H1 N1

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What do you know about swine flu, presentation .diagnosis , management , preventive tools

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H1 N1

  1. 1. The H1N1 flu virus Prof. Saad S Al-Ani Senior Pediatric Consultant Head of Pediatric Department Khorfakkan Hospital
  2. 2. Images of the H1N1 Influenza Virus
  3. 9. <ul><li>*The H1N1 flu virus – </li></ul><ul><li>also known as human swine influenza – is </li></ul><ul><li>a respiratory illness that affects the nose, throat and lungs . </li></ul><ul><li>This virus usually affects pigs , but has been transferred to humans </li></ul>What is it?
  4. 10. <ul><li>The H1N1 flu virus is a new strain of pandemic influenza which is different than the seasonal flu . People have no natural immunity to protect against this virus .   </li></ul>Key Facts on H1N1 Flu Virus
  5. 11. <ul><li>  The H1N1 flu virus emerged in April 2009 and surveillance of its spread shows that it is affecting more young and healthy people than the regular seasonal flu which normally affects seniors and young children . </li></ul>Key Facts on H1N1 Flu Virus
  6. 12. <ul><li>People with underlying medical conditions and pregnant women may be at a greater risk for severe illness </li></ul>Key Facts on H1N1 Flu Virus
  7. 13. <ul><li>The H1N1 flu virus is contagious and is spread the same way as regular seasonal influenza .   This happens when an infected person coughs or sneezes and their germs enter the nose, eyes, or throat of another person .   . </li></ul>How is it spread?
  8. 14. <ul><li>  The germs can also rest on hard surfaces like counters and doorknobs, and can be picked up on hands and transmitted to the respiratory system when someone touches their mouth and / or nose .   It is not possible to catch it by eating pork or pork products or through blood transfusions </li></ul>How is it spread?
  9. 15. <ul><li>More research is being done on how long a person can be infectious ( be able to spread the virus to others ) , but it is believed that this period is for one day before the onset of symptoms and continues for approximately seven days after symptoms have started . The time it takes between being infected and experiencing symptoms is between two and seven day   </li></ul>Contagiousness
  10. 16. <ul><li>Almost always * </li></ul><ul><li>Cough and fever </li></ul><ul><li>Common * </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle aches </li></ul><ul><li>Sore throat </li></ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Runny nose </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes * </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul>Symptoms
  11. 17. <ul><li>Testing for 2009 H1N1 influenza infection with real - time reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction ( rRT - PCR ) should be prioritized for persons with suspected or confirmed influenza requiring hospitalization and based on guidelines from local and state health departments </li></ul>Diagnosis
  12. 18. <ul><li>*Influenza antiviral medications can reduce the: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Severity and duration of influenza illness </li></ul><ul><li>2. Risk of influenza-related complications , </li></ul><ul><li>including severe illness and death. </li></ul>Influenza antiviral medications
  13. 19. <ul><li>* Most healthy persons who: </li></ul><ul><li>1.Develop an illness consistent with </li></ul><ul><li>uncomplicated influenza, </li></ul><ul><li>2.Appear to be recovering from influenza, </li></ul><ul><li>do not need antiviral medications for treatment or prophylaxis . </li></ul>Influenza antiviral medications
  14. 20. <ul><li>Persons presenting with suspected influenza and more severe symptoms such as evidence of lower respiratory tract infection or clinical deterioration should receive prompt empiric antiviral therapy , regardless of previous health or age. </li></ul>Influenza antiviral medications
  15. 21. <ul><li>Treatment, when indicated, should be initiated as early as possible because the benefits are greatest when started within the first 2 days of illness . </li></ul>
  16. 22. <ul><li>Some studies of hospitalized patients with seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza have suggested benefit of antiviral treatment even when treatment was started more than 48 hours after illness onset . </li></ul>
  17. 23. <ul><li>Treatment should not wait for laboratory confirmation of influenza because </li></ul><ul><li>1. Laboratory testing can delay treatment </li></ul><ul><li>2. A negative rapid test for influenza does not rule out influenza . </li></ul>
  18. 24. <ul><li>The sensitivity of rapid tests in detecting 2009 H1N1 has ranged from 10% to 70% . </li></ul><ul><li>http :// www . cdc . gov / h1n1flu / guidance / rapid testing . htm </li></ul>
  19. 25. <ul><li>To reduce delays in treatment initiation, consider: </li></ul><ul><li>* Informing persons at higher risk for influenza complications of signs and symptoms of influenza and need for early treatment after onset of symptoms of influenza (i.e., fever, respiratory symptoms) </li></ul>
  20. 26. <ul><li>* Ensuring rapid access to telephone consultation and clinical evaluation for these patients as well as patients who report severe illness </li></ul>
  21. 27. <ul><li>* Considering empiric treatment of patients at higher risk for influenza complications based on telephone contact if hospitalization is not indicated and if this will substantially reduce delay before treatment is initiated. </li></ul>
  22. 28. <ul><li>*Treatment with Oseltamivir or Zanamivir is recommended for all persons with suspected or confirmed influenza requiring hospitalization. </li></ul>
  23. 29. <ul><li>*Early empiric treatment with Oseltamivir or Zanamivir should be considered for persons with suspected or confirmed influenza who are at higher risk for complications including: </li></ul>
  24. 30. <ul><li>1.Children younger than 2 years old </li></ul><ul><li>2.Persons aged 65 years or older </li></ul><ul><li>3. Pregnant women and women up to 2 </li></ul><ul><li>weeks postpartum (including following </li></ul><ul><li>pregnancy loss) </li></ul>
  25. 31. <ul><li>4.Persons of any age with certain </li></ul><ul><li>chronic medical or immunosuppressive </li></ul><ul><li>conditions </li></ul><ul><li>5. Persons younger than 19 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>who are receiving long-term aspirin </li></ul><ul><li>therapy. </li></ul>
  26. 33. <ul><li>Oseltamivir </li></ul>Treatment and Chemoprophylaxis for Children younger than 1 Year of
  27. 34. <ul><li>Who will be recommended to receive the 2009 H1N1 vaccine? </li></ul><ul><li>CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ( ACIP ) has recommended that certain groups of the population receive the 2009 H1N1 vaccine when it first becomes available </li></ul>H1N1 Influenza Vaccine 2009
  28. 35. <ul><li>Who will be recommended to receive the 2009 H1N1 vaccine? </li></ul><ul><li>These target groups include: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Pregnant women, </li></ul><ul><li>2. People who live with or care for </li></ul><ul><li>children younger than 6 months of age, </li></ul>H1N1 Influenza Vaccine 2009
  29. 36. <ul><li>Who will be recommended to receive the 2009 H1N1 vaccine? </li></ul><ul><li>These target groups include (cont.): </li></ul><ul><li>3. Healthcare and emergency medical </li></ul><ul><li>services personnel, </li></ul><ul><li>4. Persons between the ages of 6 months and </li></ul><ul><li>24 years old, </li></ul>H1N1 Influenza Vaccine 2009
  30. 37. <ul><li>Who will be recommended to receive the 2009 H1N1 vaccine? </li></ul><ul><li>These target groups include (cont.): </li></ul><ul><li>5.People ages of 25 through 64 years of </li></ul><ul><li>age who are at higher risk for 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>H1N1 because of chronic health </li></ul><ul><li>disorders or compromised immune </li></ul><ul><li>systems </li></ul>H1N1 Influenza Vaccine 2009
  31. 38. <ul><li>The U . S . Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) has approved the use of one dose of 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine for persons 10 years of age and older . . </li></ul>Will two doses of vaccine be required?
  32. 39. <ul><li>This is slightly different from CDC ’s recommendations for seasonal influenza vaccination which states that children younger than 9 who are being vaccinated against influenza for the first time need to receive two doses . . </li></ul>Will two doses of vaccine be required?
  33. 40. <ul><li>Infants younger than 6 months of age are too young to get the 2009 H1N1 and seasonal flu vaccines </li></ul>Will two doses of vaccine be required?
  34. 41. <ul><li>CDC recommends that the two doses of 2009 H1N1 vaccine be separated by 4 weeks . However, if the second dose is separated from the first dose by at least 21 days, the second dose can be considered valid </li></ul>What will be the recommended interval between the first and second dose for children 9 years of age and under
  35. 42. <ul><li>The seasonal flu vaccine is not expected to protect against the 2009 H1N1 flu . </li></ul>Will the seasonal flu vaccine also protect against the 2009 H1N1 flu?
  36. 43. <ul><li>No . This vaccine will be made using the same processes and facilities that are used to make the currently licensed seasonal influenza vaccines </li></ul>Will this vaccine be made differently than the seasonal influenza?
  37. 47. <ul><li>Take everyday actions to stay healthy. </li></ul>Are there other ways to prevent the spread of illness?
  38. 48. <ul><li>* Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it. </li></ul>Prevention
  39. 51. <ul><li>Take everyday actions to stay healthy. </li></ul><ul><li>* Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. </li></ul>Are there other ways to prevent the spread of illness?
  40. 52. Teach Hand Washing
  41. 55. Prevent Infection
  42. 57. <ul><li>Take everyday actions to stay healthy. </li></ul><ul><li>* If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand rub. </li></ul>Are there other ways to prevent the spread of illness?
  43. 59. <ul><li>Take everyday actions to stay healthy. </li></ul><ul><li>* Avoid touching your eyes, nose or </li></ul><ul><li>mouth. Germs spread that way. </li></ul>Are there other ways to prevent the spread of illness?
  44. 60. <ul><li>* If you are sick, stay home until your symptoms are gone and you feel well enough to participate in all activities </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>Prevention
  45. 63. <ul><li>* If you get flu - like symptoms and are pregnant, have underlying health problems or if your symptoms get worse, contact your health care provider . </li></ul>Prevention
  46. 64. H1N1 Flu Self-Evaluation
  47. 80. Thank you

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