Section 5 - Health And Safety
The requirements of the
Occupational Health and
Safety Act and the Workplace
Information System (WHMIS)
ensure the occupational
safety of security guards and
those with whom they
Laws and Regulations
Responsibilities of Employer
Responsibilities of Supervisors
Responsibilities of Employees
The Rights of the Employees
Education and Training
Worksite Inspections and Follow-up
Records and Statistics
Violence and Psychosocial Hazards
Health and Safety Program
Laws and Regulations
What is due diligence?
“Due diligence” simply means taking all reasonable
care to protect the well-being of employees or coworkers. To meet the standard of due diligence, you
must take all precautions that are reasonable in the
circumstances so that you can carry out your work and
your health and safety responsibilities.
What is the defense of due diligence?
In prosecutions for violations of health and safety laws,
the prosecutor must prove that the accused committed
a prohibited act. To be acquitted, the accused must
then establish that on a balance of probabilities all
reasonable precautions to comply were taken in the
Health and Safety continued
Both the Ontario Government and the Government of
Canada have laws to protect the health and safety of workers
under their jurisdictions. These laws are called Acts.
An Act is general. It sets out what the law is about, whom it
applies to and the penalties for disobeying it.
Some Acts have also have Regulations. Regulations are
specific. They spell out all the details that you need to know
in order to obey the law.
The Occupational Health & Safety Act
Ontario workers are protected by the province’s Occupational
Health and Safety Act or OHSA. (We’ll just call it the Act.)
The Act sets out general health and safety requirements for every
workplace it applies to. Ontario's Ministry of Labor (MOL)
enforces the Act, and MOL inspectors have strong powers to
inspect workplaces and investigate accidents.
MOL inspectors can also lay charges against companies or people
breaking the law. If convicted, the person or company can be fined
and/or put in jail.
The Act's Regulations
The Occupational Health and Safety Act has many Regulations that apply to
specific occupations, types of workplaces and/or workplace hazards.
For instance, there are specific regulations for occupations like firefighters,
teachers and university academics.
And there are regulations for specific workplaces such as health care facilities,
industrial establishments, construction and mining.
Then there are regulations to deal with certain kinds of hazards like biological
agents and x-rays.
Finally, there’s a Regulation that covers most hazardous materials and there are
Regulations covering eleven especially dangerous materials called Designated
These Regulations are very detailed and they have the same legal force as the Act
itself. The same penalties apply. You should know which, if any, of these
Regulations apply to your job and workplace.
Ontario's Workplace Safety and Insurance
The WSIA is another important law for occupational health and
safety. It was created to promote safe and healthy workplaces,
help workers who have been injured or made ill from their work
return to their jobs quickly and safely, and to provide
compensation benefits while they are off work.
The WSIA is administered by the Workplace Safety and Insurance
In all but the most minor cases, you and your employer have a
responsibility to report a work-related injury or illness to the WSIB
promptly and to file a claim correctly.
The federal government has responsibility for a wide
range of workplaces. If you work in one of these
locations, the federal government’s Canada Labor Code
Part 2 and its Regulations protect your health and
safety, not Ontario’s Occupational Health and Safety
Act. However, the rules are very similar for both laws.
Responsibilities of the Employer
instruct, inform and supervise workers to protect their health and safety;
assist in a medical emergency by providing any information to a qualified medical practitioner who requests the
information in order to diagnose or treat any person;
Appoint competent persons as supervisors. He or she must:
be qualified–through knowledge, training and experience–to organize the work and its performance;
be familiar with the Act and the regulations that apply to the work being performed in the workplace;
know about any actual or potential danger to health and safety in the workplace.
inform a worker or a person in authority over a worker, about any hazard in or on the work site.
help the health and safety representative to carry out his/her duties;
not employ workers who are under such age as may be prescribed or knowingly permit underage take every precaution
reasonable in the circumstances for the protection of a worker;
post in the workplace a copy of the Occupational Health and Safety Act, as well as explanatory material prepared by the
ministry that outlines the rights, responsibilities and duties of workers.
prepare a written occupational health and safety policy, review that policy at least once a year and set up a program to
provide the health and safety representative with the results of any occupational health and safety report that the
employer has. If the report is in writing, the employer must also provide a copy of the relevant parts of the report;
advise workers of the results of such a report
Responsibilities of Supervisors
Ensure that a worker complies with the Act and regulations.
Orientation of new workers and supply the necessary training
needed to accomplish safe work habits.
Perform inspections and investigations at job sites.
Ensure that any equipment, protective device or clothing required
by the employer is used or worn by the worker;
Advise a worker of any potential or actual health or safety dangers
known by the supervisor;
Take every precaution reasonable in the circumstances for the
protection of workers
Responsibilities of Employees
Learn and follow safe work procedures
Correct known hazards or report them to the supervisor.
Participate in inspections and investigations where
Use personal protective equipment (PPE) where required and
as directed by the supervisor on site.
Help create a safe workplace by recommending ways to
improve the health and safety program.
The Right to Participate
Employees have the right to be part of the process of
identifying and resolving workplace health and safety
concerns. This right is expressed through employee
membership on joint health and safety committees, or
through employee health and safety representatives.
The Right to Know
Employees have the right to know about any potential
hazards to which they may be exposed.
The parts of the Act that implement the Workplace
Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) play
an important role in giving employees the right to
The Right to Refuse Work
Employees have the right to refuse work that they
believe is dangerous to either their own health and
safety or that of another worker. The Act describes the
exact process for refusing dangerous work and the
responsibilities of the employer in responding to such a
EDUCATION AND TRAINING
All new employees will be given an orientation by their supervisor immediately upon hiring. The
following topics will be included in the orientation:
CSM rules and regulations with reference to the on-site work habits.
Employees Roles and Responsibilities at the workplace.
Disciplinary measures used at the worksite.
Location of the first aid kit and fire extinguisher on any site.
The proper use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
How to accurately report accidents and injuries
Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System
(WHMIS) training for any hazardous product in the workplace
Applicable training in ‘First Aid’ and ‘CPR’.
Training in ‘Tactical Communications’ and ‘Crowd Management’.
Understanding the ‘Occupational Health and Safety Act’ laws and regulations that directly affect the
health and safety of everyone on the job. The rights of the employee as stated in the ‘Occupational
Health and Safety Act’ will also be addressed.
Learn the proper and most effective ways to locate potential hazards in the working environment.
WORKSITE INSPECTIONS AND FOLLOW-UP
A supervisor and an employee from CSM will conduct regular
inspections at each job site to identify hazards and recommend how to
eliminate or minimize the hazards. These safety inspections will be
performed on a regular basis by the supervisor or an employee
representative knowledgeable with the work process. The inspection
will also look at how work is performed. Serious hazards or unsafe work
practices discovered during inspections or observed by
employees, supervisors, or the employer will be dealt with immediately
and take measures to remedy these serious hazards and unsafe work
practices. All worksite inspections will be recorded on the proper
‘Workplace Inspection Recording Form’ and a copy of this report
handed to the Health and Safety Representative.
Ministry of Labor Inspectors
The inspector can visit a site at any time and exercise
fairly broad powers to inspect, ask questions, and give
orders. If the inspector approaches a worker
directly, the worker must answer questions and
cooperate. The supervisor must be informed of any
orders given or recommendations made.
A CSM supervisor and an employee will investigate any injuries or
close calls on the same day the incident occurs. Any incident that
results in an injury requiring medical treatment, or that has the
potential for causing serious injury, will be investigated
immediately. This investigation will find out what went
wrong, determine if our health and safety practices were
faulty, and most importantly, recommend actions that will prevent
a recurrence of the problem. All investigations will be recorded on
the proper ‘Investigation Report’ form and copies of this report
shall be forwarded to the Health and Safety Representative.
The management of CSM will conduct regular monthly safety
meetings with workers to review accident investigation
reports and inspection reports. Review and discuss unsafe
work practices, conditions and safety concerns by
management and employees. Management will take action
on all items discussed. A record will be kept of the meeting
and action taken. A copy of the safety meeting minutes shall
be posted for reference by employees.
RECORDS AND STATISTICS
The following records and statistics shall be maintained:
First-aid records, WCB inspection reports, accident/incident
investigation reports, material safety data sheets, worksite inspection
reports, safety meeting minutes, safety and health talk
records, employee orientation forms, equipment log book and training
These records are kept at the main office of Canadian Security
Management and with the Health and Safety Representative. Medically
related records will be handled in a manner that respects the
Confidentiality of the individual.
CSM management shall ensure that first-aid services, supplies and
equipment as required by the Occupational Health and Safety
Regulation, are available to employees on all shifts and at all sites.
Employees shall be instructed in the procedure for summoning
first-aid. Employees shall promptly report all injuries to the site
supervisor and the Health and Safety Representative. A treatment
record book shall be maintained.
Basic first aid concentrates on breathing, bleeding, and burns
If the casualty is unconscious, check for breathing. Listen at the mouth and nose.
Watch and feel for chest movement. If the casualty is not breathing, start artificial
respiration immediately. The most efficient method is mouth-to-mouth.
Check for breathing.
Listen at the mouth and nose.
Watch and feel for chest movement.
Open the airway.
Pinch nostrils closed.
Remove obvious foreign material.
Take a breath.
Make a tight seal at the mouth.
Blow two breaths.
Control external bleeding immediately.
Apply direct pressure to stop blood flow. affected part.
Place casualty in comfortable position and elevate
Get the casualty to rest to slow circulation.
Apply direct pressure with hand over dressing.
Do not remove blood-soaked dressing. Add another dressing and continue pressing.
When bleeding is controlled, secure bandage and maintain elevation. The simple formula for the control of bleeding is
Rest, Elevate, and Direct Pressure– R.E.D.
A deep wound in the palm of the hand usually results in severe bleeding. You should control bleeding from a wound across
the palm of the hand with direct pressure, elevation, and rest.
Make a fist and apply pressure to the wound; at the same time, elevate the hand.
Seat the casualty.
Place a wad of gauze dressings over the wound and close the fingers around the wad to maintain pressure.
Elevate the hand again to a higher position.
Immediately immerse the burned part in ice water or
immediately apply ice or clean cloths soaked in cold
water. Cold will:
reduce the temperature of the burned area and
prevent further damage
reduce swelling and blistering
What are workplace pains and strains?
Workplace pains and strains are also known as musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI), Cumulative
Trauma Disorder (CTD) and Repetitive Motion Injury (RMI).
These types of injuries affect the muscles, tendons, ligaments and nerves.
MSDs develop as a result of the effects of repetitive, forceful or awkward movements on bones, joints, ligaments and other
soft tissues. Workers may experience symptoms such as discomfort, pain, numbness, tingling, weakness and restricted
MSD is not a medical diagnosis; it is an umbrella term for a group of injuries.
Some of these injuries include:
Back Pain (low back strain, etc.)
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)
Rotator Cuff Syndrome
Tennis Elbow (epicondylitis)
Shoulder Pain (shoulder myalgia)
Workers are more likely to suffer an MSD if they perform jobs with MSD risk factors that include repetitive
movements, forceful efforts, and fixed or awkward postures.
Preventing Slips, Trips and Falls
Wear safe shoes or boots, with low heels and a good fit-avoid
Be sure to wear shoes or boots with adequate tread when
walking on icy, greasy or wet surfaces.
Keep your shoes and boots in good condition
Take extra care when you come indoors with wet shoes or
Carry small loads close to your body and below chest level so
you can see over or around what you are carrying.
Close cabinet drawers and doors as soon as you are finished
Adjust your walking to the surface you are traveling on, and
Slow down and take small careful steps if the surface is
rough, cluttered, slippery or at an angle.
Hold the handrail when you go up or down stairs.
If You Do Fall:
Don’t move if you think you’ve hurt yourself – call for help.
Watch for slip and trip hazards (e.g. loose tiles or torn carpeting) in
your work area and wherever you walk.
Immediately correct any hazard that might cause a fall, or report it
to your supervisor.
Clean up spills immediately.
Take extra care whenever you see a Wet Floor sign.
Keep walkways and floors clear of boxes, extension cords and litter
Immediately move anything that is stored on or near stairways, or
report the hazard to your supervisor.
Notify your supervisor if there is nowhere to store new materials
Health & Safety is your front line defense against
human, material and property loss. Start by spotting
The “recognize, assess and control” method of dealing
with hazards is actually a specialized form of problem
solving. The problem is to anticipate hazards and then
take action to prevent injury and illness to people or to
control property losses.
Hazard recognition means noting a “suspected” hazard, because of its
potential to harm or damage, or having it brought to your attention.
The alert may come as a personal opinion or concern.
Hazard identification is a skill used by a trained individual who has the
knowledge to make this determination. This could include trained
workers, supervisors or a health and safety representative.
Whether identified or merely suspected, the objective is to anticipate
hazards before they cause harm or damage.
What is a hazard?
… any practice, behavior, condition, or combination
that can cause injury or illness in people or damage to
chemical agents (solids, liquids or gases)
physical agents (forms of energy or force such as
sound, heat or electricity)
biological agents (micro-organisms from plant, animal
or human tissue)
ergonomic hazards (consequence of poor
equipment, workstation design or work activity design).
These have the potential to cause traumatic injury or
death. They include:
machinery and equipment related hazards
energy hazards (falls, struck by incidents, kinetic,
confined space hazards
material handling hazards.
Hazard assessment means evaluating the degree of risk and
exposure to the suspected or identified hazard.
Tools to assess hazards
detailed inspection and/or testing of the hazard
physical observation by trained individuals
investigations of near misses
conducting interviews of workers or
reviewing records such as first-aid records
Controlling hazards means eliminating the hazard, or
preventing it from harming workers. Control methods
can be applied at three possible points with respect to
At the source
Along the path
At the worker
Violence and Psychosocial Hazards
Workplace violence is an increasing concern in Canadian workplaces. An
imbalance between effort and reward, or demand and control, frequently results
in a sense of injustice or unfairness in workers, leading to feelings of anger. Other
psychosocial hazards, such as ongoing harassment, may also create deep feelings
of anger and frustration. The anger may manifest itself in many ways that are
expressions of violence or potential violence:
Emotional or verbal abuse
Health and Safety Reps
In some cases the health and safety representative, working
member of a health and safety committee, or worker
selected by fellow workers or union has a right to take part in
The results of accident investigation and reporting should be
made known to all personnel on site.
Recommendations should be implemented to prevent the
accident from happening again.
In all cases of injury, the EMPLOYER must do
Make sure that first aid is given immediately, as required by law.
Record the first aid treatment or advice given to the worker.
Complete and give to the worker a Treatment Memorandum (Form 156) if health care
Provide immediate transportation to a hospital or a physician's office, if necessary
Submit to the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB), within three days of
learning of an accident, an Employer's Report of an Accident/Injury/Industrial Disease
(Form 7) and any other information that may be required.
Pay full wages and benefits for the day or shift on which the injury occurred when
compensation is payable for loss of earnings.
Notify the Ministry of Labour, health and safety representative and/or
committee, and union as required by legislation.
The WORKER must do the following
Promptly obtain first aid.
Notify the employer, foreman, supervisor, and worker safety
representative immediately of an injury requiring health care and
obtain from the employer a completed Treatment Memorandum (Form
156) to take to the physician or the hospital. Failure to report promptly
can affect your benefits and subject your employer to fines.
Choose a physician or other qualified practitioner with the
understanding that a change of physician cannot be made without
permission of the WSIB.
Complete and promptly return all report forms received from the WSIB.
Workplace Hazardous Materials Information
Frequently workplaces are required to work with new
hazardous materials or previously installed hazardous
materials requiring repair, maintenance, or removal.
Some materials used for many years and thought
harmless are now known to be hazardous. Proper
handling requires careful planning, training, and use of
personal protective equipment or controls.
Some hazardous materials common in
Supplier labels are required on controlled products with a
volume of more than 100 milliliters and must include
appropriate hazard symbol(s)
risk phrases (such as “dangerous if inhaled”)
precautions (such as “wear rubber gloves”)
first aid measures
statement that a material safety data sheet (MSDS) is
available for the product.
Workplace labels are required when controlled products are produced onsite or have been
transferred from a supplier-labeled container to a different container.
Workplace labels must include
safe handling instructions
statement that an MSDS is available for the product. If details on the ingredients, health
effects, handling, and other aspects of a hazardous products are not available from suppliers or
employers, call the Construction Safety Association of Ontario at 1-800-781-2726 and provide the
Product name (for example, Solvex 100)
Manufacturer's name and place of manufacture (for example, ABC Chemical, Montreal, Quebec)
What is the product being used for? (for example, to clean parts)
How is it being used? (for example, sprayed on)
Is it being mixed with something else?
Is it being heated?
In what area is it being used? (for example, outdoors or in a holding tank)
What does the label say?
How can information be conveyed to you?
“Designated substances” are substances that have been targeted
for special regulation by the Ministry of Labour. Generally these
substances are well-known toxic materials which present serious
risk of illness.
The Occupational Health and Safety Act requires that owners
notify contractors of the presence of any designated substances.
Contractors also have a responsibility to advise subcontractors.
This notification must take place before binding contracts are