buzzers, speakers (ii) physical effects (iii) virtual effects show message, turn light on motors, effectors (a) physical manipulation (i) sensed inputs logical system A B C (c) felt feedback (d)‘electronic’feedback (b) perceived state see message on screen resistance, ? physical sounds ? turn knob, press button effects on logical objects device physical environment D (iv) physical effects controlling external things (e) physical feedback notice light is on, kettle boils
  9. 9. multiple feedback loops the GUI fallacy … semantic feedback is NOT enough physical–logical mappings physical aspects virtual aspects screens, lights, buzzers, speakers (ii) physical effects (iii) virtual effects show message, turn light on motors, effectors (a) physical manipulation (i) sensed inputs logical system A B C (c) felt feedback (d)‘electronic’feedback (b) perceived state see message on screen resistance, ? physical sounds ? turn knob, press button effects on logical objects device physical environment D (iv) physical effects controlling external things (e) physical feedback notice light is on, kettle boils semantic feedback knobs, dials, buttons, location, orientation
  10. 10. multiple feedback loops physical–logical mappings physical aspects knobs, dials, buttons, location, orientation virtual aspects screens, lights, buzzers, speakers (ii) physical effects (iii) virtual effects show message, turn light on motors, effectors (i) sensed inputs logical system B C (d)‘electronic’feedback see message on screen resistance, ? physical sounds ? (a) physical manipulation A (c) felt feedback (b) perceived state turn knob, press button effects on logical objects device physical environment D (iv) physical effects controlling external things (e) physical feedback notice light is on, kettle boils semantic feedback the GUI fallacy … semantic feedback is NOT enough
  11. 11. model physical device states the device ‘unplugged’ the device ‘unplugged’ switch UP DOWN user pushes switch up and down two visible … and feelable … states physigram
  12. 12. model logical system light OFF ON two states of the system
  13. 13. physical–logical mapping light OFF ON switch UP DOWN user pushes switch up and down
  14. 14. exposed state particularly easy to understand and use but not always 1–1 light OFF ON switch UP DOWN user pushes switch up and down mapping 1–1
  15. 15. controlled state
  16. 16. compliant interaction (1) system state visible through control (2) system and user have similar effects press down UP DOWN press up kettle switch system down system down BOILING Temp < 100 POWER OFF POWER ON system state
  17. 17. 19 bounce-back button OUT IN user pushes switch in bounce back computer OFF ON (a) (a) switch (a) (z)
  18. 18. 20 initial pressure on exposed state switch UP DOWN PART DOWN PART UP press down press down press up press up switch ‘gives’ switch ‘gives’ press down UP DOWN press up shorthand
  19. 19. time-dependent devices (continued pressure) 21 CENTRE IN LEFT IN RIGHT IN twist left twist right CENTRE OUT LEFT OUT RIGHT OUT twist left twist right pull out pull out pull out minidisk
  20. 20. 22 CENTRE LEFT RIGHT twist left (down) twist right (up) 1 down minidisk knob 2 3  (up)  (down) track selected 17 up up up up down down down
  21. 21. give it to designer
  22. 22. Tiree projects
  23. 23. Tiree Tech Wave
  24. 24. island projects – slow research Frasan - mobile heritage app OnSupply – renewable energy awareness Projected touch-table TireeConnect – island communication gossip is not enough! TireeDashboard General pattern understand – act – reflect … takes time
  25. 25. the chip van that tweets … … and the internet connected Open sign
  26. 26. prepare to open café open tidying up café empty arrive at café open café door close café doors go home café open
  27. 27. digital intervention – real IoT!
  28. 28. tidying up prepare to open prepare to open open sign off open sign on café open café open tidying up café empty (i) arrive at café café empty (a) forget sign (iii) open café doors (ii) switch on sign (b) remember sign (iv) switch off sign (v) close café doors (d) remember sign (c) forget sign (vi) go home
  29. 29. reliability of sensor definite yes definite no desirability of intervention definite not maybe definite yes uncertain ✔ ✗ ✔ ✗ ? ?
  30. 30. tidying up prepare to open prepare to open open sign off open sign on café open café open tidying up café empty (i) arrive at café café empty (a) forget sign (iii) open café doors (ii) switch on sign (b) remember sign (iv) switch off sign (v) close café doors (d) remember sign (c) forget sign (vi) go home
  31. 31. takeaways – physical–digital systems you can model them models need to encompass – physical interactions – digital interactions – aspects of external context (physical and social) embrace and understand uncertainty

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