2010 Thomson, Leopkey, Schlenker and Schulenkorf Event Legacies


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Thomson, A., Leopkey, B., Schlenker, K., & Schulenkorf, N. (2010). Sport Event Legacies: Implications for Meaningful Legacy Outcomes. Paper presented at the Global Events Congress IV, UK Centre for Events Management, Leeds University, UK, 14-16 July 2010.

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  • Note that preliminary findings were presented in 2009 at SMAANZ, decision was then made to bring in another context and compare, then Canadian context was chosen... Something like that...
  • FYI – World Police and Fire Games 1995 and one of Becca’s soccer tournaments did not
  • FYI – World Police and Fire Games 1995 and one of Becca’s soccer tournaments did not
  • Critical outline of stakeholder and legacy management process and evaluation – needs to include what worked well and what did not, providing an opportunity to learn for future events
  • 2010 Thomson, Leopkey, Schlenker and Schulenkorf Event Legacies

    1. 1. Alana Thomson, PhD Candidate, University of Technology, Sydney Becca Leopkey, PhD Candidate, University of Ottawa Dr. Katie Schlenker, University of Technology, Sydney Dr. Nico Schulenkorf, Auckland University of Technology (presenter) Global Events Congress IV, UK Centre for Events Management 14th – 16th July, 2010 Correspondence: Alana.Thomson@student.uts.edu.au
    2. 2.  Legacy as a justification for government involvement in special events  Increasing need to plan for long-term outcomes for a host city from staging an event (Hiller, 2003; Preuss, 2007) • maximise positive outcomes and limit negatives (Chalip; 2004; Preuss, 2007; Gratton & Preuss, 2008)  A need to clarify understanding of legacy in the sport event context (Thomson, Schlenker & Schulenkorf, 2009)  Aim: To empirically test five key considerations of legacy identified by Thomson et al. (2009)
    3. 3. Consideration Explanation Terminology Use of ‘legacy’ as opposed to another term Legacy as bestowed or planned Legacy as automatically bestowed or needing to be planned Temporal nature of legacy Permanent or long-term Permanent typically infrastructure-based Legacy as positive or negative Legacy as positive and/or negative, same legacy, different perspectives Legacy as local and global Contextual and dynamic nature of sport events Stakeholder objectives and perspectives Challenge to balance (Thomson, Schlenker & Schulenkorf, 2009)
    4. 4.  Australia • 1956 Melbourne Olympics • 1980s – potential of events realised • Policy landscape adhoc and driven by States • Federal Strategy 2000 - Draft • State legislation  focuses on event delivery  no requirements to consult or coordinate delivery of event obligations  Canada • 1930 British Empire Games • 1976 Montreal Olympics (debts paid 2006, lessons learned) • Federal Policy:  sets blueprint for benefits from hosting events  government funding to be spent on legacy  Enforces cooperation with event hosts and other levels of government
    5. 5. Sample  Document Analysis for 13 sport events held in Australia (7) & Canada (6) between 1988 and 2007  Sport events justified by specific selection criteria Data Collection  Post-event reporting documents Analysis  Qualitative and Interpretive  Coding Frame - 5 key considerations (Thomson, Schlenker & Schulenkorf, 2009)  Qualitative analysis software Nvivo 8 & Atlas TI (Miles & Huberman, 1994)  Coder Checking (Miles & Huberman, 1994)
    6. 6.  Staged after the mid 1980’s (term legacy began to be used by event organisers);  Formal bid process required  Evidence of government involvement (Bid and/or Event staging process);  The event had to demonstrate the notion of an ‘Urban Project’ through: • Economic impact for the State economy; and/or • Opportunities for refocusing the city (capital investments, duration of 5 days); and/or • Place marketing (media coverage, 1000 participants).  Access to post-event documentation at the time of analysis
    7. 7. Australia Year Canada Year World Police and Fire Games 1995 Calgary Winter Olympics 1988 Sydney Olympics 2000 Pan American Games 1999 Sydney Paralympics 2000 FINA World Championships 2005 World Masters Games 2002 World Masters Games 2005 Rugby World Cup 2003 Canada Winter Games 2007 Commonwealth Games 2006 U20 FIFA World Cup 2007 FINA World Championships 2007
    8. 8.  Most reports referred to ‘legacy’  Over time, documents increased reference to legacy  However, terminology varies, making comparisons difficult: • legacy outcomes; • legacy assets; • legacy contributions; • legacy obligations; and • legacy aspects.
    9. 9.  Both ideas of planned and bestowed were evident  Australia • Ideas of bestowal • Legislation in place to avoid negative legacies  Canada • Planning for legacy more evident • Specific organisations to coordinate legacy from sport events • Ideas of maximising legacy  Major contextual difference • Montreal Olympics negative legacy • Canadian Sport Event Hosting Policy
    10. 10.  Legacies exist in time • Long-term, permanent, enduring, transferable  A need to set boundaries for strategic management  Looking back and looking forward  Legacies evolve from Games time - reflect community interests and needs
    11. 11.  Legacy largely positive • celebratory reporting and limited critical reflection  Canada connection between success and legacy  Legacy only negative when previous events are discussed for legacy comparison • “Several previous Olympic Games have left host cities and underwriters with an unwelcome legacy in the form of large public debt. NSW Government legislators sought to avoid this outcome” (Sydney Olympics 2000)
    12. 12.  Legacies are available to everyone, everywhere  The literature argues there is a critical need to develop: • Defined boundaries for legacy promises and planning • Consideration of stakeholders • Strategies to balance objectives and maximise outcomes  Instead, post-event reports are celebratory and vague with limited demonstration of strategies for legacy planning
    13. 13.  Findings illustrate a lack of transparency and accountability for legacy conceptualisation and practical management applications  Over 2 decades of event reporting shows a limited increase in sophistication of legacy planning, implementation and evaluation • Celebratory claims • Limited accountability to stakeholders • Limited ability to compare events
    14. 14.  Management Implications – what is needed? • Clear conceptualisations of legacy – starting at the event bid stage • Clarification of terminology • Clear identification of stakeholders • Critical outline of stakeholder and legacy management process and evaluation  Future Research • More international sport event contexts • Influences of varying policy contexts • Towards best practice in legacy planning and reporting
    15. 15. Chalip, L. (2004). Beyond Impact: A General Model for Sport Event Leverage. In B. Ritchie & D. Adair (Eds.), Sport Tourism: Interrelationships, Impacts and Issues (pp. 226- 252). on-line e-book: Channelview Publications. Gratton, C., & Preuss, H. (2008). Maximizing Olympic Impacts by Building up Legacies. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 25(14), 1922-1938. Hiller, H. (2003). Toward a Science of Olympic Outcomes: The Urban Legacy. Paper presented at the Legacy of the Olympic Games 1984-2000, International Symposium. Miles, M., & Huberman, A. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: an expanded sourcebook. California: Sage Publications. Preuss, H. (2007). The Conceptualisation and Measurement of Mega Sport Tourism. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 12(3-4), 207-227. Thomson, A., Schlenker, K., & Schulenkorf, N. (2009, 6-8 July). The Legacy-Factor: Towards conceptual clarification in the sport event context. Paper presented at the International Event Management Research Symposium, Gold Coast, Australia , pp.360- 374
    16. 16.  Australia - Commonwealth Department of Industry Science and Resources. (2000). Towards a National Sports Tourism Strategy (Draft): Commonwealth of Australia. Available from: http://fulltext.ausport.gov.au/fulltext/2000/feddep/SportTourism Strategy.pdf  Canada - Canadian Heritage. (2008). Sport Canada policy for hosting international sport events. Available from: http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/sc/pol/acc/2008/doc-eng.cfm.
    17. 17.  Thomson, A., Schlenker, K., & Schulenkorf, N. (2009, 6-8 July). The Legacy-Factor: Towards conceptual clarification in the sport event context. Paper presented at the International Event Management Research Symposium, Gold Coast, Australia , pp.360- 374, presentation available: http://www.slideshare.net/alanathomson/2009-07-07-the- legacy-factor-emrc-final-share-copy  Thomson, A., Schlenker, K., & Schulenkorf, N. (2009). Event legacies: An Empirical Testing of the Legacy Concept. Paper presented at the 15th Annual SMAANZ Conference, Facilitating Sustainable Sport Management Practices, 26-29 November 2009, Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia, p.102, presentation available: http://www.slideshare.net/alanathomson/thomson-schlenker-schulenkorf-smaanz-2009- event-legacies