2002i core business supplementary slides for lse 15 12-2003

326 views

Published on

Presentation of slides describing the methodology and results of 'Creativity: London's Core Business' (GLA 2002).

The presentation was given to the London School of Economics on the 15th of December 2002.

Please see the second slide for further bibliographical information

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
326
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

2002i core business supplementary slides for lse 15 12-2003

  1. 1. Is Creativity an Industry? Alan Freeman GLA Economics LSE 15 December 2003
  2. 2. These slides present the findings and methodology of Creativity: London’s Core Business, the first Greater London Authority report on London’s Creative Industries, which can be found at http://www.london.gov.uk/mayor/economic_unit/docs/create_inds_re p02.pdf. They supplement a second presentation, also on Slideshare, which contains all the colour graphics from the report. The information in this presentation is mainly for historical interest. There have been four subsequent updates on London’s creative industries, which supersede the data presented here. They will in due course be posted at the author’s open access repository page on http://ideas.repec.org/e/pfr102.html
  3. 3. Why it matters  Culture, creation and intervention Commodification has redefined ‘culture’ Creative Industry: ‘Culture that makes Money’  Search for an evidence base – Uses two ‘standard’ economic classification systems    Standard Occupational Classification: what the workers do Standard Industrial Classification: where they do it But what does ‘Industry’ mean?
  4. 4. The research cycle Analysis Action/Observation Data
  5. 5. Where we are at •Industrial Classification (SIC) •Occupational Classification (SOC) •An ‘initial hypothesis’ •A new phase of cultural commodification •(A) new branch(es) of the division of labour •Something in common – but what?
  6. 6. A qualitative rise in demand…
  7. 7. UK cinema admissions
  8. 8. Trade in computer and information services
  9. 9. Trade in audiovisual and related services
  10. 10. Leading to a qualitative reshaping of supply
  11. 11. London’s output growth (per cent per year, 1995-2000)
  12. 12. And a new regional industrial structure jobs growth
  13. 13. London: CI job growth 1995-2000
  14. 14. Borough Is there a pattern of specialisation? Havering Barking and Dagenham Waltham Forest Harrow Greenwich Bromley Newham Bexley Hillingdon Ealing Croydon Enfield Kingston upon Thames Hounslow Redbridge Merton Lewisham Sutton Brent Richmond upon Thames Wandsworth Barnet Tower Hamlets Westminster Lambeth Hammersmith and Fulham Hackney Kensington and Chelsea Southwark Camden Islington Haringey     2,744 1,948 6,566 10,517 7,688 16,098 7,072 5,003 9,961 17,849 12,256 8,638 11,237 9,536 7,432 9,995 10,726 9,549 12,721 18,232 27,495 20,093 9,434 21,213 20,237 19,341 11,467 18,410 15,146 24,555 15,426 18,169 4,147 3,587 6,900 8,443 4,939 9,654 4,295 3,337 9,420 14,523 12,713 6,544 9,657 5,094 8,338 8,905 10,557 7,337 10,794 13,535 22,574 15,791 9,121 15,893 17,561 14,931 10,285 14,641 14,390 19,257 12,234 13,750 6,610 5,074 11,726 16,466 10,851 21,558 9,417 6,848 15,874 26,446 20,149 11,844 16,153 11,300 11,953 14,089 15,780 12,435 17,068 22,736 35,658 25,479 12,912 25,479 25,767 23,344 14,756 22,243 19,565 28,665 17,854 20,495 281 461 1,740 2,494 1,776 4,194 1,950 1,492 3,507 5,926 4,820 3,338 4,741 3,330 3,817 4,811 5,503 4,451 6,447 9,031 14,411 10,405 5,643 11,627 12,031 10,928 6,996 10,808 9,971 15,147 9,806 11,424   3,866 3,126 5,160 5,949 3,163 5,460 2,345 1,845 5,913 8,597 7,893 3,206 4,916 1,764 4,521 4,094 5,054 2,886 4,347 4,504 8,163 5,386 3,478 4,266 5,530 4,003 3,289 3,833 4,419 4,110 2,428 2,326 4% 9% 15% 15% 16% 19% 21% 22% 22% 22% 24% 28% 29% 29% 32% 34% 35% 36% 38% 40% 40% 41% 44% 46% 47% 47% 47% 49% 51% 53% 55% 56%
  15. 15. A brief conceptual geology   ‘Data’ is not neutral Taxonomy accumulated over time – – – Agriculture - Physiocrats Manufacturing – Industrial Economists Services - Financial Economists
  16. 16. Principles used in constructing NACE and followed in SIC (2003) 1. The main criteria employed in delineating divisions and groups (the two and three digit categories, respectively) of NACE concern the characteristics of the activities of the producing units. The major aspects of the activities are: (i) the character of the goods and services produced, (ii) the uses to which the goods and services are put, and (iii) the inputs, the process, and the technology of production. 11. An activity is said to take place when resources such as equipment, labour, manufacturing techniques, information networks or products are combined, leading to the creation of specific goods or services. An activity is characterised by an input of products (goods or services), a production process and an output of products.
  17. 17. A Health warning about Hierarchical Classification Tractors or food?
  18. 18. Leontieff on industry   'any national economy can be described as a system of mutually interrelated industries or - if one prefers a more abstract term interdependent economic activities ...the whole system has been subdivided into 50 sectors comprising – – – – – – agriculture, various extractive and manufacturing industries, electric public utilities, three kinds of transportation, trade and other types of service industries.
  19. 19. Some problems  Why? – – – –  are ‘Electric’ utilities different from any other? is agriculture as a whole considered to be an industry? Is manufacturing treated as a set of distinct industries? are there three kinds of transportation and not two, or four? Some problematic illustrations – – – – – Wood (construction, materials, or agriculture?) Ships (coracles to supertankers) ‘Oil’ - one product? Chemicals process Moonboots and slippers
  20. 20. Some other agendas    Innovation and the use of science (Pavitt,NSA) Use of information (OECD, etc) Agglomeration externalities (Porter)
  21. 21. Pavitt and innovation    Rejection of ‘industry-based’ classification Subject is ‘innovative behaviour’ Everywhere innovates – – –   GM Flower-selling and tropical fish Car industry Industrial taxonomy is inadequate Need ‘cross-cutting’ taxonomy
  22. 22. Typical industrial sectors of Pavitt’s Categories Category Traditional Emerging Supplier Dominated Textiles, Foot-wear Tourism Specialized Suppliers Machinery and instruments Software Science-Based Chemicals, Electrical Bio-engineering, Space Scale Intensive Automobiles Software, Hotels Food-chains Information Intensive Banking Retailing, Insurance
  23. 23. Where did industrial classification come from?    Marx – social reproduction Marshall – origin of products Leontieff – interrelations of purchase and sale
  24. 24. Kondratieffs and paradigms    Industries present themselves Specialisation is a driving force K-waves throw up new forms of organisation – – – – – Manufacturing = ‘the factory’ The Age of Steam ‘technology’ The Age of Steel and Electricity ‘power’ The Age of Oil and Air ‘transport and communication’ The Information Age - ?
  25. 25. Period Successive Techno- Industrial Economic organisation Paradigms Typical industries Pavitt's category of firms 1770-1830 Early Mechanisation Growing importance of small manufacturing firms Textiles, Potteries, Machinery Supplier dominated 1840-1880 Steam power and railway Separation been producers of capital and consumption goods Mechanical engineering, Steel and Coal Specialized suppliers 1890-1930 Opportunities associated to scientific discoveries Emergence of large firms Chemicals, Science based Electrical machinery, Engineering 1940-1980 Fordist and Taylorist revolutions Oligopolistic Automobiles, competition for mass Synthetic products, consumption Consumer durables Scale intensive 1990- Information and communication Networks of firms, strong user-produces Information intensive Microelectronics, Telecoms, Software
  26. 26. Why isn’t there a science industry?  Science is a component of everything – – –  Science not commercialised as a product – – –  But so is land And so are buildings (factories or offices) So is power ‘Tacit’ knowledge Public goods Not abstractly transferrable There are few if any ‘science factories’ – Research lab is typically either public or subsidiary
  27. 27. Can there be a Creation Industry?        Product differentiation is all Tailored to exact specifications ‘One-off’ or short run Timing of the essence Planning newness Supply-dominated Human ‘capital’ as a universal resource
  28. 28. A technological reversal Innovations are in short run production •High tech, High complexity, Growing formalism The New Economy of Agglomeration •Principal investment = human capital •Stone farming Success is a product of failure •Risk-pooling

×